What is the ABS system

ABS is an abbreviation, which is transcribed in the various languages of the world. But also Germans, Englishmen, Russians believe the ABS system, which does not automatically lock the wheels when braking. Thanks to the adjustable force exerted by brakes. And the main objective that confronts the ABS system, is to provide a motorist the ability to control the vehicle by maintaining stability and providing the most effective deceleration on the market.

It is clear that under braking, Yes the sharper, the car whose wheels are locked, will turn. Before this happened, and was invented ABS system.
Video about safe braking:

The idea of creating ABS

Even before the invasion of Hitler’s Europe an idea to create a similar system was born in the minds of leading engineers of the time. And planned to apply such a system not just anywhere, but in the aviation. But the materials and technologies used in that period of time, unfortunately, was never given the opportunity to do so.
In 1964, engineers at Mercedes took the case, roll up their sleeves. Helped them specialists Bosch and Teldix. First and foremost were collected all patents, and reports in recent years, where somehow mentioned about the ABS system.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможения
Studies initiated so successfully began to bring results. Engineers have determined the General outline of a new system that could become a breakthrough in the technology of the future. Calculation of the speed of rotation of the wheel assigned to the sensors which then were set only on the front axle. These same sensor measurements sent to the control unit, and if necessary given the amendments to Yiwu to set the pressure in the brake system, or rather in any part of it. But all went smoothly only on paper. But as you know, all the ingenious discoveries of mankind were made on paper first and then transferred to practical field activities.
Initially, the ABS system in real situations worked correctly. Reacted to the change of coupling of wheels with delays and, in short, was unreliable.
The success of the first engineers of the ABS system was reached in 1967, when they replaced the sensors on a mechanical base, equipped with wheels, contactless options. The principle of action in this case was used like electromagnetic induction. And the benefits were clearly evident: the ABS system falsely did not work, was resistant to mechanical stress and for a long time did not wear out.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможения
Already in the mid-twentieth century the company Mercedes has presented on display to the public the first ABS system with electronic control, designed for buses, trucks and passenger cars. New sensors transmitted to the control unit signals and the operated hydraulics, that is, the module is placed between the calipers and brake cylinder.
Today even the most modern ABS system repeats the principle of the first model. Everything happens due to the work of sensors that monitor the rotational speed of the wheels and give information about it BOO. And he compares those values and sends appropriate commands to the electromagnetic component, in particular valve of the hydraulic module.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможенияMercedes introduced the first electronic ABS
The valves are designed to regulate the pressure in the brake system. And this is done kind — a pair on each circuit. When there is a sharp and unexpected braking, components of the ABS system with a frequency of several tens times per second begin to move and there is a deceleration of the vehicle. When the valves drivers often hear them chirping, signifying that the wheels went through the process of locking/unlocking. And pressure in several loops or one of them instantly rises and then immediately drops. As for pads, they respectively compress and release the disk, ensuring reliable braking. Works like ABS.
It is clear that the most important thing while driving is early braking. And to keep the car in such conditions is very difficult. But the ABS system is perfect with this helps to cope.
In fact, the ABS system is a rather complex anti-lock braking system, representing the electro-mechanical circuit, not allowing the car to block the wheels when braking. And especially need the ABS system when driving on roads where the wheels of the vehicle are not well cling to the road surface. In other words, when driving on gravel, snow, even snow or ice. The ideal security system on the roads of Russia, where more than half of the months of winter.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможения
Any difficulties driving instruction in a car with ABS does not. You can go at high speed and not be afraid of sudden braking, because the braking distance is significantly reduced.
If you want to know, have you installed your car with such a system, simply turn the ignition key. And then it will show on the dashboard. Even the ABS system can be determined by other parameters, including the overly sensitive brake pedal.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможенияThe ABS icon on the dashboard

What it is

Conventional ABS system consists of three components. Important is the ABS unit located in front of and interacting with the brake system in a special way. Thanks to a special metal tube type and connection block with the brakes.
In addition, the computer is part of a system. It processes data obtained from sensors, and sends appropriate signals to the main unit.
Finally, the speed sensors, without which none of the modern ABS systems work.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможенияThe appearance with the ABS sensor

The main advantage of the ABS system

In practice through numerous tests it was proved that the ABS system allows to achieve a shorter braking distance. The driver of the vehicle is increased several-fold the ability to control the vehicle, keeping strict control. In addition, the system gives the opportunity to carry out maneuvers under sudden braking. Combining the above two factors, the vehicle having a system of ABS, gets a huge advantage over conventional vehicles.
Some drivers with more seniority are able to brake properly without ABS. They control the time of collapse of the wheels independently, as do motorcyclists. Thus, the force is weakened when you stop at the edge of the lock and the braking is not sharp, and intermittent. But such an effect is obtained at considerable cost of energy, comparable to single-channel ABS. And there is, as we know, multi-channel ABS, designed to control braking forces on each wheel individually. This form not only allows ABS brake efficiently, but also to stabilize the behavior of the vehicle in difficult conditions. For example, when driving on snowy icy roads when the clutch wheels and the road surface is uneven.
In any case for a novice driver even a single channel ABS will be a great help. He will learn to brake safely without fear of the consequences. He will just need to apply maximum effort to the brake pedal or the handle, while maintaining the maneuver.
The work of the ABS system in some cases, as mentioned above, leads to longer braking distance. This is very important, for example, if you drive on winter roads on summer tyres. In addition, on loose surfaces such as deep snow or gravel, a locked braking wheel burrow deep into the surface, and it gives additional slow.
Работа антиблокировочной системы торможения
Interestingly, on some cars put the ABS system, which automatically switches itself off. In fact, it is very convenient and efficient. And even put on some models of ABS special algorithm braking, allowing to achieve effective deceleration without loss of control. The same happens at full lock. With regard to the type of surface, it can be installed manually by the driver by means of the connection of special sensors.

Technology Break Assist

This technology, used for ABS systems, appeared in 1994 on the popular then and today the German car Audi. Soon, having learned all the advantages of the technology for the Audi pulled and other companies: Volkswagen, Mercedes, infiniti, etc.
How does ABS on cars, technology Break assist helps the driver brake efficiently. According to statistics the majority of drivers in emergency situations on the brake fully depress or release the brake pedal. And the braking distance because of this it turns significantly more than could be. Technology Break assist and is designed to automate this process.
Video about the cons of ABS:

And finally. The ABS system is a smart robot that does practically everything associated with the brake system of the car instead of a person. And does it in some cases even better than people.

