Regular birth on light of different engineering innovations transport mechanisms, allows to make the driver’s life safer and more comfortable. And over the years the development of engineering changes affected absolutely all components of the car. Not passed this fate and steering as a system. About it will be discussed in this article. But first let’s remember what it actually is and what it does.
История рулевого управления автомобилем
What is the system of car control?
So, steering is one of the most important systems of a vehicle intended for setting the right direction. The steering mechanism and actuator are the only elements of the system on which all of her work. Mentioned components, in turn, also include some details, but talk about them a little later. And while a little bit of history.
The content

  • The history of technology
  • This is the future

The history of technology

The history of the automobile consists of three periods, which have seen the development of abrupt steering.
The first type of automotive management was a worm, named due to the worm gear, which is part of the steering column. And it looked so: the efforts to convert the turnover of the wheel, transmitted to the worm mechanism of the column, he, in turn, forced to rotate the gear, and she worked on drop arm. The bipod affect the operation of hubs and levers, which ultimately sent the wheels in the desired direction. Previously, this mechanism was quite common, and most often this steering has been used in models of VAZ and BMW.
In the parts list, the components of worm control system includes the following elements:

  • the steering wheel;
  • column;
  • the shaft and the yoke;
  • traction.

Then the masses went out rack and pinion steering gear. Its working principle is as follows: while spinning the steering wheel affects such detail as the gear, and it drives the steering rack. Rake also, in turn, actuates the lever, the tip of which is inserted into the hub. Here’s her and it rotates. Rack system consists of:

  • vehicles;
  • shaft;
  • rods;
  • tip;
  • Reiki.

This steering device is required some effort to control during the drive. But here the history of the automotive industry has prepared a new surprise to drivers. The fact that the designers came up with a way to steer the machine with virtually no physical effort. And was it to install in the vehicle different power steering. There are several types of such devices:

  • The hydraulic booster. Here the steering consists of a hydraulic pump (driven by an auto engine), hoses, tank for liquid. In the case of car rack the pump pumps the liquid, which being immovable steering wheel circulates through the system. If the wheel is spinning, the fluid begins to push on the rail in the direction of rotation. Thus, the mechanism helps the driver to turn with minimal effort;
  • The electrical. And steering with this amplifier works with an electric motor which is directly connected to the steering rack or shaft. Management of electric power, is performed by the electronic unit. In addition, such a system may apply different forces to the steering wheel. It is also called adaptive;
  • Hydroelectrolyte. In this case, the steering principle is very similar to the system with power. Only, in this case, the pump is rotated by the motor and not the engine of the machine;
  • Pneumobilia. The system with such a mechanism is also identical in its principle of working with the system with power. But here the fluid in the steering rack, replaced by compressed air;

История рулевого управления автомобилем
Another option of how control of the machine (as system) has been popular in the auto industry recently, you count variant. The principle of its operation is largely similar to the worm device. Here along the screw thread of the steering shaft down the rack gear threaded on the inside. The teeth of this rack are made to work the steering compartment, and he is the underdog. Then everything looks like a worm in the system. Is the same screw-type system:

  • vehicles;
  • thrust;
  • column;
  • gear racks.

This is the future

It is now widely used active system, with the help of which one can say, development of steering control for today has reached its peak. Continuous development of technologies has allowed today to obtain not only technology adaptive steering, where the steering force depends on the speed of the car, but other options, greatly facilitate the life of motorists. These include, for example, the active control system from BMW (or Active Front Steering AFS). And if to consider her work, then we can say that, actually, everything is quite simple, but very reliable.
История рулевого управления автомобилем
An active system is very similar to rack-and-pinion mechanism of control, but when driving the steering wheel rotates the planetary mechanism. He also leads the steering rack in action. Among the components of such a mechanism can be identified such:

  • the steering wheel;
  • rake with an electric motor and a planetary gear;
  • lugs and traction;
  • the control unit.

In the case of active systems the car may be a little “taxi” on their own. Literally seven or eight degrees. But this happens only if there’s a team of electronics, software application to which you can modify yourself if necessary. This will help the car not to make sudden jerks in turning at low speed and too smoothly on a very high. Also to avoid uneven and abrupt behavior of the machine in high speed mode, the engineers ensured the system by gradually reducing the activity of the device motor. In addition, electronic control with the ability to adapt allows the driver to not be afraid that the vehicle will “disturb” the drive, not Vice versa.
The mass distribution system “active steering” got back in 1997 and still is one of the main places of security among the auxiliary machinery and car devices.
And it is clear that the automotive industry and further will not stand still. In addition, the car can be equipped with such a smart assistant as electronic stabilisation programme (ESP), or its improved version ESP Premium. This mechanism is triggered in extremely dangerous traffic situations, when management of the car is lost or there is a threat. Stabilization is achieved by braking individual wheels and reducing engine speed. Moreover, this system works with any movement mode and speed mode.
Today, ESP is considered the most reliable security system for compensating some driver errors, although in 1995 it was present its drawbacks, which pushed back the release of new items for a few years until full elimination.
In the future the automobile industry designers are working on a direct link steering with the drive wheels using the drive. Moreover, the impact on each wheel will be independent. It is a perfect safe ride for any driver.
Thus, the history of technology development driving over the years has evolved, reaching unprecedented heights and greatly facilitate drivers daily tasks, raising the level of ride comfort and overall safety traveling.

The company Ferrari is currently based in Maranello (Italy). Until 1947 she was engaged in manufacture of racing cars and sponsoring drivers. Then its main activity was the creation of a car Street-legal. The history of Ferrari is characterized by constant participation in competitions, mainly in the “Formula-1”.
Perhaps, every car enthusiast knows that the yellow logo of the legendary brand shows a stallion that is on its hind legs, and the classical color of the machine is red. But not everyone is aware of the exact origins of this company and what path it has travelled before reaching its proportions. This will be discussed further.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariThe appearance of the car Ferrari

The content

  • A little about Enzo Ferrari
  • The first car Ferrari
  • Street-legal car
  • Dino
  • The agreement with FIAT
  • 1970-2005.
  • Supercars and coupes
  • Ferrari F40
  • Ferrari Enzo

A little about Enzo Ferrari

The famous Enzo Ferrari was born in 1898 in Modena. He recalled that from a very young age was an avid fan of car racing and fast cars. At the end of the First World war he was in a sports team CMN. In 1920 he worked in the company “alpha Romeo”. The period of service in the Italian group played a significant role in the professional growth of guy, even though he worked there a simple test driver. Later, Enzo has gathered his own team (it was called “Ferrari the Ferrari”).
The main activities of the group was to improve research “Alfa Romeo”, which was used in the races. As the emblem used the picture of a rearing horse. Here Ferrari he served until 1938.
After 2 years he created his own company “Avio, Construzioni”. Initially the company was engaged in manufacturing metal tools. Then Enzo has developed its first model of car is “815” — but did not give her his name, as in dismissal from Alfa Romeo designer signed a contract. Under its provisions the designer could not produce cars for the past 4 years. So then nobody knew about the development of Ferrari.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariIn the photo Enzo Ferrari
In 1940, Rangoni and Ascari drove it in the “Mille Miglia”. However, they never managed to reach the finish line. After the war Enzo moved his company to the small town of Maranello. After the war the company suffered several air raids. In 1946 the factory was rebuilt. Then adjusted the production of racing cars. This date is considered the official appearance of the group “Ferrari”.

The first car Ferrari

The first creation that came out from conveyor company — sports Ferrari-GT 125. Then he released the model 125S, 159S, 166. All these cars had engines with 12 cylinders. These engines have only the top distributor for all cylinder heads. This design was the distinguishing feature of the car “Ferrari”.
Note that in the great racing sports debuted these machines without success. But Ferrari wasn’t going to stop there and decided to further implement their plans. 1948 — the year when he made another car — Ferrari-125. This model was the first prototype racing car which participated in the “Formula-1”. Then technical head of the company becomes Aurelio Lampredi. This man undertook a complete renovation of the Ferrari 125.
Over time the motors of racing cars became more powerful. At the same time increased the degree of forcing. However, serious competition development “Alfa Romeo” could be only the last model built by Ferrari in this period. June 1951 was memorable for the fact that the Argentine racer Froilan Gonzalez won the races at Silverstone on this car.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariPhoto Ferrari-125S
Then the company “Ferrari” was already known thanks to victories model “166”. The year after was born another race car — “500 F. 2”, are already equipped with 12-cylinder and two-cylinder engine. The model is not particularly easy and was incredibly powerful. However, it was the best single car that was used in the races “Formula-2” (temporary replacement, “Formula 1”).
This car had excellent braking characteristics and excellent weight distribution. Due to this it became possible to significantly reduce tire wear when driving. Installing energy-efcient motor is allowed to avoid intermediate stops to refuel in the races.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariPhoto Ferrari 500 F. 2

