Regular birth on light of different engineering innovations transport mechanisms, allows to make the driver’s life safer and more comfortable. And over the years the development of engineering changes affected absolutely all components of the car. Not passed this fate and steering as a system. About it will be discussed in this article. But first let’s remember what it actually is and what it does.
What is the system of car control?
So, steering is one of the most important systems of a vehicle intended for setting the right direction. The steering mechanism and actuator are the only elements of the system on which all of her work. Mentioned components, in turn, also include some details, but talk about them a little later. And while a little bit of history.
- The history of technology
- This is the future
The history of technology
The history of the automobile consists of three periods, which have seen the development of abrupt steering.
The first type of automotive management was a worm, named due to the worm gear, which is part of the steering column. And it looked so: the efforts to convert the turnover of the wheel, transmitted to the worm mechanism of the column, he, in turn, forced to rotate the gear, and she worked on drop arm. The bipod affect the operation of hubs and levers, which ultimately sent the wheels in the desired direction. Previously, this mechanism was quite common, and most often this steering has been used in models of VAZ and BMW.
In the parts list, the components of worm control system includes the following elements:
- the steering wheel;
- the shaft and the yoke;
Then the masses went out rack and pinion steering gear. Its working principle is as follows: while spinning the steering wheel affects such detail as the gear, and it drives the steering rack. Rake also, in turn, actuates the lever, the tip of which is inserted into the hub. Here’s her and it rotates. Rack system consists of:
This steering device is required some effort to control during the drive. But here the history of the automotive industry has prepared a new surprise to drivers. The fact that the designers came up with a way to steer the machine with virtually no physical effort. And was it to install in the vehicle different power steering. There are several types of such devices:
- The hydraulic booster. Here the steering consists of a hydraulic pump (driven by an auto engine), hoses, tank for liquid. In the case of car rack the pump pumps the liquid, which being immovable steering wheel circulates through the system. If the wheel is spinning, the fluid begins to push on the rail in the direction of rotation. Thus, the mechanism helps the driver to turn with minimal effort;
- The electrical. And steering with this amplifier works with an electric motor which is directly connected to the steering rack or shaft. Management of electric power, is performed by the electronic unit. In addition, such a system may apply different forces to the steering wheel. It is also called adaptive;
- Hydroelectrolyte. In this case, the steering principle is very similar to the system with power. Only, in this case, the pump is rotated by the motor and not the engine of the machine;
- Pneumobilia. The system with such a mechanism is also identical in its principle of working with the system with power. But here the fluid in the steering rack, replaced by compressed air;
Another option of how control of the machine (as system) has been popular in the auto industry recently, you count variant. The principle of its operation is largely similar to the worm device. Here along the screw thread of the steering shaft down the rack gear threaded on the inside. The teeth of this rack are made to work the steering compartment, and he is the underdog. Then everything looks like a worm in the system. Is the same screw-type system:
- gear racks.
This is the future
It is now widely used active system, with the help of which one can say, development of steering control for today has reached its peak. Continuous development of technologies has allowed today to obtain not only technology adaptive steering, where the steering force depends on the speed of the car, but other options, greatly facilitate the life of motorists. These include, for example, the active control system from BMW (or Active Front Steering AFS). And if to consider her work, then we can say that, actually, everything is quite simple, but very reliable.
An active system is very similar to rack-and-pinion mechanism of control, but when driving the steering wheel rotates the planetary mechanism. He also leads the steering rack in action. Among the components of such a mechanism can be identified such:
- the steering wheel;
- rake with an electric motor and a planetary gear;
- lugs and traction;
- the control unit.
In the case of active systems the car may be a little “taxi” on their own. Literally seven or eight degrees. But this happens only if there’s a team of electronics, software application to which you can modify yourself if necessary. This will help the car not to make sudden jerks in turning at low speed and too smoothly on a very high. Also to avoid uneven and abrupt behavior of the machine in high speed mode, the engineers ensured the system by gradually reducing the activity of the device motor. In addition, electronic control with the ability to adapt allows the driver to not be afraid that the vehicle will “disturb” the drive, not Vice versa.
The mass distribution system “active steering” got back in 1997 and still is one of the main places of security among the auxiliary machinery and car devices.
And it is clear that the automotive industry and further will not stand still. In addition, the car can be equipped with such a smart assistant as electronic stabilisation programme (ESP), or its improved version ESP Premium. This mechanism is triggered in extremely dangerous traffic situations, when management of the car is lost or there is a threat. Stabilization is achieved by braking individual wheels and reducing engine speed. Moreover, this system works with any movement mode and speed mode.
Today, ESP is considered the most reliable security system for compensating some driver errors, although in 1995 it was present its drawbacks, which pushed back the release of new items for a few years until full elimination.
In the future the automobile industry designers are working on a direct link steering with the drive wheels using the drive. Moreover, the impact on each wheel will be independent. It is a perfect safe ride for any driver.
Thus, the history of technology development driving over the years has evolved, reaching unprecedented heights and greatly facilitate drivers daily tasks, raising the level of ride comfort and overall safety traveling.