Parking sensors — what is it

For starters, understand that, and what is Parktronic? It may be that among motorists, there are those who don’t know about this system and never heard. Some even have it on your car, but don’t know how it works and what is needed.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникThe sensors with some sensors

For what it is

Parking sensors — it’s a great device that can help to significantly ease Parking. Every year the number of cars is growing in the world. Not an exception and Russia, and especially Moscow, where the needle nowhere to fall, so it is sometimes slow-moving traffic. And here amidst all this chaos of automobile you need to be able to properly Park a car. And as you do, if you recently got behind the wheel of a car?

For these needs, and was coined by the sensors, which quickly became popular among Russian drivers. The fact that our town planning norms, which were built in the cities and towns, it is not designed for such a large number of cars. So we have to put them in Parking lots are literally “nose to nose”, which precludes not an experienced driver or the same woman the ability to properly Park. At such moments, comes to the aid of Parking sensors.
Video about the work of sensors:

The principle of operation of sensors

That makes the sensors, sorted out. Now about what constitutes such a system. It is a fully electronic device that monitors the distance between surrounding objects and the vehicle body. If the distance becomes minimum, that is critical and could allow for the collision, the system sends a warning signal that enables the driver to promptly respond and adjust movement of the vehicle. That’s all. Nothing complicated.
Electronic system Parking sensors just Packed full of all kinds of sensors generating the warning. The larger the number of sensors on one car, the better to work the sensors. Consider, what are the sensors, what is their design?
Sensors system sensors are devices that work on ultrasound. We can say that this transmitting / receiving apparatus with a very delicate design. The sensors consist of two parts, where one emits a signal and the second picks up the signal reflected from the object, sending it to the head device.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникThe system allows the sensors to prevent collision
As to the calculation of the distance to the object, it depends on the difference between produced and accepted signal. Pure math. The principle of operation of this device will not cause surprise to the physics, as they apply this knowledge for a long time. According to this principle, for example, working on military radar and police speed traps.
So. The sensors consists of sensors, as mentioned above. And the more, the better. The number of sensors varies depending on the type of vehicle, its size. Depends on the number of sensors and from the driver’s experience.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникFour sensors Parking sensors

Types of sensors

In addition, the sensors are different models. Thus, the known Parking sensors with forced inclusion. There are also models constantly functioning. It is clear that such model is inappropriate in city driving conditions, where constant alarm on critical approaches can tire out the driver. Therefore, there will be appropriate use Parktronic with forced on and off.
As for the signal system to the driver, and it can be different. The most common are audio signals, the device with graphic scale and video monitors. And of course, the choice of monitor will depend on the skill and experience of the driver. Modern sensors often combine several types of alarm: sound+scale or a video monitor.
The beep is better than nothing. But it for novice drivers does not work, since by changing signal is very difficult to understand the distance to the object. And the view of the object, which signals the sensor, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish. Whether it is a curb, or a branch, and whether the bumper of an expensive jeep.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникThere are different kinds of sensors
Here, the digital screen shows the distance to a potential target in meters and is designed for those drivers who have an excellent eye and sense of distance.
Display graphics are also good. It is more informative than the audio signal, and detects the obstacle, the distance to and approximate location. Graphic bar sometimes you can see obviously the change of the distance.
Well, videoportrait showing on the screen not only object, in the course of the movement, but even the trajectory. But an objective picture can only be seen when the car will be installed with several sensors, not one.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникParking sensors with display installed in the car
Finally, current models of sensors, which are endowed with high-tech gadgets like measuring the temperature of the outdoor air, the human voice and the like.

Front Parking sensors and installation

Why do you need front Parking sensors? It turns out that by and large it is not needed, but allows you to conveniently Park to low objects, such as a bed or the side of the road.
Installing the front Parking sensors is carried out as follows: prepare everything you need and then to set. To begin to deal with wiring inside the machine. Usually it is recommended to use twisted pair cable with a cross section of 0.2 mm. about 12 meters of wire will be enough. Eight of these meters will only go to the trunk where you will install the unit to the front right headlight. From here go two wires to the speaker and buttons: Parktronic and park assist. In addition, two wires go to the rear bumper, where will be two more sensor.
In fact, two buttons: Parking sensors and park assist — conditionally does not exist. You can put a normal button from the sensors, or order special. You also need to prepare the plugs to the buttons and the unit, and the necessary contacts of the unit and buttons. Do not forget about the plug dynamics, different types of duct tape and a sleeve for twisted pair.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникThe principle of operation of Parking systems
As for the parts that go on the outside of the car, then it’s 12 gauge, including rear Parking sensors. It is important to know that the front side sensors are different from the rest (there are two). Various brackets and the front side sensors. Those who have got on the rear car Parking sensors, you will need a total of eight sensors, not twelve.
You can take the wiring for the front bumper from the VW Touran. In fact, posting six sensors, but there is a caveat. The Touran front bumper wiring starts with the left headlight, and on some cars, such as Octavia, on the right. Although it is not of great importance when pinwell plug in the bumper, but the Pinout is the knowledge of this nuance is useful.
As for the rear bumper, there are two wires and two plugs are mounted to the side sensors. And of course, the mandatory installation of another block of sensors.
A video of the installation of Parking sensors:

We begin, in fact, the very procedure of the installation. Removed both bumpers, lights, boot trim. Removed the dashboard, the glove compartment, right inner fender. It is recommended to do on the car.
The wire should pull to the left the threshold of the machine to the dashboard, whence there are branches to the anterior and dynamics buttons. Then extend further above the glove compartment to plug in the back, located between the front door and front right wing. In this cap you should make a hole where the packaging is a twisted pair in the corrugation and extend out beyond the wheel arch to the headlights.
All wires are advisable to wrap a rag, not regular duct tape, so that was nice.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникThe installation process and the installation of Parking devices