When the car “Ferrari” has won considerable credibility in the car world, Enzo seriously thinking about how to establish production models for the broader masses. The first car of this series — Ferrari-375 America. She was fitted with a new body — Pininfarina. Later there was a car “500 Mondial”, and right behind him — “750 Monza”. The first of these is called “Testarossa” (“red head”). This was due to the fact that the cylinder heads were executed in a red tint. This machine has earned the reputation of being a powerful and energetic and were used in races.
In that period, the company’s business does not always go well. For example, cars “Squalo and Superscale” used to “Formula 1”, brought only defeat. Later the firm sold the Lancia Ferrari its development — the D-50. Because of this auto drivers won the world championship (1956).
A year later the Corporation started to manufacture racing cars in which the motor located on the rear. Sports cars of the highest class was produced, with the engine located in the front part of the structure. “365GTB/4” had a unique characteristics — the amount of 4390 cm3, 4 camshaft, 12-cylinder engine. He was considered a kind of classic company “Ferrari” and was one of the most powerful models in the seventies — he can develop 280 km/h. Then were created the 308GTB and 308GTS vehicles where the engines were located in the Central part of the structure. The last car with the motor V-12 was Ferrari 400 GT.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariIn the photo Ferrari 400 GT


After 1966 the head of the company began labeling machine brand name “Dino”. This name was assigned to the car in honor of his beloved son Alfredina. He was a talented designer, but died young (24 years) due to serious illness. Ferrari was obliged Alfredina, because the machines were constructed to his designs, were able to win many victories.
Note that the creation of the brand “Dino” was necessary in connection with the decision of the LFA. In accordance with the volume of the motor car involved in the race, had to be more than 1500 cm3. Also, the engine could not be more than 6 cylinders. The design of the car had to match the settings of auto “Big tourism”.
Video on the history of Ferrari concern:

Initially Enzo Ferrari was planning to develop a racing car, and based on this model to create a serial sports car. However, the opposite happened — first produced “Dino-1665” (sportauto) with a 1.6 liter, and then on the basis it was made “Dino-2065” with two-liter engine. Some period “Dino” was an independent enterprise. Then were released cars like the Dino 246 GT/GTS, Dino 206 GT, designed for mass sales. One of the last cars of the brand Dino 308 GT4 in 1973. She then became the basis of a new series of Ferrari.

The agreement with FIAT

So Ferrari made a series of “BT”, the company needed to produce at least five hundred cars. For this condition Enzo has decided to sign a contract with the Corporation “Fiat”. Under the terms of the agreement, Ferrari has pledged her their drawings of the engines. Fiat, in turn, assumed the obligations to ensure the manufacturing of bodies and parts for cars.
Corporation managers soon realized that they need their own branch for development and release of Sportmaster. So in 1969 the company Ferrari became part of Fiat. Enzo Ferrari, the Creator of the company, insisted on their right to self-manage it. And he led the company until his departure from life (1998).
Video biography of Enzo Ferrari:


In the early seventies the company “Ferrari” has already earned a reputation as a producer of racing cars and sports cars of high class. In 1971, the public was presented a new model Berlinetta Boxer. Two years later established a serial production of this car.
In 1984 appeared “Testarossa”, which was modernized in 1992. In 1994, the model again was modified. It is equipped with a 12 cylinder engine (capacity — 4943 cm3, power — 440 HP). This car was able to develop 315 km/h. After another 2 years had released a new car 550 Maranello.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariPhoto Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer

Supercars and coupes

In recent years, Ferrari produced and less expensive cars. For example, in the eighties appeared on the market four-seater Mondial. It was released in two versions (convertible/coupe). In 1989 was created the model 348TB, 348TS. In 1994, on the basis of these cars was made by the family F355. Also Ferrari has released a highly comfortable 4-seater coupe premium.
The company is proud of the incredibly expensive high-speed sports cars. By design they are very similar to development for racing “Formula 1”. Basically it is the model F40, which began to produce small batches in 1987.

Ferrari F40

Then Enzo Ferrari personally headed the design Department, which developed the model F40. The result is a best creation of the Italian company for the entire period of its existence. A car with several unique characteristics:

  • the presence of the turbocharger;
  • panel high strength of Kevlar;
  • engine V-8 c longitudinal location;
  • the capacity of 478 horsepower.

Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariPhoto of a Ferrari F40
The car body is made of carbon fiber and super-strong material Kevlar. The salon is narrow, but this is not a disadvantage of a sports car. However, because it is impossible to adjust the seat. Note that if “Ferrari” is made to order, — the driver’s seat is created in accordance with the Constitution and dimensions of the buyer.
Excellent dynamic performance and low level of comfort is the motto of the Ferrari F40, which weighed 1118 kilograms. Stiff suspension was indifferent to the irregularities of the track, the steering “feel” any hole, powerful motor demonstrated the unlimited possibilities of the car. This machine is considered a unique creation of Ferrari.
Later (1995), the model F40 has been upgraded and has received the name F-50. Concern “Ferrari” also known racing cars, which are used in the “Formula-1”. Every year they are improving. 1997 was marked by the fact that Ferrari took second place in the constructors ‘ championship (the world championship “Formula 1”).

Ferrari Enzo

In 2002, the Italian company began producing a model called the Ferrari Enzo. Most powerful production supercar in Europe. It was created and named in honor of the brilliant designer and Creator of the company, to remind about the role leading design school Ferrari in the development of racing sport. This two-seater sports car has a 12-cylinder engine (volume — 6, capacity — 650). In 3.5 seconds it can accelerate to 100 km/h and to develop more than 350 km/h.
Зарождение и развитие марки FerrariA car Ferrari Enzo in black
The design was engaged in the famous car Studio Pininfarina. The machine combines the characteristics of cars “Formula 1” — it has a sleek body, narrow cabin, and the doors open up. Basic management functions, including shifting, concentrated on the steering wheel. The car is equipped with a six-speed automatic transmission. For three years were produced 399 cars of this model — the company sold only the best known to customers upon request. The car price was not less than 500 thousand euros, due to where to buy such a car not everyone can.
Ferrari is not just a car brand, and an iconic brand. To buy such a car, it is not enough to have a lot of money. You also need to have a corresponding position in society.
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Every company in the automotive market has a long history, and not all famous and largest to date, the company has started its long way with production of the first car. One such company is giant modern, cars which are popular worldwide — Mitsubishi. The history of the Mitsubishi impresses what heights can reach the people only through desire and persistence.
Mitsubishi — мировой гигант автомобилестроенияPredatory look of Mitsubishi vehicles

The content

  • Origins
  • Hard times
  • The long-awaited revival


The founder of the Japanese company Mitsubishi is considered Yataro Iwasaki, who was born in 1835 in the family of descendants of the samurai. From a young age went to work for a shipping company. 35 leased three of the ship and opened his own company called Tsukumo Shokai. In 1975 he renamed it Mitsubishi Mail Steamship Company. During the Second world war, he was engaged in shipbuilding, metallurgy, real estate, etc.
As the emblem of their group Yataro Iwasaki chose the three of diamonds, which served as the Foundation of the coat of arms of samurai of Tosa clan, clan, whom he owed his success. These diamonds he placed respectively the form of an oak leaf. Diamonds in the emblem came to symbolize diamonds.
Video on the history of the development of the car Mitsubishi Eclipse:

The word Mitsubishi means “three diamonds” that reflect the three principles of the company Yataro Iwasaki, social responsibility, honesty and willingness to cooperate with foreign companies.
After the war, Mitsubishi still continued to supply the Japanese army ships and aircraft. Here was created as a peaceful and a military transport.
The government of Japan in the early twentieth century saw the development of a personal vehicle is impractical. Cars for personal use were collected manually, and they cost a lot of money. It was a very laborious and time-consuming processes. Despite this situation, Yataro in 1917, managed to implement a first conveyor for the production of cars model Mitsubishi Model A. unfortunately, in 1921, the production was forced to close, as the demand for these cars was almost absent. The last time it was presented in 1922 at the industrial exhibition in Japan, where the car would be appreciated.
Mitsubishi — мировой гигант автомобилестроенияFirst auto group Mitsubishi
Personal vehicles the Japanese did not buy, but they were interested in the trucks and buses. Taking this fact into consideration, in 1918, the company Mitsubishi has released the first truck T1, which passed all necessary tests for strength and reliability. Its creation was supported by the Japanese government. Later on the group started to produce heavy-duty machine that allows you to effectively solve any military problem. These cars helped in the reconstruction of Tokyo after the terrible devastating earthquake.
The thirties of the XX century became the decade of new industrial developments and inventions for the company Yataro. In 1931, Mitsubishi has released the first Japanese car with a diesel engine capacity of 70 HP In the following year they started to mass-produce the first bus companies — Mitsubishi V, which has become popular even among people in China. In 1934 was launched the production of buses BD46 and BD43, 1936 — TD45 truck with a diesel engine, and in 1937 four-wheel drive trucks 4WD.
Mitsubishi — мировой гигант автомобилестроенияPhoto of Mitsubishi Galant