Installation of sensors with a different methodology

Installation of Parking sensors with their hands can hold and otherwise. Consider the example of a not too expensive Parktronic BEA 300, the price of which does not exceed 6000 Russian rubles. By the way, this Parking sensors is just made for self-install. In addition to it are the pads for the sensors, which, frankly, is not needed.
Installation of sensors the sensors of this type provide for their mounting in the bumper. It was indicated in the instructions. And installation shall be carried out without any additional elements.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникInstallation of sensors the sensors is carried out in the bumper
Armed with the necessary tools in the kit which must be included cutters 20 mm for cutting holes in the plastic bumper. Incidentally, the original cutter is very expensive and its price can reach as much as 1000. So you can use the analog. A good cutter should not the process be in the side, and the cut must be smooth.
The bumper must be removed. It is recommended to remove the plastic lining inside the trunk, and then fold the soft upholstery. This is done in order to gain access to the mounting bolts of the bumper.
Removed the bumper molding. Then from the trunk, Unscrew the two bolts on “10”.
Proceed to the loosening of the screws of the flaps. Use for this purpose, the key-sprocket 6/. Do not forget that a few screws fixed the bumper from the bottom.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникRemoving the front bumper
Once all the screws are unscrewed, you can start removing the bumper. If you have any problems and the bumper will persist, you can drop a little WD-40 in the pick locks. After that the bumper will separate exactly, and brute force here not the assistant, because you can harm the bumper.
It must now be the bumper paint up and start doing the markup. On the location of the likely installation of sensors you can stick masking tape and measure out the required distance. Top usually leave about 50 mm. the Distance between the first and last sensor is 60 cm, and between each of the sensors is 25 cm.
The centerline of the bumper must go through the Central sensor.
It is clear that the removed bumper is a pretty unstable design. And it forces propped him up against the garage door or other structure, previously tucked under the corners of pieces of rubber.
Как самостоятельно установить парктроникBumper with holes for Parking sensors
Now carefully check all the markings and the centers of the future holes with an awl MCPFE and start to drilling, it is desirable from the paint. So that the plastic does not melt under the action of the cutters, you can pour water on it. And drilling with a partner. One will be drilling, and the other pouring water. The holes should be 18 mm, although it can be more, but then the sensor will enter a gap.
Drilled the bumper put a rag paving and wiring. Thoroughly clean and dry the surface, then place under the gluing of treated liquid from the bottle. After this sticking the sensors and couplers.
Set the bumper in place, extending the pre-wiring harness in a specially prepared for this hole. Begin installation of the control unit. And connected to the electric circuit of the car.
The Squeaker is desirable to set the ears closer to the driver, and the power to connect to the reversing lamp. As for the wires from the tweeters, you can reach under the sill panels and withdraw the radiator in the left rack. There you can stick in a standard way under the bracket of seat belts.
Video on how to self-install the sensors:

Check the operation of the system, and if everything works, then it’s time to start the car. Go to the obstacles and check the Squeaker. Everything works.
So. And nothing complicated. A little patience and everything will work out!

The content

  • Types of automatic transmission
  • The modes of operation of the box machine
  • The rules of operation of a transmission in accordance with modes
  • The use of additional modes
  • NORM
  • PWR
  • SNOW
  • Manual mode
  • If the transmission is in emergency mode

Types of automatic transmission

Auto boxes are divided into hydraulic and electronic (depending on types of controls). Please note that if the automatic transmission there are no additional buttons (such as PWR, SNOW, OD) is a conventional hydraulic box. Otherwise you are dealing with electronic-hydraulic design.

Depending on the number of transmission units are divided into three – and four-speed. At last there is an additional mode called Over-drive. 4-speed gearbox can be used as a 3-speed if you disable OD.

The modes of operation of the box machine

There are different types of automatic transmissions, which differ from each other by design. However, the main modes of transmission are present in all of these units. Depending on concern manufacturer labeling may vary, but the essence is the same. Main modes:

  • Parking (P) — allows starting the engine (can only be used after stopping the movement of the car and activating the manual brake).
  • Movement (D) — activates the movement of the machine, automatically picking up the necessary gear.
  • Reverse (R) — activates the movement of cars back (you can only turn after you stop and when you press the brake pedal).
  • Neutral (N) — provides no-load operation of the engine (cannot be included in the process of movement, is used to warm the engine in winter).
  • D3 is used to drop the transmission (needs to be run on small descents or ascents).
  • D2 (L) is also used for reducing transmission (used in severe driving conditions — ice, mountain streamer and so on).

Как правильно пользоваться автоматической коробкой переключения передач

The rules of operation of a transmission in accordance with modes

In order to properly apply the automatic transmission, you must follow certain rules when using one or another mode:

  • Parking. Stopping on steep ascents or descents, use “handbrake” to reduce the load on the Parking mechanism. To tighten the handbrake need before setting, after switching the selector to another position. To switch from “Parking” only if the button is pressed on the lever and pressed the brake pedal.
  • The reverse gear. You cannot translate the selector in this position during the movement forward. Otherwise the transmission or its individual elements can break. To back up only when the button is pressed the lever and depressed the brake pedal. By selecting this mode, do not start driving immediately. Wait a second until you feel the boost box-automatic.
  • Neutral. Do not translate the selector in “neutral” position, if the car moves by inertia. You cannot include neutral when standing still at traffic lights. Translate auto in this mode only if you need it to freely move, and that he worked. For example, the neutral ideal if the machine is repaired.
  • D. Under normal driving conditions, you should use this mode. Turning on D mode, P/R, it is recommended to press on the brake and press the lever and wait 1 second before the inclusion of the box-machine. Only then can you start moving. The maximum speed can be developed only when the position of the lever button D.
  • 2. Mode is recommended in the process of movement on roads of poor quality, and often alternating descents and ascents. When frequent braking is the use of this mode allows to save fuel. You should not include an “F.” if the car is moving at speeds in excess of 80-100 miles per hour (depending on type of transmission). Cannot switch the input mode from position D, if the speed of the drive is more than 80-100 miles an hour.
  • L. Can only be used when pulling out a stuck machine, the overcoming of stairs, you arrive at the garage and so on. Cannot be switched on without pressing the lever, when it starts it is impossible to travel at high speeds.

Video about how to drive a car with automatic transmission:

The use of additional modes

Additional modes provide an opportunity for more extensive use of the possibility of an automatic transmission. Apply depending on the road surface, the mood of the motorist, the situation on the road. As a rule, are implemented by the electronics controlling the hydraulic system of the unit.
There are three main modes. This NORM (or ECON), PWR (or SPORT), SNOW (or WINTER). It is very important apply each of them on purpose.
Как правильно пользоваться автоматической коробкой переключения передач

NORM

Provides minimum fuel consumption at movement of the car. The gear shift is at medium engine speeds. Thus the machine runs calmly and smoothly.

PWR

Maximum use of engine power. Therefore, the upshift of the transmission is carried out at maximum revs. Due to this, the car accelerates with high accelerations. The “sport” mode the automatic transmission is used with appropriate driving style.