Hard times

Before the Second world war by the Mitsubishi group owned exclusively by the family Yataro Iwasaki. Because of the apparent destruction, which threatened Japan, at that time the President of the company, Koyata Iwasaki sold half of the shares to investors to maintain control over the enterprise in the case of occupation. The victorious was unprofitable the development of the military industry in Japan, therefore all the large companies were divided into small enterprises. The history of Mitsubishi is now in the history of the 44 independent companies.
In 50-ies based on them formed three automotive company. Unfortunately, none of them could use the name and logo of the former major group Mitsubishi. Despite this, there during the occupation of Japan began producing small three-wheeled trucks, scooters, buses B1, trolleybuses MV and rear-engined buses R1.
Mitsubishi — мировой гигант автомобилестроенияBus Mitsubishi

The long-awaited revival

After the end of occupation in 1952, the company was again able to unite. As a result of the merger the company was formed by Mitsubishi Corporation. Of course, many small businesses did not want to be part of the big corporations and return to its old control. However, this did not prevent Mitsubishi to develop further and to conquer new heights in the automotive industry. The novelty of the 50s was the introduction of various innovative parts in the production of trucks: air suspension, new chassis and tiltable cabin. In addition, in 1959 the company launched a new truck with the engine in the back and launched into production a new three-wheeled truck Leo.
At the same time the Mitsubishi cars began to appear on the automotive markets in other countries. For example, Thailand has exported buses B25, and Chile — R32.
Finally, in the 60’s, the Japanese began to take an interest in personal transport. In this regard, in 1960 the company Mitsubishi started producing inexpensive sedan Mitsubishi 500. This car has become the popular model of large automobile companies, but also participated, and, moreover, won the Macau Grand Prix, where he announced himself as the good “athlete”.
Mitsubishi — мировой гигант автомобилестроенияThe Mitsubishi 500
Behind him in 1962, followed by model — Minica and Colt 600. The latter treated the compact four-seater cars. The designers have equipped it with a two-stroke engine working volume of which amounted to 359 cm3. Small volume engine has guaranteed the payment of a small tax and high fuel economy, which indicated the efficiency of this model. Colt 600 represented the family of a comfortable and large family cars.
Then everything went as in the rut. Mitsubishi cars made themselves known within motor sport, and were popular among the common people. By the early 70’s Mitsubishi has become one of the world leaders in the sale of high-quality road transport wide range.
Individual designers achieving a successful Corporation has been the development of environmental engine series, Mitsubishi Clean Air. This is not only a breakthrough in science. The significance of another development specialists Mitsubishi “silent shaft” — noted Japanese automotive technology Association.
In 80-e years the Japanese company has actively expanded its activities in the global space. As a result of work in this direction in Australia founded the company Mitsubishi Motors Australia. In addition, many models of this brand have been honored with various awards and prizes global automotive community. Still did not graze the rear and the sports model of Mitsubishi Pajero not once became the winner of the rally Paris — Dakar.
Mitsubishi — мировой гигант автомобилестроенияMitsubishi Pajero
In 2000, after signing a strategic Alliance with DaimlerChrysler, Mitsubishi is among the three leading companies in the automotive world. In the same year entered the market many innovations, and the number released in the Netherlands car factory NedCar has exceeded one million.
Currently Mitsubishi produces a huge number of different types and models of motor transport. In its range are as small compact cars to large trucks. There is also specialized machinery.

Rogozhsky Val is famous worldwide. His fame he received because of a great opportunity to plunge into the historical past. Freshness long forgotten memories attached, located here is a magnificent Museum of retro cars in Moscow. Good location in the Central part of the Russian capital and a broad accessibility attract many tourists from different countries.
Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимThe antique automobile club of America Museum in Rogozhsky
The room itself is in the past served as a depot, a significant inner area, within which is located the largest exhibition of cars retrocesso.
The ticket price is quite affordable and is just $ 100.

The Museum exposition is divided into several sectors and exhibited in separate rooms:

  • The cars purpose.
  • The retro cars of the USSR.
  • Diverse cars that are not tied to a particular class.
  • Machine that has a specialized purpose.
  • The content

    • Hall №1
    • Hall № 2
    • Hall №3
    • Hall №4
    • And some more words about retromusic capital
    • Autoville

    Hall №1

    In the first room you can see the richest cars from the most renowned global players in the automotive industry.
    The brightest exhibits: Packard 120, Packard 180, Packard Clipper, Racing Liphart-1, Cadillak 75 Fleetwood, Lincoln KB, V8 Ford, Ford Deluxe, Janus Zundapp, DKW F8 Car, Hudson Eight, Horch 830, Mercedes Benz 320, Ford A, Ford T.
    Packard 120 — car, which first became known in 1935. Relatively cheap the car was released due to the lack of demand for the more expensive counterparts of this automaker. Due to this serial to the representative, the company survived the great depression. The main disadvantage is the mismatch between the demands for cars of premium class.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимThe appearance of the Packard 120
    Packard 180 — expensive car, which became the first holder of the electric Windows.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимPhotos of the car Packard 180
    Racing Liphart-1 — graduate of plant GAS. One of the first cars of the USSR, referring to racing class. First CH-1 presented to the audience at the event in the capital of Ukraine in 1938. In 1940, after the restyling Racing Liphart-1 established the all-Union speed record, which amounted to 161,87 km/h.
    Today the real representative of this model does not exist, so the antique auto Museum exhibited variant, collected in the photographic and drawing materials of Alexander Bushueva.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимOn photo Racing Liphart-1
    The Ford V8 was the first eight-cylinder cars of the Ford company. Sales of this model exceeded 900 thousand units. Ford V8 big car helps the company to keep the leading position in the global market.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимPhotos of the car Ford V8
    Zundapp Janus is a graduate of the motorcycle company Zundapp. First became known in 1957. Budget subcompact vehicle. The car had two doors that opened “up”, and not “sideways”. Rear seat passengers are located against the progress of the car, which is very inconvenient. The number of copies produced is 6800 units.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимIn the photo Zundapp Janus
    Ford T — enjoyed extraordinary and well-deserved popularity among motorists of the twentieth century. Most Americans went on this car. The Ford goes on a conveyor production of cars. The Ford T has a four-cylinder powerplant (working volume — 2.9 l) and two-stage gearbox. The model can be purchased for only $ 350. The number of copies produced — 15 million
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимOne of the first production cars in America — Ford T

    Hall № 2

    In the second room are exhibited the most famous retro cars USSR, Moskvitch 2137, 412-028 IZH, ZAZ-968, GAZ 24-95, ZIS-101, ZIS-110, ZIL-114, ZIL-41052, ZIL-41072 Scorpion, GAZ-12 ZIM, GAZ-13 Chaika, GAZ-14 Chaika, Moskvich-400, Moskvich-401, GAZ 3111, GAZ-21, GAZ M-20 Victory, GAZ AND VAZ-2101, Moskvich-2143 Yauza, Moskvich-3733, Moskvich-2150, Moskvich-410, Moskvich-407 and Moskvich 2142Z7 Kalita Moskvich Svyatogor 2141-02.
    The ZIS-101 was released in 1936. The first car of a representation class in the USSR. The weight of a limousine over two tons. Distinguishing feature — a heated cabin and the presence of the thermostat in the cooling system of the power unit.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимThe pride of the Soviet automobile industry — ZIS-101
    ZIS-110B — known participant in many parades, dedicated on November 7.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимThe picture of the car ZIS-110B
    ZIL-114 is a car that was used exclusively for the carriage of persons of high political ranks.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимSoviet limousine ZIL-114
    ZIL-41072 Scorpion — car that performs accompanying functions. Has a special layout that facilitates monitoring and allows, if necessary, to carry out an attack.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимThe car of the Soviet secret police — ZIL 41072 Scorpion
    GAZ-13 Chaika — an Executive car segment. Outstanding vehicle since the Soviet Union.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимA favorite of Communist party GAZ-13 Chaika
    GAZ-21 is a priority of all Soviet people.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущим“Taxi to Dubrovka” — GAZ-21

    Hall №3

    In the third segment of retromania you can find the car and motorcycles for different purposes, brought from different corners of the Earth. Among them: Mercedes Benz S-500 Pulman, motorcycle BMW-K75RT, Chevrolet Corvette C-2, and many others.
    Chevrolet Corvette C-2 — “American”, which has religious significance for US. The car is completely personalized, both internal and external equipment.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимA real “American” — Chevrolet Corvette C-2
    Ford Crown Victoria was used primarily for the carriage of law enforcement officers.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимFord Crown Victoria — car real American cops
    Volkswagen Transporter T1 — the dream of many fans of metropolitical Conveyor. The years from 1950 to 1967.
    Столичный музей ретроавтомобилей — невидимая нить между прошлым и будущимCar Volkswagen Transporter T1

    Hall №4

    In the last room of assembled vehicles specially designed for use in various industries. It is an agricultural trucks, tractors, military vehicles, official cars (police, ambulance).
    Moscow retro auto Museum in Rogozhsky Val is considered one of the most powerful in all of Europe. The bar draws a huge number of admirers of antiquity.