SNOW

Designed to facilitate movement in winter. The car is starting off in second gear. In addition, it allows you to easily move the slides with a firm gravel surfaces or on asphalt elevations. Effective when driving on the wet grass. In cold weather this mode will be effective only if you combine it with high-quality winter rubber.

Manual mode

Mostly manual mode transmission is used when riding off-road, in the mountains or when overtaking. When it starts the driver shifts gears. Requires that automatic transmission was equipped with an electronic control system.
To video use the automatic transmission in manual mode:

Manual control is carried out through electronic impulses. In this position, the selector gear box may “adapt” to the driving style of the motorist. Not all automatic transmission equipped with manual mode function SNOW.

If the transmission is in emergency mode

In case of incorrect use transmission it can move into the so-called emergency mode automatic transmission. Self-control system of an automatic gearbox allows without the intervention of a motorist to detect violations of its work. On the transition to “triple” the car will notify the driver by means of a special indicator on the dashboard.
Causes of faults the automatic transmission may be:

  • disrupting electronics;
  • the discrepancy of the amount of oil in the box to that required in the regulations;
  • problems with the mechanics.

In order to avoid damage of an automatic transmission, carefully study the modes of work. Learn how to use them depending on traffic conditions and the road surface. Then your automatic transmission will last a long time and without failures.
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The content

  • A little history, or What is a cabin filter
  • When you need to change the filter
  • How to determine that the cabin filter was ruined
  • Change the filter yourself
  • How much is it worth
  • Installing a cabin filter for VAZ

A little history, or What is a cabin filter

Now in order. The first copies of these decisions have appeared recently. In the mid-eighties of the last century, when they first came out, their design was quite simple. The device consisted of that time frame and so-called netchange. What did the filter and why it was invented? Now. He held up the larger particles of dust and pollen floating in the air constantly. Cleaners salon eighties, consisting only of two components, job good, but still replaced them.
Replaced by the two-layer filters. This is the real vacuums with a complex system and a very high efficiency. In such models stuck not only larger dust particles, but also smaller, measuring up to 0.5 µm.

Video about the purpose of cabin filters:

But progress does not stand still, and designers have gone further. They guessed it to be connected to the filtration process activated carbon. It helped that now began to clean soot and some types of gases.
The last step in the creation of filters used today have become hybrid versions. They consist of ordinary sandpaper, an antimicrobial reagent, carbon layer and electrostatic discharge. This layer cake, which is much more efficient than their predecessors. This cleaner is able to delay the microparticles size in a fraction of a micron, to aromatize the air and even to disinfect it. This road of the mask!
As mentioned above, to change the cabin filter needed due to the fact that it periodically becomes clogged. Clogged dust and dirt accessory is not only ineffective, but harmful. Already the process is going in the opposite direction and the old cleaner, which didn’t replace, begins to secrete in the air is all that is successfully swallowed in a long time.
Как заменить салонный фильтр в машине

When you need to change the filter

Now, how to actually change the filter and when to do it. As mentioned above, it is located below the steering wheel. It is advisable to change it every 5 thousand kilometers, but coal, made with high quality models can hold as many as 50 thousand km. But it is not in practice as well. And not “steam”, change it every five thousand kilometers, and all will be well.
There is also such a thing as area of driving. In other words, the replacement period may be different. So, if the vehicle is operated in the southern strip, where the air contains a large amount of sand and dust, cabin air purifier it changes more often. But on cars operated in Northern strip, on the contrary, the cabin filter can be changed less frequently.
Also, if the car often operate in urban environments with dense traffic, change the purifier again more often. But the cars often go out of the city and stand for hours in traffic jams, have an advantage. And it turns out that the cabin filters on a “city” car should be changed once a year.
Как заменить салонный фильтр в машине

How to determine that the cabin filter was ruined

To determine that the element had come into disrepair, and by circumstantial evidence. For example, if the air is clean and fresh, and the cabin feels sparest, it’s time to change the filter. Or if the driver turns on the maximum oxygen capacity of the ventilation system, but does not feel strong blowing again in case the filter unusable.

Change the filter yourself

So, having determined that the device time to change, start. We know where the cabin filter because different models, it can be anywhere. This can be done on the vehicle’s service booklet. For a start we remove a sidebar that is fixed with the latches. Then Unscrew the two screws and remove panel bottom paddle panel.
Find the protection cap of the device. It is easy to remove, you will need to squeeze the brake pedal until it stops because it will interfere.
Как заменить салонный фильтр в машине

How much is it worth

As mentioned above, cabin air filters can be different. And some of them are Oh how expensive. Particularly valuable products of a large size, designed for buses and RVS. By the way, to change the filter on the original is not necessary. You should purchase a duplicate, standing much cheaper.
And one more thing. If the replacement device is entrusted to professionals working in the service station, or they offer to replace it, it is recommended to check on something. As the saying goes, trust but verify. Removed the filter if it is really worn, would outwardly look not very. You will see a dirty accessory in which there is what a pity. Here you can see the branches, leaves, insects, soot and more.
Как заменить салонный фильтр в машине

Installing a cabin filter for VAZ

The installation of the new filter is the reverse of the sequence. As for domestic cars, for VAZ, for example, it is installed instead of the regular motor casing of the stove. Here you will need to experiment a bit. It is possible to manufacture even a homemade filter and prepare position the holes for the fasteners. For ease of installation in limited space the filter is preferably made of two halves.
The main thing when installing is adapter cabin filter, which is recommended to be cleaned of debris that builds up over time, if no protection for staff housing no. As for the bottom of the housing of the oven, the debris and dust easy will suck a standard vacuum cleaner. You will have to remove the engine cooler and stick a hose of a vacuum cleaner inside the open hole.
Knowing where is the cabin filter, installed by a former owner, it should only be removed and replaced with a new one. But if the WHA is the heater type “B” to reach the stove, you will need the center flap to move to position “hot air.”
Video showing the replacement of cabin filter:

It is also recommended to clean the radiator cooler, because if it is clogged, and the cabin filter will work properly, the Windows may mist up the car.

The vehicle

As a result of constant exposure to moisture and snow, as well as salts and reagents, winter is most damaging to the body of the car. Thrifty drivers especially for this reason, put his car in the garage for the entire winter. But what if desire, and opportunities to part with your pet for a long time, absolutely no? In this case, important is the correct preparation of car body for winter.
Правильная подготовка автомобиля к зиме: важные моменты процессаAnti-corrosion treatment
Should be care of anti-corrosion treatment of the body. The best time for this procedure is the beginning or the middle of autumn. If the body were found initial signs of corrosion and small areas of rust, will need to contact the master of bodywork. After the defects can be completely treated. It is also recommended to pay attention to the glass, headlights and mirrors. Manufacturers of automotive products offer customers a wide selection of different car chemicals and cosmetics for winter protection of various elements of the machine.

Winter tires

The choice of winter tires for the car should be approached very carefully and responsibly, because it affects the safety of the driver and passengers.
Novice driver this process might seem quite problematic. However, adhering to a set of rules, to choose the right product easy.
Strictly the due date, when the change of summer rubber on winter, does not exist. Each driver decides for himself when it is necessary “to change” the car. Nevertheless, the optimum time period is considered the beginning-middle of November.

Правильная подготовка автомобиля к зиме: важные моменты процессаReplacement summer tires for winter
Most often, drivers get studded winter tires. This type best to cope with the ice and ice crust. However, when injected into a slush or slush these tyres will be of little use. In the latter case, the more effective will be nazipovna rubber (rubber on Velcro). This type is well suited for use on clean asphalt under conditions of a dry winter. Making a choice in favor of one or another rubber, you need to decide on what coverage is and under what conditions you are operating the vehicle.
Video tips when preparing your car for winter:

Check and replacement of consumables

To ensure a comfortable and trouble-free driving in the winter, should advance to check the condition and level of consumables (oil in the engine and the gear box, antifreeze, liquid for washing of glasses).
In extremely low temperatures in the car engine have a tremendous burden. Therefore, in order to facilitate its work and help to cope with adverse weather conditions, it is necessary to check the condition and oil level, if necessary — to replace fluids.
Distinguish oil synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral. For each type of engine should get its own individual oil. Topped the oil only of the type and company that was used previously. In the case of a complete oil change you can choose another manufacturer. Each oil has a viscosity index that indicates the performance at certain temperature. To determine the freezing temperature of oil, use the following formula: 35 EVE, where EVE is the viscosity index of the oil. For example, if the package contains 10, this means that the oil will not freeze to -25 ° C (35 − 10 = 25).
Great attention should be paid to the cooling system of the car. Before the onset of cold is necessary to ensure no water in the radiator and the whole system. Frozen water can lead to bursting pipes and more serious problems.
Правильная подготовка автомобиля к зиме: важные моменты процессаGulf antifreeze in the cooling system
Antifreeze is a special liquid is poured into the cooling system. The choice of the coolant must be based solely on the technical characteristics of the car. There are 3 basic classes of fluids: G11, G12 and G13. The first type relates to the cheapest, which include a small number of additives. The second type of antifreeze contains ethylene glycol, and complex compounds. Such liquid can form an anti-corrosive coating in the required areas. At the expense of more complex structure grows and the cost of such coolants. The third class is characterized by the presence of propylene glycol, which contributes to the rapid degradation and good environmental qualities of the liquid. This kind of is among the most expensive coolants.
Regardless of the type and brand of antifreeze, it should be remembered that the mixing of different species is highly undesirable. Such experiments lead to severe damages: “clogging” of the cooling system, resulting in overheating and failure of the engine.
Perhaps the most simple task will be the acquisition of a liquid for washing of glasses. This process is not complicated, just look at the packaging temperature at which the composition freezes. It is better to buy the liquid with the lowest freezing point. It is best to drain all water from the washer tank, then add the fluid. If for some reason the water was not drained on time and frozen, you need to drive the car in a warm place (garage), wait for the defrost and then drain it. In the absence of such opportunities can be poured into the tank of the layman alcohol or nezamerzayku.
In addition to the liquid for washing of glasses, should buy a special spray-anticipatively. In wet weather in many cars greatly reduced visibility as a result of temperature difference inside and outside the passenger compartment. Formed on the glass condensate becomes a nightmare for the driver. Modern tools are able to cope with this trouble, just spray the composition on a clean, dry glass surface and RUB with a microfiber cloth.
Video about preparing cars for winter:

Wipers

To use the car with faulty system of purification of the glass is strictly forbidden, because in this case significantly increases the risk of accidents. Therefore, until strong frosts need to check condition of brushes wipers. Each model brushes are designed for use at certain temperatures. To the cold time of the year it is best to purchase and install a special winter wiper blade. Of course, you can save money and buy a cheaper and versatile option. But in this case nobody can guarantee that is not have to slow down at the curb every 300 meters and to scrape the ice from the wipers and to wipe the glass.
Правильная подготовка автомобиля к зиме: важные моменты процессаSpecial winter wipers

Purchase minimal emergency kit

Any driver should always have at hand a set of necessary tools that can be useful in difficult situations.
Everyone knows that you need to carry in the trunk spare tire and tools for Assembly, and a rope for towing. In the winter, in addition to these items, is useful to also wire the cigarette lighter, as in low temperature very often battery runs out and you have to ask for help or provide help to other owners.
When visiting an store of automotive products, should also pay attention to the special scrapers and shovels. In winter, constantly having to get rid of the thick layer of ice on the glass, and wait until the cabin will be warm enough and the ice will thaw, there simply isn’t time.
If you use the above tips prepare your car for winter, then surely, despite the cold, the reactants on the road, ice and slush, you will not have problems during operation of the vehicle.

The specialist will help to prepare a paper on road accident for the insured event in the offices of the traffic police. Such services usually have a staff of experienced attorneys specializing in insurance cases, rather, the payments from the insurance company in case of an accident.
The content

  • What you can expect from the service of emergency commissioners, as to call the specialist?
  • Conclusion

What you can expect from the service of emergency commissioners, as to call the specialist?