    And some more words about retromusic capital

    Video review of the retro auto Museum in Moscow:

    In addition to the above the Museum of vintage cars in Moscow opened a number of similar institutions:

  • The Museum of crews and cars “Autoreview”;
  • “Lomakov Museum of retraumatization and vehicles”;
  • “The Polytechnic Museum”;
  • “Engines of war”;
  • Autoville.
  • Autoville

    The Museum deserves special attention, as its exposition consists of very rare car models that are provided by rich private collectors. Autoville was opened in 2008 with the direct support of Yury Luzhkov. The basis of all of the exhibits are original parts. Here you can find transport “highlights” from different countries, many of which are absolutely unique.
    The museums of vintage cars helps modern people to experience the atmosphere of antiquity and to see the achievement of enormous technological progress.

    The legendary brand began his road to fame 50 years ago. Then its Creator Ferruccio Lamborghini was the owner of the company, which was engaged in the production of agricultural machinery (mainly tractors). Company logo is a Golden bull. Despite the profitability of the company, Ferruccio wanted a different. He really wanted to create the world’s best sports cars, because none of the cars seen were not satisfied with it for its quality and technical characteristics. At the time this dream seemed surrounding wild and unenforceable, because the “Queen” of sports cars was Ferrari company. With this began the history of Lamborghini.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниThe emblem of the brand Lamborghini
    Ferruccio was very ambitious and was determined at all costs to realize his dream into reality. He established a subsidiary company Automobili Ferrucio and began to create his first car. Lamborghini was quite strong in the area of designing cars, but it was not enough to create the perfect supercar. The company has the necessary knowledge of the best professionals. The destiny has disposed so, that at the time, Enzo Ferrari left several employees who could not withstand the heavy nature of the designer. Enterprising Ferruccio not confused and lured engineers to itself. They began development of the first creations of the company.

    The content

    • The first car
    • 1965-1980
    • Islero 400 GT, Espada
    • Uraco P250, Jarama 400 GT
    • Lamborghini Countach
    • The period of crisis
    • Revival

    The first car

    1963 was memorable for the Turin motor show. There the public was shown a test sample of the first cars Lamborghini — 350 GTV. The car was equipped with a 347-horsepower engine V-12 displacement of 3.5 liters. It was a fabulous 2-seater coupe. 350 GTV could reach speeds of 280 km/h in Just 6.7 seconds, it accelerated to 100 km/h.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini 350 GTV
    Lamborghini cars were decorated with the same emblem with the bull and the tractors. By the way, most of the models Ferruccio had names that had a particular relevance to the bullfight. After the Geneva auto show Lamborghini 350 GT is put into production. Over the next 4 years with the conveyor out of 120 cars. Six months later and debuted the production version of the car. In the period of 1964-1968 has also produced 120 units.


    Later a new model — 400 GT. This car has engine capacity was 4 liters, and power — 320 HP She can move at speeds up to 250 km/h. In 1965 appeared the Lamborghini Miura. This car could become more popular than the works of Ferrari. Racing machine was created by Giampaolo Dallara, Paolo Stanzani, Bob Walesa. Engineers have developed a model without the knowledge of Ferruccio because he was an opponent of racing car production (due to the fact that he was defeated in the competition). However, when the employees gave him the project of a new car, he was caught and allowed to put drawings into reality.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini 400 GT
    Lamborghini models were the first cars where the engine was located transversely on the frame. Thanks to the efforts of designers Miura received the original form and the admiration of lovers of super car. In 1967-1973 produced more than 800 units of this model, and the company “Lamborghini” has become famous all over the world.

    Islero 400 GT, Espada

    1968 saw the release of two new vehicles (the model Islero, Espada). The latter became one of the most popular over the entire period of the existence of a Lamborghini. She was a quadruple first car and was marketed as “family”. For 10 years, sold about 1,000 copies of the car.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini Islero

    Uraco P250, Jarama 400 GT

    A little later a car of small dimensions — Uraco P250. He had a 8-cylinder motor, which was in the center (capacity — 2.5 liters). For nine years the company has produced 791 unit. In 1970 came another novelty — Jarama 400 GT. She had engine V-12 with a volume of 4 L.

    Lamborghini Countach

    1980 Lamborghini presents a revolutionary concept car. His appearance produced an effect of an exploded bomb. The car, which was called the Countach, was equipped with engine of 365 HP (4 l). He was able to reach the speed of three hundred km/h. Also, the machine had vertically-opening doors and rear air collectors. For 1974 to 1990, the group has released more than 2 thousand copies of this model.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini Countach 1980

    The period of crisis

    In 1972, a thriving group experienced a serious crisis. Then the deal fell through on the delivery of a large batch of tractors. Due to lack of funds Lamborghini had to sell some of their stock tractor manufacturing company Fiat. In the end, this part of the Corporation became the property of Same Deutz-Fahr.
    Due to successful sales models are the Countach, Lamborghini was kept afloat during the seventies. Later, however, Ferruccio had yet to sell his shares to Swiss investors via a court decision, because in 1978 it declared the company bankrupt. Those, in turn, sold it to Chrysler Corporation.
    After that, work began on the creation of the Lamborghini Diablo. This model was able to restore the company to a global market. In 1993 die Ferruccio Lamborghini. A year later, the company becomes the property of Megatech, due to financial difficulties at Chrysler. For the same reason Lamborghini Audi AG buys in 4 years.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini Diablo 1990


    The nineties were marked by the success of the company “Lamborghini”. The owner of “Audi” was able to bring it to a new level. He significantly influenced the design of supercars. Thanks to great technical features Audi has become possible to create one of the most exquisite sports cars — a Lamborghini Murcielago.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini Murcielago
    The design of this car was designed by Belgian Luc Donckerwolke. For the first time, these were not Italian. Murcielago got a round form, which has led fans of the brand in sincere admiration. A new car, in comparison with the previous model, became more comfortable and got quite a spacious cabin. The engine had 12 cylinders and a volume of 6.2 L. the Car was able to accelerate to 330 km/h.
    After this model appeared a tiny Lamborghini Gallardo, which has pleased a good combination of compact size and excellent technical capabilities. In 2003 came the model L140, who won worldwide popularity.
    Через тернии к звёздам: как создавался автомобильный бренд ЛамборгиниLamborghini Gallardo
    Today the cars of this brand are considered extremely powerful. They are very expensive and exclusive. In addition, the masterpieces of Lamborghini are distinguished by their unique technical innovations — the body of carbon fiber, high-tech engines, etc. the Development of the original design of supercars was involved in a renowned expert (Marcello Gandini, Franco Scaglione, Burton). Now in the town of Sant’agata-Bolognese work is underway to create the new super supercar Diablo II (not to be confused with the game), which will be equipped with a “guillotine doors” and a body of ultra-modern materials.
    Video about the history of the brand Lamborghini:

    Please leave your comment about the article!

    This brand of vehicles has become an Italian legend, a symbol of luxury and wealth. Your name brand owes to the creators — brothers Maserati. The brothers only had six: Bindo, Alfieri, Mario, Ernesto, Carlo and Ettore.
    The content

    • 1881-1900
    • 1901-1914
    • 1914-1937
    • 1937-1967
    • 1968-1992
    • From 1993 to the present day


    All the brothers, with the exception of Mario, were devoted worshipers of technology, one way or another were related to the design of cars. However, Mario who was an artist, too, left their mark in the development of the brand. He is the author of the well-known logo-a Trident. According to the official version, the Trident was borrowed from the statue of the sea God Neptune, which to this day takes pride of place on one of the squares of the native city by the brothers. There is also a second, secret legend that the Trident is the symbol of the three brothers, later founded the company: Ernesto, Alfieri and Ettore (Bingo stuck to him only in 1932, after the death of Alfieri). Perhaps this is true, but the version did not cause much confidence.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейThe emblem of the brand Maserati
    The first one was fond of technology, was the elder brother Carlo. At the time he worked at a Bicycle factory near Milan and began to develop the engines. He became a developer of a single-cylinder engine that has been used successfully in the production of motorbikes Marquis Carcano di Anzano del Parco.
    Passion Carlo technique and racing served as the main factors that allowed it to become the motorcycle production Carcano winner of several series of racing. Carlo in 1900 was even able to set a record speed 50 km/h with the engine which he personally designed.


    In 1901 the firm was closed Carcano, in connection with which Carlo went to work in Fiat, 1903 in Isotta Fraschini, combining a mechanic and test-built cars.
    The reputation of Carlo rendered good service to his younger brother Alfieri, who also took the service at Isotta Fraschini, closing his eyes to his 16-year-old age.
    At the age of 29 due to serious illness Carlo dies. By the time he’s already made a rapid career: he was the CEO of the Junior company and created with his brother Ettore workshop, which engaged in the production of automotive transformers.
    A sense of moral debt to Carlo contributed to the fact that Alfieri dedicated and rapidly demonstrated his leadership skills and became not only a successful technician, but also a racer. Race cars-midget cars held in the city Depp, Alfieri, despite a malfunction discovered in the carburetor of his car, was able to reach the finish line 17th. At the same time the service at Isotta Fraschini came Ettore and Bindo Maserati.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейModern factory Maserati
    In 1914, Alfieri creates JSC under the name of Officine Alfieri Maserati rented in the Central part of the Bologna office.