In emergency services Commissioner include the following functions, it will perform the following steps:

  • To arrive at the accident scene in the shortest possible time.
  • Will make a thorough inspection of the site of the accident.
  • Get all the information about dorozhno-transport incident (will act).
  • Will be called to the place of accident employees of traffic police.
  • Will find and ask witnesses to the incident.
  • Will they photograph wrecked vehicles and directly of the site of the accident.
  • Would make the scheme of the accident, the report will populate all the necessary information.
  • Analyze the situation and identify the culprit and cause of the incident in the accident.
  • Video about emergency Commissariat:

    Today almost every well-established major insurance company has a position Adjuster. Most often the company that insures the hull, the cases of theft and damage to car that has such a useful specialist. Customer who has insurance of this type, to call a specialist in case of an accident just dials the phone to his insurance company. Even without the hull insurance policy, you can go to any other assistance company. Assistance will be indispensable, if the damage to the vehicles is very serious, the participants in the accident and a few guilty of any of them to install yourself is not possible. The departure of the emergency Commissioner at the scene of an accident in such a situation, the most correct decision.
    In practice, such a representative of the insurance company is on the scene much earlier than the traffic police. After all correctly executed actions assistant insurance car owner will need to wait for the resolution of insurers on the repair of the machine or of obtaining the sum insured.
    Аварийный комиссар — незаменимая помощь в ситуации с ДТП

    Conclusion

    The driver in the Commission of the accident alone may not give an adequate assessment of the situation, the right thing to seek help from the man who calmly can solve the resulting problem. Of course, have to pay for such a useful service, but it certainly is cheaper than to lose the ship the claim from the insurance company. It is because at the moment dorozhno-transport incident were lost some of the details of the accident, the documents incorrectly recorded, in many insurance situations is the refusal of insurance payments.

    Emergency shutdown alarm is unlock the security device with a subsequent start of the engine or in some cases complete dismantling of the security device. If you disable the car alarm failed, call service center. In this situation, call an electrician for tripping the car alarm will be the best. According to the rules of emergency off, the wizard will only upon presentation by owner of documents of title of the vehicle.

    Let’s consider some ways to turn off the device, thus not having a keychain.
    Video disables the alarm without the keyfob:

    Try to get to the secret point security devices. Where is the emergency off button alarm, the owner has to say in the service station who installed the security device. If the machine was bought with it, then this information immediately to you by the former owner of the car, another way is to try to find this button by yourself. Usually it is located in the protection unit or in another hidden place. This type of disconnect can be explored in more detail in the attached to set system instructions. Most often it is a secret code that you will need to enter.
    Отключение неисправной сигнализации в автомобиле
    There are also pre-programmed combinations:

  • Turn on the ignition by pressing the override button four times, disable the ignition.
  • turn on the ignition, quick motion, press the override button once, then turn off the ignition.
  • The content

    • Shutdown in case of emergency
    • Conclusion

    Shutdown in case of emergency

    Today, the car set a very complicated anti-theft systems, which at any moment for unknown reasons, may fail and disable such equipment sometimes can only be a specialist.
    If such a problem occurred, lay off staff alarm on the shoulders versed in the matter specialists. Only a good master will be able to perform work to disable the system without damaging other elements, repair of which can later be costly.
    A high level of protection of the security device will not become an obstacle for the master to leave. Most modern cars have built-in anti-theft equipment, but if it fails, the car owner gets a lot of unwanted issues.
    Some anti-theft systems can be disabled as follows: remove the fuse located near the fuse box. If disconnect signaling device — disconnect terminals from the battery — the siren will sound off. After identifying the alarm point (described above) connect battery back.
    Mute button alarm you can use to be able to use Central locking. This button looks like a toggle switch or a plain color button hidden from prying eyes.
    To disconnect and dismantle the security system will need to find a block (most likely hidden under the dashboard). That torpedo is not completely removed note, the block needs to go to the wire. Near the windshield should be the most noticeable one is led, in any case it is connected to the unit alarm.
    Pay attention to ignition coil, or more precisely on the wire, which have a rupture and in these places connected to other wires. Probably, these additional wires have directions right to the unit security equipment. When I disconnect these wires the engine may not start in that case, if was made blocking, for example, starter or ignition.
    Отключение неисправной сигнализации в автомобиле
    In the case when they managed to produce normally open the lock, the alarm will still function without power. You just need to install open circuits, and then restore them.

    Conclusion

    Security system — anti-theft indispensable item for each car. In the event of failure of such equipment for the car owner it will turn into a bunch of problems. The first thing to do is to try and disable the siren sounds the alarm. At least remove the terminals from the battery can anyone. If you can’t produce disconnection alarm yourself, call road service, they will certainly be able to perform all functions to eliminate such an unpleasant situation. In any case, you may need repairs or complete replacement of security system, and to perform this procedure by yourself is almost impossible.

    Got the battery — what to do now

    How could this be happening? But will you go on a business trip, for example, in a three-week vacation. He comes home to find that the car no one was driving and the battery, of course, the village. The result — not able to use the alarm and open the door fails. So what? And the key is for what, the reader will ask, probably a man of Mature years. But that’s the trouble. Many owners of modern cars completely forget about mechanical parts and, of course, about the key. Over time, the lock cylinder can rust and stick the key impossible.
    There’s only one thing to call for help. But these services are quite expensive. What can you do? Is there no way?

    Hurry to calm. There are ways and there are several of them. One of them implies the existence of special devices. It costs about 300 rubles and represents a cushion, which quickly and easily presses the car door or the hood.
    Масса способов, как открыть машину при неработающем аккумулятореCushion for opening doors
    So, the first thing to do is to get to the battery. To change it, and it will work.
    You may act differently. To open the car door from the inside. Or submitted to the electric circuit of the vehicle current and to access the keychain.

    In the above two cases, helps the same pad, which we slips in the crack between the door and body. The third method will be described below. The principle of operation of the following pads: pear is inflated with air and, thus, extends the crack into which she and the stick. Take the wire, necessarily long, and slips into that slot, and then pull the handle from the inside.
    If you open the hood, then wire trying to get his lock or latch.

    Crawling under the car

    What to do if the pads are not? Have to get to the generator before removing the motor protection. For this we need to get under the car. If you have a Jack or you can ask the neighbor to lend, even better.
    So, we find under the car the positive bolt of the generator.
    It is worth noting that, before undertaking the business, you need to ask someone to not only lift, but also a new battery, to find the two wires with a cross section of 2 cm and a length of about one meter. On these wires will need to wear clamps type “crocodile”.
    So, finding the positive terminal of the generator, put it on the positive wire coming from the battery. As for the negative wire, you can connect with a body, i.e. connecting to ground.
    Масса способов, как открыть машину при неработающем аккумулятореThe vehicle alternator and the positive bolt
    All the alarms are connected and again responds to transmitter signals. Remove the battery from the car and charge it.
    It is important to be extremely cautious in this situation. To observe safety measures need fully. Don’t forget you are working with electricity, and current is a scary thing. Make sure to plus terminal was connected only with the same contact on the alternator, and not something can happen short circuit, this will lead to an explosion of the battery.
    Also we must not forget about checking the health of the battery that you are going to use as a power source. Otherwise all the efforts may not produce any effect. The battery, as mentioned above, must be new and powerful.
    In addition, it is recommended to first connect the battery positive lead and then to the body minus.