    The company Diatto made an offer Alfieri. He is going to design sports cars and directly involved them in racing tournaments. There was a period, when Alfieri was disqualified because of detected violations in the technical equipment of the sports car. At this time he was closely involved with designing cars for racing.
    In 1926, Alfieri left Diatto and designed his first car model Tipo 26, which was housed Trident — the future of the company logo. The generally accepted date of birth, which counts the history of Maserati, accepted 25 April 1926. On this day in competitions Targa Florio car Alfieri came first.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейThe Maserati Tipo 26
    In 1929, Maserati has developed a model V4 with 16 cylinders, which was the record holder on the 10-mile route in a class C — 246,069 km/h.
    Alfieri died in March 1932. The latest models developed under his leadership, became the 8C 2500 and the 4CTR.
    His successors were the brothers Ernesto, Ettore and Bindo. In 1933 a member of their team was Tazio Nuvolari. He introduced improvements of a technical nature in the machine and won the Grand Prix held in Montenegro, Belgium and nice.
    In 1936, major financial investments in the company made Gino Rovere, and the Board was chaired by a representative of Nino Farina. In his leadership published runabout 6CM.


    1937 was a turning point in the history of the brand. Then the brothers made the difficult decision to sell his creation to the Orsi family. Head office moved to Modena, where he works to this day. Brothers still remained in his hometown and continued to work in the Maserati until 1948.
    During the Second world war the company concentrated on military industry. After the war ended, it resumed car production, the first of which became the A6 1500 belonging to the class of models of the GranTurismo. He became a participant and dangerous rival for the Ferrari, Alfetta and Talbot.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейMaserati A6 1500
    Increasing competition coming from Ferrari and Alfa Romeo, made for the company are quite heavy 50. In 1953, the chief engineer came Gioacchino Colombo, who became the author of the model A6GCM — the winner of the Grand Prix of Italy.
    The 50s brought the honorary titles and models of the Maserati 250F. In 1958 was initiated by the release of the 3500 GT.
    In 1962 he was presented the first four-door model Sebring, and next year — a four-door version of the car from the models Quattroporte with V8 engine installed and working volume 4136 CC


    1968 was a year of immense change for the company. Promotion of the brand has become Citroen (France), although Adolfo Orsi remained in the office of honorary President.
    At the Geneva motor show in 1971 was presented to the model, equipped with a motor Bora, which had a Central location. Its Creator was given. Production was expanded to include new models Khamsin and Merak.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейMaserati Khamsin
    In 1973 Citroen claims the elimination of Maserati. The reason for this was the oil crisis, the first of which was a fiasco sports cars, requiring great fuel costs. Then history intervened, the Italian government, being under the influence of the Association of entrepreneurs, driven by the goal to preserve jobs for people. During these events, Maserati became the property of the state Agency GEPI.
    8 August 1975 by the owner of the greater part of the shares of the Maserati was the Benelli, and the General Director was Alessandro de Tomaso, the former racer. He made a lot of efforts to rebuild the company and create with the assistance of Giugiaro new model Kyalami.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейMaserati Kyalami
    In the 80s there were developments related to Biturbo engines, and therefore it saw the light of a number of models Biturbo, equipped with motors of this type. The model was kept in production until the end of the twentieth century.

    From 1993 to the present day

    In 1993 the owner of all shares of Maserati was Fiat Auto. Just a year later came the model of the Quattroporte, which became the first car under the new owner. Its Creator Marcello Gandini adhered to the main traditions of the brand: refined taste together with exceptional data.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейMaserati Quattroporte 1994
    On 1 July, 1997 Fiat sold part of the company (50% stake) eternal rival Ferrari. Then it was made a complete refitting of facilities with modern equipment to produce the new model the 3200 GT, the presentation of which took place at the Paris motor show.
    The last decade of the twentieth century was a period of positive change for Maserati. At this time, continued restructuring and expansion of production capacity, followed by installation of the latest technology. The boundaries were extended to the presence of Maserati in the automobile markets of the world, released new models of cars, won a new tournament.
    Maserati: от создания до наших днейMaserati Quattroporte 2014
    Model Quattroporte, the debut of which was held in Frankfurt in 2003, has won the favor of consumers and has become the leader in its sector.
    Video about the history of the brand Maserati:

    In 2005, Maserati has managed to become a record holder in the field of car sales — 5659 pieces. This amount is 10 times the number in 1998, when it sold a total of 518 cars.
    2005 was the year of the return of Maserati to Fiat, which also had a positive impact on the company’s success — Maserati finally started to bring some profit over the years.

    Just last year the company Daimler AG announced the termination of production of such a famous car brand, Maybach (Maybach). They argue that the second time the world will say goodbye to her forever. The reason for stopping production, according to experts, is the high cost of these cars and the inability to compete with Bentley and Rolls-Royce in its segment. The history of Maybach is history of sunrise and sunset one of the most legendary and luxury car brands in the world!
    Тяжёлая судьба легендарной марки автомобилей Майбах
    The content

    • About the Creator
    • The pre-war period
    • The post-war period and the present time

    About the Creator

    The world famous Maybach was named after its first designer Wilhelm Maybach. However, he immediately began its development.
    First, there was the Mercedes. In 1900, Maybach had offered to construct the first car of this brand. After its success in 1904 the famous designer, creates the world’s first six-cylinder engine, capacity of this unit is 120 HP
    At the time Maybach was working on the Gottlieb-Daimler — man, after which, in fact, was named Daimler AG, which subsequently began to produce Maybach.
    After creating their new engine with Wilhelm’s son Karl in 1909, decides to open his own company to produce automobile engines. However, the company still was only a division of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, as mainly produced engines for their famous airships.
    Тяжёлая судьба легендарной марки автомобилей МайбахFor photos of Maybach DS 7
    Independence Maybach Motorenbau GmbH was acquired in 1918, after which, three years later he produced his own car. Even then, the main stake of the developer was bet on reliability and luxury.

    The pre-war period

    So, full Maybach history starts in 1921. This year Wilhelm Maybach developed and produced its first car model W-3. She was equipped with six-cylinder engine, the volume of which was 5.7 l This car was the first with brakes on all wheels, which in Germany began with the mass production. It was followed by the model W-5, which was published in 1926. The volume of its engine was a 7.0 l so it could reach the speed of 121 km/h.
    All were caught off guard in the spring of 1929, when Wilhelm Maybach died of a sudden struck of illness. His father began to pursue his son Karl Maybach.
    After a while he decided to replace the six-cylinder engine to V12, which was characterized by the volume — 6922 cm3. It was first established on the model DS-7.
    Video test drive of the car Maybach:

    The most luxurious car of the Germans in the 30-ies was a new Zeppelin. At that time did not exist two identical machines of this model, they are all produced under the order and design fully into account the individual needs of his client. The model is characterized by eight litre V12 engine and 5-speed gearbox, which in 1938 was successfully replaced by a 7-speed. This car began in 1931, and production amounted to 183 cars.
    More economical DSH model was produced from 1930 to 1937. Some of these machines were equipped with an aerodynamic body. In addition, all 34 released machine was powered by the engine of 5.2 liter capacity 130 HP
    For the pre-war period the company produced 1,800 cars, which differed excellent processing equipment and luxurious exterior and interior. Also under the brand Maybach every year were made on several machines for various exhibitions. All of them were very expensive and each had its own peculiarity. Today in the world with pre-war times there were 152 car Maybach.
    Тяжёлая судьба легендарной марки автомобилей Майбах