    Different ways of opening the car doors

    There are other ways of opening doors, not as complex as described above. But you need to the situation was appropriate. For example, if between the glass and the top of the door there is open space, there you can put a wire, one end of which is folded around. Catch them the pen drive and gently pull on yourself.
    If the handle from inside it opens up and to the side, as on the vases, we find a metal rod or piece of wood thinner. We perform a similar process, only pull and presses.
    Can be used instead of the wire and the wiper blade, removing it from the needle. Bend one end and the tool is ready.
    Масса способов, как открыть машину при неработающем аккумулятореThe opening of the door wire
    There is another interesting way. It is called “against the scrap no reception, if there is no other way”, and it all comes down to what you need to be armed with a hammer. Believe me, it will definitely open all the doors and glass. But use it only when desperate, when nothing else to do. Only need to beat gently, so as not to get hurt by broken glass.
    The following method assumes the presence of a wooden wedge, about four inches at the base. The length of the wood can be twenty centimeters. Also needs a meter rod having a pointed hook at the end. This wedge is very careful not to damage anything, is driven in between the upper rear corner of the door and the bar car. Thus, we have formed a slit in two to three centimeters. Set up the rod and turn the lock the door lock. To drive a wedge should be very careful, lightly tapping her fist.
    Video — how to open car when battery is down:

    Another interesting way to open the lock of the car. The way is quite loud, so crackers do not use it. Arm will need a drill. Select the right drill bit and machined a lockable lock. Way good, so as to scratch or dent the surface of the car will be impossible. But there is a minus. Have to change all the larvae, on all doors.
    You can use special key blanks, which pierces into the lock cylinder and scrolls. Only in this case will need to be pressed harder.
    The cable that opens the hood of the car, also can provide quick help. If the above was said about how to open the hood with a special cushion, in this case it is not needed. Normal cable goes from the hood latch the hood to the cabin, passing through the left wing of the car. Now, it is possible to hook a wire near the left headlight or radiator. Sharply poddernuv wire, you can open the hood. And then — business equipment.
    It is useful to write and that not all cars can, so to speak, to “open”. Domestic vintage cars open so you can. But the imported models are unlikely. Almost all, because of the frequent cases of theft, were exposed to the system of protection, and this does not necessarily alarm.
    So, on modern cars protected from prosovyvaniya wire on top, between the glass and rubber gasket. With regard to special pillows, and it is not always possible to expand the cracks.

    How to open a car of foreign manufacture

    Now consider how you can open the door foreign car, which has all systems mechanical protection. It should be noted that in order to avoid such cases it is necessary to periodically open the doors by key (and not to fully trust the chain and the automatic opening) and keep always the house duplicate keys in case you lose the original.
    Масса способов, как открыть машину при неработающем аккумулятореIf you don’t have a screwdriver, you can use the key
    Still, if the problem happened, you should try to bend the door (remember that you can always call a professional who will do everything easily without damaging anything). To do this, armed with a long wire, rag and a flat head screwdriver. In the area of stands under the door slips a cloth to avoid scratching the surface, and fold the door with a screwdriver. Is formed a gap, through which the wire and poke. This method has been described above, but there was used a wooden wedge, which is not always at hand and which, in fact, more spoils the surface.
    On some models of Honda, for example, you can reach the hood is easy and simple, if you pull out the front grille with the Honda badge. To open a locked car after this will not be difficult.
    Well, that’s all. I hope that the above tips will be useful not only on paper but also in practice. Good luck and keep your head up — in any situation there’s always a way, if not always conventional, but effective.

    The content

    • Practical information about nitrous oxide
    • The principle of operation
    • Types of nitrous oxide
    • Buy and the refill bottle
    • Nitrous oxide and damage to the car

    Practical information about nitrous oxide

    The foundations of chemical science indicated that nitrous oxide (practical formula N2O) is an invisible gas, which has a negative degree of Flammability. Is somewhat romantic rogue and a pleasant subtle smell. The gas may have a slight intoxicating effect, which has received the name of “laughing”. At a pressure equal to 760 mm Hg. article, and zero temperature, the nitrous oxide has a density of 1,9804 kg/m3. If the temperature reaches 500 °C, N2O is decomposed into two substances, one of which is capable of exerting an oxidizing action, and as a result, to sustain combustion.

    Закись азота — для любителей быстрой езды и острых ощущений
    The use of gas is very complex. It is used in medicine, automotive and food industries.

    The principle of operation

    Through the use of NOS increases the power of the engine, and consequently increases the speed of the car.
    The nitrous oxide system directly connected to the combustion chamber of the engine. The fuel-air mixture is compressed and ignited, and the NOS at a high temperature, as is well known, tends to decompose into oxygen and nitrogen. The resulting oxygen is used for accelerating the combustion of a certain amount of fuel, which ultimately leads to a huge leap in power of the power unit. While nitrogen serves as an antiknock agent, i.e. fully takes control of the combustion process the fuel-air mixture. In addition, nitrous performs a reducing action on the temperature of the air entering the engine compartment. Subsequently, the density of combustion of the working mixture significantly increases.
    When applying to the cylinders of nitrous oxide it is important to control the correct ratio of oxidizer and fuel, because only in ideal conditions, complete combustion of the working mixture. Failure to comply with rules may cause overheating of the engine, detonation in this case not be avoided. This often leads to a deterioration of the “heart car”.

    Types of nitrous oxide

    The nitrous system is intended for use in motor vehicles, are divided into three types:

  • The system is “dry”. Distinguished by its cheapness. The fuel supply is performed through the injector, bypassing the inlet manifold. Thus, the fuel in it. The fuel stream directed to the combustion chamber, increases either due to the high pressure injectors (NOS is supplied from the solenoid), or a longer “activation” of the fuel injector. This nitrous oxide system is uncontrollable, threatening a possible depletion of the mixture.
  • The system is “wet”. Way to feed the nitrous is no different from the past. However, to use a separate fuel injector. The occurrence of detonation in this case is impossible. Indicators of power and speed from the use of nitrous is rather high. Additional fuel if you use “wet” systems can serve as alcohols, gasoline and gases.
  • System “direct injection”. The supply of NOS and fuel is carried out in a designated, separate inlet. Substances are mixed into the nozzles, then go into the cylinders. The system is very difficult to install, but is the most powerful to use.
  • Buy and the refill bottle

    Very often motorists do not dare to elevate your car with nitrous oxide, for fear of meeting the problem of refilling the cylinder. Cylinder of nitrous oxide in Russia is only for medical purposes. Therefore, in order to buy it, have to work hard. If you’re lucky, you’ll need to do some manipulation, to successfully complete its installation (turning the bronze nut fitting the thread of the cylinder). Cylinders with nitrous weigh nearly seven pounds, and the pressure inside them ranges from 45 to 50 atmospheres. Before you start, you should verify the existence of sufficient pressure inside the container, otherwise the sense from it will not.