    The post-war period and the present time

    The history of Maybach in the war was uncertain and unattractive. Since 1941, the company began to produce engines exclusively for tanks. According to historians, during the Second world war it was produced about 140 thousand pieces.
    After a devastating war and the surrender of Germany Karl Maybach works in French captivity. Here he is engaged in the development of engines for aviation. In 50-ies he returned to the enterprise and begins to produce a variety of marine, stationary and railway motors.
    In 1961, the brand passed into the hands of Daimler Benz, which in the 90-ies was intended to restore to the world a forgotten brand of car Maybach: this is the second time the birth of the legendary machines.
    Тяжёлая судьба легендарной марки автомобилей Майбах
    The new model of this brand, Mercedes-Benz demonstrated to the world in 1997 at one of the shows. The main idea of this car was inherited by the production model 2002. Rightfully the most luxurious car in the world was considered a Mercedes-Benz Maybach. He currently represents the latest achievements in the management, automotive technology and aesthetics. This model car is not accidental has a double name. Console Maybach is a tribute to the great designer Wilhelm Maybach — the great man who became the founder of the legendary Maybach limousine (the most comfortable and elegant car Germany in the prewar period).
    Currently there are two models of this machine — the standard Maybach 57, which reaches a length of 5.72 m, and the stretched Maybach 62, the length of which is 6,16. These models are equipped with engines Maybach Type 12, the capacity of which is 550 HP They are controlled by a microcomputer and is made of light alloys of aluminum and magnesium. Engine capacity is 5.5 l, torque of 900 N·m.
    Maybach — the luxury car at all 200%. It is equipped with all currently existing for new electronics and technology. He has a great elegant shapes that attract the eye of passers-by. Luxury appearance, comfortable and expensive salon make its owner lucky in this. Designers try to keep the brand, Wilhelm Maybach, and from each new model trying to create the most magnificent and expensive car of a representation class.
    Тяжёлая судьба легендарной марки автомобилей МайбахModern design Maybach Exelero
    The Maybach car is at the same time elegance, style, exclusivity, personality and comfort. These cars have until recently been produced in factories in Germany and the USA. The order for manufacturing of car brand Maybach take in special centers that are spread around the world.
    If you happen problems with your car, there are only 50 of service centers, staffed exclusively by professionals. They will help to solve all your problems with the machine, will perform high-quality repairs and maintenance. The manufacturers of these cars give the owner a guarantee for four years of free maintenance and repair.
    Of course, Maybach, the model may take, has always been a high cost, but this money is worth paying for. From the factory you can buy the model priced from 310 to 360 thousand Euro.
    The video shows the Museum of the automobile brand Maybach:

    Anyway, and first of all I want to say that this car is not for everyone. It can not acquire a mere mortal. Maybach is an exclusive! It is a pity that the demand for it cannot compete with other Executive cars. Maybe someday this brand of car again will be reborn. I think that all fans of this legendary, luxurious, and expensive brand will wait that day with impatience.

    The content

    • Interesting and important dates from the world of cars
    • 1355 the year — self-propelled trolley Guido da Vigevano
    • The year 1712 was the first engine invented by Thomas Newcomen
    • The year 1765 is the first engine under pressure
    • 1769 — the invention of a Frenchman, Kunio
    • 1828 — the first electric car
    • 1862 — the first four-stroke engine
    • 1888 — creation of the company Karl Benz
    • 1896 — Russian car
    • 1899 associated with the emergence of taxis and the world’s first traffic violation
    • 1908 — the year of creation of the car of the century
    • Other significant dates and facts from the world of cars

    Interesting and important dates from the world of cars

    But did you know that the world’s first self-propelled trolley appeared in 1355? Or what the maximum speed of the first car in the world was equal to 3.2 km/h? Don’t believe? Learn a lot, scrolling through the most interesting dates from the world of motoring. It turns out that the history of the car is rooted in ancient times and even then ingenious human thought was directed to the creation of something like the modern car.
    The 10 most important dates of automotive history includes such events as the invention of the first automobile and of the engine, the first electric car and taxi, etc.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe history of the automotive industry has a rich past

    1355 the year — self-propelled trolley Guido da Vigevano

    So, in the XIV century, Guido da Vigevano has installed a windmill on a self-propelled cart, which he invented. The energy generated by the windmill was transferred to the wheels of the truck and Bravo… it was moving!
    Of course, such motor vehicle cannot be called a complete car, capable of transporting people or goods, but then they really were. The Italian really came up with something incredible for the time, being able to transfer energy through wind mill wheel self-propelled.
    Video on the world’s first car:

    Maybe that is what prompted further of the great Leonardo da Vinci to develop a device with a drive on a tricycle. It has found the real steering and a differential mechanism between the rear wheels.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe first vehicle is self-propelled trolley Guido da Vigevano

    The year 1712 was the first engine invented by Thomas Newcomen

    The world’s first engine was invented in 1712, 40 years after Jesuit missionary from Flanders in China invented the first steam machine, driving a small car. It is called toy machine Emperor Qin, but the fact remains.
    But this engine was invented by English inventor Thomas Newcomen. It consisted of the present cylinder and piston. Used engine Thomas Newcomen on steam machine, which pumped water in the mines. Further, such engines became widespread and is still applied, but under a different name — the pumps.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThomas Newcomen invented the world’s first engine

    The year 1765 is the first engine under pressure

    If humanity only knew about steam engines on the basis of vacuum, James watt invented a more advanced model. He modernized newcomen created by the engine, making it more effective. Designed by James watt engine was endowed with a real heat exchanger. It was, in fact, the second cylinder, which is connected with the first. One of the cylinders was always hot, which greatly economized the amount of fuel consumed. In other words, he created the world’s first economical engine.
    James watt was indeed a man of genius, and in his honor named the unit of power is watt. This famous inventor written a lot and his steam engine even study in high school.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe invention of the engine under pressure is a very important stage in the history

    1769 — the invention of a Frenchman, Kunio

    It’s the year of 1769. Has been tested the world’s first car with a steam engine. Known more as a small cart of Cuneo, she exhibited now in the Museum of Paris. Later in 1770 was invented and put into operation a large cart of Cuneo.
    The invention of the Frenchman was used as a military technique. Because of these self-propelled carts could easily move artillery and military supplies.
    Dolly Cuneo is the ancestor of all modern cars.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияCart by French engineer Nicolas-Joseph cugno

    1828 — the first electric car

    The world’s first electric car appeared in 1828. It was a self-made invention, but so brilliant that in the next thirty years, people were only passionate about its creation and improvement.
    Created the first electric car of Agnos Yedlik — Hungarian physicist. His car was a four-wheeled truck running on electricity.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe first electric truck

    1862 — the first four-stroke engine

    We can call this significant date. Alphonse Beau de Rochas figured out how to compress gas in the cylinder of the engine, where he must burn. This process called the Otto cycle and four stroke cycle engine, which has remained unchanged until now.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe scheme of four-stroke engine

    1888 — creation of the company Karl Benz

    In 1887 the first owner of the rights in the world automobile was Karl Benz, which became a year later the founder of the world’s first automobile company.
    Karl Benz is a famous German engineer and great inventor. The progenitor of Mercedes-Benz, this ingenious engineer did much to improve the cars.
    The world’s first automobile company he created, was called the Motorwagen.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe great German inventor Karl Benz

    1896 — Russian car

    You know, when it created the world’s first Russian car? In 1896 the company “Frese and Co.” together with Yakovlev presented at the Nizhny Novgorod exhibition car.
    The Yakovlev factory produced engine of this car and its transmission, and the body and wheels were invented by the factory mill. The car was so good that on it is written in known time “Magazine with the latest discoveries and inventions,” noting that was seen a number of significant changes to the design of chassis and powertrain.
    The first Russian vehicle to move one gas station about ten o’clock. As a radiator served by two brass tanks, which were installed along the sides. As for the carb, they become a simple device evaporative type. Gearbox, which has received so much praise, was similar to “binczewski”, but the leather straps were replaced by more reliable. Gears were only two: the neutral and first gear, allowing the car to move forward. And brakes, no matter how amazing it will be to hear today, was first acted on the drive shaft of the box, and the other an analogue manual, pressed the rubber sticks to the rear wheels.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияFirst Russian car Yakovlev and Frese
    As for the wheels, they were made of wood with worn rubber on them tires and the car itself looked more like a buggy.
    1896 is generally considered the most significant. It was then that were made and thirteen Duryeas of cars of the company, thereby giving rise to the creation of the world’s first production cars.

    1899 associated with the emergence of taxis and the world’s first traffic violation

    The world’s first taxi appeared in this year. It was intended to carry passengers in new York.
    To be honest, the taxi story starts even earlier. In the eighteenth century, an enterprising Frenchman guessed to found the Inn of crews, true horse, which became the world’s first public wage.
    After cars were invented, and originated the so-called movement of motor cabs.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияOne of the world’s first taxi
    Interesting, but after the appearance of the world’s first automotive taxi people didn’t know at what rate to pay our drivers. And this led to the invention of the world’s first counter-taximeter in 1905. And the world’s first vehicles, adapted to taxi service with meters, steel car company Renault.
    In addition, this date also marks the world’s first violations of traffic rules. It was at this time there has been a breach when the person on the car was speeding in 100 km/h.

    1908 — the year of creation of the car of the century

    Yes, that’s right. The car of the century — so named released in 1908 Ford T.
    The Ford model T better known as “Tin Lizzie”. This car was produced in millions and the series was very popular. Henry Ford literally put all America on wheels, has invented a car is easy and relatively affordable for the masses. In particular, this was achieved through the use of the conveyor, buried after that hand Assembly. In addition, the simplified design of the car will significantly reduce the cost.
    Despite the above innovations, the model T Ford technical characteristics, equipment and service to most cars of that time not inferior to, but surpassed. The size and engine capacity of the Ford tune with the models of some cars of the middle class. It was something!
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe famous Ford T

    Other significant dates and facts from the world of cars

    Spouse of Karl Benz, Bertha Benz, overcame 12 hours 98 miles on the car created by a great inventor. It is considered that this distance is the world’s first road trip.
    First your car the great Henry Ford sold it for $ 200, but after five years became a billionaire.
    Важнейшие события автомобилестроенияThe great American industrialist and inventor Henry Ford
    In 1878, the winner of the car races relied a fabulous sum for that time — 10 000 American dollars.
    In the nineteenth century, the average rate at which the car was moving, it was believed the target of 10 km/h.
    In 1901 all car owners in new York were obliged to register their data and a description of your vehicle. For the procedure the owner had to pay one dollar.
    About half of all collected cars in the world in 1900, found its customers in France.
    Video about car Austin 7:

    In 1905 in the U.S. the car was released with an engine displacement of 12 liters.
    About half of the sales of the famous automobile concern General motors has made electric cars.
    Finally, the year 1922 marked the creation of the most copied car in the world. The machine was called the Austin 7.
    Learn all about these remarkable events and dates that are not only more informed, but also begin to understand how powerful and brilliant creative thinking of man. You know how mankind was able to step so far ahead in terms of technical progress over the past two centuries.