    It is much easier to dispense branded bottle is the nitrous-oxide system. In this case the opportunity to use a specialized filling station. The compressor for the filling of medical cylinders or fire extinguishers can also do a good job.

    Nitrous oxide and damage to the car

    Nitrous can cause irreparable harm only if the selected system does not meet the specific powertrain. This should be treated with extreme care. The strength of engine parts is not compromised by accurate work on installing the nitrous system. Because during the process have to carry out some improvement of the intake system, crank mechanism and other details relating to the motor vehicle. Added power depends on many factors, including the type of engine, type of nitrous system, gearbox.
    Overall nitrous system cannot be regarded as pernicious for power units. This is a very cheap type of tuning for the engine brings quite good results with careful handling. In addition, the load on the motor can be adjusted, allowing you to use the machine in the usual mode for it. However, extreme caution when using the nitrous system will not prevent.

    The main body parts

    The vehicle is the upper shell of the car, which serves as a mounting for all units and working units. This element is the binding mechanism that combines the individual systems of the car together.

    The majority of body components (roof, rear and front frame rails, engine compartment) welded to the bottom stanovenou. Hinged additions are considered only the boot lid, doors, hood and fenders.

    The unit chassis

    The chassis is a combination of three structures that provide not only direct movement of the vehicle, but also to carry out its coordination in space.
    The system unit chassis:

    • transmission of a particular type;
    • way block;
    • managing the mechanism.

    The notion of a power transmission (powertrain)

    The necessity of its presence is due to the transmission from the crankshaft to the drive wheels of the power unit torque.

    Устройство автомобиля, или что нужно знать, перед тем как сесть за рульOne of the main components of any car is the body of the car
    Composite main mechanisms:

    • driveline;
    • the clutch;
    • axles and final drive;
    • differential;
    • gearbox.

    Most important to have some information about the gearbox and the clutch.
    Gearbox takes part in the starting of the engine and ensures correct movement during idle and reverse. Depending on the gear ratios allocated to a stepped, continuously variable and dual gearbox. In modern cars often feature automatic transmission.
    The separation and connection of a running motor and gearbox provides exactly the clutch. Through his work car launch smoothly, and the gear teeth of the gearbox feel strong pressure during their shift.

    Way block

    Устройство автомобиля, или что нужно знать, перед тем как сесть за рульWay block car
    Way block is 50% of the entire vehicle. It includes the frame, axles (front and rear), suspension and wheels. Literally attached to the frame with all the main elements. There are also frameless design. In this case, most of the parts attached to the body. Such a scheme can be found in the structure of buses and some passenger cars. Front and rear axle perform the removal of the excessive load from the body and distribute it most of between the wheels. The rear axle is usually hollow inside. It is concentrated mechanisms of power transmission. The front axle is the number of pins connected to the beam by means of hinges. These parts are responsible for the vehicle rotation.
    Suspension combines both axles and frame. Together with the wheel performs the function of cushioning shocks and in direct drive.
    The springs (beams of steel sheets) is a part of the suspension, wherein a certain elasticity. The basis the details may also be taken and twisted rod spring.
    In most vehicles the suspension vibrations are eliminated by hydraulic or friction (mechanical) shock absorbers.
    Sufficient maneuverability of the vehicle primarily depends on the location of the wheels. They must be installed in the usual corners of the alignment. To control these parameters developed specialized laser or computer stands. The motorist also recommended the systematic balancing of all wheels on designated activities technical machines.
    Video about the device:

    The control mechanism of the vehicle

    Divided into two main section:

    • steering,
    • brake system.

    Steering is the interaction between the steering gear and steering gear. Steering creates a change of direction of the vehicle. The process involves turning the front wheels and the system they drive. Driving becomes much easier with the introduction of steering amplifiers (pneumatic, hydraulic, combined). For roads with right hand drive used left steering control mechanism and Vice versa. This is done to achieve maximum viewing angle.
    Thanks to the braking system of the vehicle can reduce the speed during the movement, until it stops completely. Its functioning is based on the laws of sliding friction. The brake mechanism may be movable and immovable. In the first case, the movable part is a brake disc or drum, the second brake pads. Depending on the type of braking system parts or rotate simultaneously with the wheels or not.
    Устройство автомобиля, или что нужно знать, перед тем как сесть за рульThe braking system of the car
    Types of braking system based on a brake actuator. For most of cars by hydraulic actuator. Besides it there are also mechanical, electrical, pneumatic and combined types of drive.

    The engine is a major component of the device of the car

    Piston internal combustion engine provided in most vehicles manufactured today. Promising are models, equipped with gas turbine internal combustion engines. Electric cars are only for transportation small and large shipments. Steam engines today has outlived its usefulness.
    There is a certain division of piston engines used on fuel:

    • petrol,
    • diesel,
    • gas,
    • LPG.

    Gasoline and diesel vehicles on the roads of our country can meet much more often. To diesel representatives mainly include buses and trucks.
    The video describes the main types of internal combustion engines:

    For gas and natural-gas vehicles are characterized by the use of local types of fuel.
    With the active work of the power unit thermal energy of a suitable fuel is converted into mechanical, on the engine shaft torque occurs. Depending on the rotational speed and the fuel used for each particular engine has its maximum power.
    The number of cylinders of the engine ranges from two to twelve. The smallest number is typical for subcompact cars, the maximum — on the contrary. The cylinders may be either vertically or in the shape of the letter V.
    The power unit is not always in the front of the machine. There are representatives, in which the engine is installed at the rear of, along, or across the body.
    Knowing the technical specifications of the car with many minor problems the owner will be able to cope on their own. This will significantly reduce its cash costs for the maintenance of the vehicle, since the services of most service centers are quite expensive.