    The beginning of the twentieth century in Britain was marked by the appearance of the most expensive, luxurious and unique cars. The history of Aston Martin is also associated with this important for the automotive industry to any time period, because at that time two young Englishmen Robert Bamford and Lionel Martin decided to start her own line of cars.
    История Aston MartinCar Aston Martin
    Currently cars Aston Martin are popular and associated with luxury, speed and thrills.
    The content

    • The origin of the firm
    • The future of Aston Martin
    • Distinctive feature — handmade
    • Present company

    The origin of the firm

    In 1913 the avid racer Lionel Martin became the first in the races on a hill Aston Clinton. Because on your own car name of Bamford and Martin long pondered, and in March 1915 the company Bamford and Martin Ltd produced their first Aston Martin. The car has secured a 1.4-liter engine with four cylinders.

    However, mass production of cars has not begun — a hindrance that was the First world war, because all the cars the owners sold the airline Sopwith.

    The future of Aston Martin

    История Aston MartinCar Aston Martin DB4, 1957 V.
    Its former stables Bamford was able to rent after the First world war, and five years later was created the second model of Aston Martin — Bunny. This car has set ten world speed records at Brooklands.
    A few years later after the war one of the founders of the company — Robert Bamford — decides to care.
    However, his place was empty not for long — American racer with Polish roots Louis Zborowski began to sponsor Aston Martin. His condition and multiple sporting triumphs glorified company of the whole of Europe and made possible the production of two cars for the French Grand Prix.
    Unfortunately, racing driver Louis on the track of Monza had an accident and died. His death had an impact on the Affairs of the automotive company and Aston Martin was on the verge of bankruptcy. Everything else, Lionel is almost completely dedicated themselves to the competition, while four years had produced only fifty cars. In the end, Martin left the company, handing it over to the family of Charnwood.
    История Aston MartinSports car Aston Martin DB3 S
    In spite of that, the firm never prospered. And only its new owners — the Augustus Cesare Bertelli and William Somerville Renwick — together with Lord Charnwood was able to rectify the situation by forming a new car company Aston Martin Motors Ltd. Soon the world saw the new models: International, Lemans and Ulster.
    In 1932 the company was headed by Arthur Sutherland, and control over the production of his son Gordon. Under their leadership the company has successfully produced sports cars. However, Arthur decided that Aston Martin Motors Ltd is able to produce something more grandiose and perfect. Three years later came to light nearly four hundred cars of several models. The most remarkable of them was International and the Atom. Thanks to the last company has survived the Second world war.
    However, the problems don’t end there, because in 1947 Aston Martin Motors Ltd acquires David brown, owner and founder of the company “David brown limited”. Soon David buys another car company — Lagonda. The merger of all firms have had considerable success, because in 1950, David’s name was immortalized on a new model called DB2.
    Video test drive the car Aston Martin:

    The car’s success was so high that its production for two years has increased six-fold, but a few years later hefty car DB2/4 was already two hundred forty out of three hundred and twenty-four issued by the company. David brown decided to buy a Tickford Motor Bodies in Newport Pagnell and focuses the Assembly of cars there.
    Produced in 1958 year, the car business class DB4 triumphal in Milan, Italy. Its specifications have become indispensable for cars Aston Martin for many years.
    Later there appeared models DB5, DB6 and DB4GT, became famous thanks to participation in “Beyond”. After some time appeared the first in Europe machine with sliding roof — DB6 Volante, and was then made a completely new car, the Aston Martin DBS.
    However, in 1972 the firm buys Company Developments. Despite the fact that sir David brown has not left a post on the Board, there have been some changes: the model DBS was renamed Vantage and Aston Martin the Aston Martin V8, but the initials of David brown of the names were removed.
    Company Developments soon came to the conclusion that she couldn’t afford the manufacturing of high-end rentals, and in 1974, “Aston Martin” was in America. Car production again fell to the lowest level.
    To the rescue came new to her, indifferent to the fate of the company people. The Peter Sprague, George Minden, Alan Curtis and Denis Flather not only started the production, but also managed to revive the famous Lagonda.
    However, the permanence of the firm was not. After repeated change of owners of Aston Martin in the hands of the owner of the company Pace Petroleum Viktor Gontletta and co-founders of CH Industrials. They returned to Aston Martin racing and stabilized automotive manufacturing company.
    An episode of “Megafactories” dedicated to the concern of Aston Martin:

    Ford Motor Company became the owner of seventy-five percent stake in Aston Martin in 1987, the remaining assets were distributed between the families of Livanos and Gauntlett. Since then, the company’s business took a positive turn: V8 is again on the screens next to James bond and the new Aston MartinVirage appeared in the following year. A few years later Victor Gauntlett sold his stake to the founder of Ford of Europe Vice-Chairman and the company finally gained consistency.
    But in the early nineties waiting for her next trouble: the recession that hit the UK, reduced sales volume of main models. However, the 1993 motor show in Geneva was marked by the presentation of the new DB7, named in memory of sir David brown. This model was successful for the company, and its production in 1994 was moved into Oxfordshire.
    In the same year, Ford took possession of the wholly-owned company, because the subsequent years brought only success. 1995 was a watershed for “Aston Martin”, because it produced a record number of cars — seven hundred copies of the DB7. By 2002, were made more than five thousand such cars. In 1996, he continued to issue convertible DB7 Volante and Virage is a new V8. At the beginning of XXI century starts production V12 Vanquish, and in Yorkshire, where there are still made the legendary cars, the DB9 was first released.

    Distinctive feature — handmade

    История Aston MartinCar Aston Martin DB9
    Exhibited at the German motor show supercar DB9, according to the traditions of the company, was decorated by the sign “handmade in England”. Many car lovers know that Aston Martin cars are hand picked not only for significant exhibitions, but also for sale.
    In General, manual work is a kind of skate company Aston Martin. It is hard to imagine that the plant simply has no place robots and conveyors! The only automated device does only one thing, to coating application.
    Competent workers of the factories of the English company skillfully combine manual work with the latest technology. The body is not made of heavy metals and of lightweight carbon fiber or aluminum alloys. Body panels take the form by heating in the matrix and pressing by air pressure. A special electronic system controls the Visteon combustion of the fuel-air mixture in all twelve cylinders. In case of detection of malfunctions in the glow plug, a clever technique blocks the flow of fuel to a faulty cylinder. A six-speed automatic transmission or manual transmission is also subject to control by the electrical system.
    The drivetrain of the car Aston Martin switches from transfer to transfer only two hundred and fifty milliseconds, since the machine reaches places with weave in less than five seconds. “Maximum speed” in this car is three hundred kilometers per hour.

    Present company

    История Aston MartinFor photos of the car Aston Martin Zagato DB AR1
    Since the beginning of the XXI century the company has been actively releasing their legendary cars DB AR1, DB9, V8 Vantage, DBS, Rapide, Virage, V12 Vanquish, Cygnet and sports cars V12 Vanquish S, DBS Volante, One-77, V12 Zagato, Virage, Virage Volante, Vanquish.
    Despite the progress America has sold ninety percent stake in investment group the Investment Dar from Kuwait in 2007. Since then the company is David Richardson is a passionate fan of the famous car brand.
    Aston Martin and today remains one of the most sought after cars. Its sportiness, power and unrivalled technology enable us to be on par with such masterpieces of automotive industry as the Bentley continental and rolls Royce Phantom, while maintaining its individuality and uniqueness.

    Six and a half decades is equal to 780 months or 23 725 days. During this period, Land Rover has grown from simply sketched the plan of a new car on the beach into a global brand that sells hundreds of thousands of cars. The history of the land Rover is a journey where adventures abound, knowledge engineering, innovation, risk and, above all, thousands of loyal owners of the brand.
    Originally, the term “land Rover” was used to name one of the first SUVs to civilians in 1948. And only later he became a manufacturer of various vehicles and finally became the brand of AWD cars 4×4.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результатыModern Land Rover Discovery
    Below the article we have traced only some of the highlights that have made land Rover great company.

    The content

    • The beginning of a journey
    • Second generation and further development
    • The third series and the birth of the Range Rover
    • Independence
    • Open and Academy
    • Under the wing of BMW
    • In the hands of Ford
    • Currently with Tata Motors

    The beginning of a journey

    The history of land Rover started in the difficult times of the postwar period. The war brought many changes on the world map and left strong Nations in ruins. Britain was completely exhausted, and the people lived in difficult economic conditions.
    1947 — birth of a legend
    The history of land Rover started with a picture, drawn on the sand of a Welsh beach in 1947. While using a Jeep on his farm technical Director of Rover, Maurice Wilks and his brother Spencer Wilks (managing Director) saw the niche in the SUV market and began developing the land Rover using the Jeep chassis and engine of the car Rover.
    The body was made of light alloy, while the chassis is made from scraps of normalized steel. The fact that after the war, steel is becoming a very scarce commodity, and aluminum was in abundance. Under the hood of a car working engine capacity of 1.6 liters.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результатыLand Rover 1947
    1948 — launch of the land Rover and was an instant success at the Amsterdam motor show
    Through the year of the first land Rover was shown at the Amsterdam motor show and was an instant success. Rover company quickly realizes that introduced a product in the niche is able to overtake other cars of the same orientation and by the end of the year start exporting these cars, which were called “the Friend of the farmer”, in 70 countries around the world.
    1950 — the four wheel drive box Update
    The changes in the original design the land Rover is larger and more powerful headlamps that Shine through apertures in the grille, and the equipment hard top. Completely changed chetyrehrjadnye box.
    1951 – the Increase in engine size
    The 1.6-litre Rover engine is replaced by a larger 2.0-litre unit.
    1953 — Increase load space of the early land Rover
    The increased space of the load compartment was due to a pair of long-wheelbase land Rover (218 cm). To create a new wheelbase version of Pick Up and station wagon, which became as popular as other versions.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результатыLand Rover 1953
    1955 — a New power unit
    The continuation of the history of land Rover has received thanks to the new powertrain, which was produced for sedans Rover.
    1956 — Bigger and better: the long wheelbase — more space
    Land Rover gets bigger and better — enter 272-inch wheelbase, which contributed to the allocation of 10 seats. She has also been expanded with 223 cm to 277 cm to make room for a new diesel engine under development.
    1957 — a New family of diesel engines
    The beginning of a whole new family of engines was the 2.0-liter diesel engine with overhead valves special.

    Second generation and further development

    1958 — still relevant after 10 years: series II
    Land Rover series II stands out in the Amsterdam motor show (like ten years ago after the first Land Rover). It has a wider body sides and sills to conceal the chassis. The car debuted with a new 2.2-liter petrol engine and was very positively received.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результатыLand Rover series II
    1959 — production of the 250-seat land Rover
    Another milestone for the legendary brand became a 250-seat car that came down the Assembly line this year.
    1961 Series II A: high output power
    The history of the land Rover covers the period of release, series II A, the capacity of the car engine has been increased to provide greater capacity. In the same year, introduced a 12-seater wagon.
    1965 — Purchase of alloy V8 engine
    Negotiations with General Motors were successfully completed, and land Rover has acquired the right on all alloy lightweight 3.5-litre V8 petrol engine.
    1966 Edition 500 thousandth car
    In April the production of the land Rover reaches the half million mark.
    1967 — Rover Company merges with Leyland
    The Rover company merges with truck manufacturer Leyland, which, in turn, has acquired rival car maker Triumph. On models with a 276-inch wheelbase became available six-cylinder 2.6-liter engine.
    1968 — a Merger of two major companies
    Leyland — including Rover and Triumph — join the British Motor Corporation (BMC). The merger includes Austin, Morris and Jaguar, thus uniting British car manufacturers in a single company — British Leyland.
    After three years of development truck ½ Ton Utility Truck, better known as Lightweight, all part of the service of the British army.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результаты
    1969 — Change of lighting norms
    In accordance with the new rules moved the headlights on the front fenders.
    Video — the history of the brand Land Rover:

    The third series and the birth of the Range Rover

    1970 — The Birth Of The Range Rover
    In June 1970 the history of Land Rover is illuminated by the launch of a major new model line — the Range Rover, which is going to become a new brand in the future. Vehicle suspension consists of a long coil spring, which gave the car good road manners, and excellent connection for maneuverability on the road.
    Power comes from a new 3.5-liter gasoline engine that allows the car to reach a top speed of almost 160 km/h. Range Rover four-wheel drive unit is installed, which helps to cope with the power and torque output of the V8 engine.
    The braking system features an innovative two-circuit hydraulic all-round disc brakes. The two-door case has the trademark aluminium panels and a range Rover embodies the latest security technologies of the Rover, including seat belts integrated with the folding front seats.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результаты
    The Range Rover is awarded a gold medal for its auto body, while its security features is recognized by the awarding of the trophy, security Don.
    1971 — the 750-seat land Rover award and the Dewar Award
    In the year 750 thousandth land Rover Range Rover receives the RAC Dewar award for outstanding technical achievement. Third series land Rover.
    The series III has a fully synchronized gearbox and more powerful brakes with the long-wheelbase version 276 see Externally, the car has a new interface featuring a new plastic grille.
    British expedition British Trans-Americas Expedition to Alaska sends two Range Rover in December, heading for Tierra del Fuego. Another expedition goes into the jungle in Central America.
    1975 — Under the control of the state
    After years of industrial unrest at British Leyland was taken under state control to prevent its bankruptcy and the loss of tens of thousands of jobs.
    1976 — Made 1 millionth vehicle
    The history of land Rover has sealed the production of the first million 223-centimeter Station Wagon in Solihull.


    1978 — Limited company
    Industrialist Michael Edward enabled the government to control the company. It creates Land Rover Limited as a separate operating company, and for the first time in its history Land Rover is under independent management. State funding promises to double the production in the 80-ies.
    1982 — Edition of 100-seat Range Rover
    In addition to the anniversary celebration, the company introduces an automatic gearbox on the Range Rover, using the three-speed Chrysler.
    1983 — The Release Of One Ten
    New managing Director of land Rover, Tony Gilroy, begins a programme that concentrates production at the main Solihull plant. Started production of One Ten. The new vehicle uses coil springs of the Range Rover. Other features include a five-speed gearbox, front disc brakes, one-piece windscreen and optional power steering.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результаты
    1985 — automatic gearbox Improvements
    Apart from improving the four-speed transmission, recorded sales of land Rover in more than 120 countries worldwide with plans for further expansion.
    1986 — Diesel Range Rover breaks records
    A diesel version of the Range Rover is launched with a 2.4-litre turbocharged VM engine.
    1987 — Range Rover launched in USA
    The formation of Range Rover of North America heralds the launch of the car in the U.S. market.
    1988 — 40th anniversary of land Rover
    40 years Land Rover marked total sales of more than 1.6 million cars worldwide. Rover Group sold to British Aerospace (BAe).
    Video about Land Rover vehicles:

    Open and Academy

    1989 — Range Rover gets a 3.9 V8 engine
    After 19-year hiatus at the Frankfurt motor show, the world saw a new brand model — Discovery that was a significant step forward in the history of the land Rover. New source of mechanical energy was the TDI engine with direct injection, while the 3.5-litre V8 was offered as an alternative.
    1990 — 20th anniversary of Range Rover and Defender
    Series land Rover is offered with the 200 TDi engine in support of the new brand strategy, the model is called the Defender.
    Anniversary Range Rover is celebrating the introduction of four-wheel four-channel ABS braking system, the first in the world designed for optimum performance SUV. North America becomes the largest market for the brand. Emphasizing his powers the world’s leading manufacturer of SUVs, land Rover reveals range Rover Experience in Solihull.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результаты
    1993 — Airbag
    For the 1994 model year Discovery gets a major facelift. Inside the new dashboard appear airbags for the driver and passengers. These changes pave the way for entry into the North American market.

    Under the wing of BMW

    1994 — Acquisition of the German company
    Rover Group, which includes Land Rover was purchased by BMW. This year also saw a Range of daily light the second generation.
    1997 — Launch Of The Freelander
    The same Frankfurt motor show in September saw the debut of a brand new product, Land Rover, Freelander. The car has a transverse four-cylinder engine.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результаты
    1998 — the 50th anniversary of the company
    Anniversary the company celebrated the release of a limited edition of all four models. In new cars set a new long body. Another innovation is the hydraulic high pressure system with computer control for controlling the inclination of the vehicle.

    In the hands of Ford

    2000 — Land Rover Sale Ford Motor Company
    At the beginning of the new Millennium, BMW sold the Rover Group, Ford created the Premier Automotive Group which included Aston Martin, Volvo, Lincoln and Jaguar.
    The revised Freelander debuts with powerful new 2.5-litre V6 petrol or 2.0-litre diesel engine common-rail.
    2004 — Discovery 3 Debut
    Conceptually new Discovery 3 was introduced at the Geneva motor show. The new vehicle echoes the original, but with the inclusion of new technologies of XXI century. Optimized flat floor space in the rear, independent suspension.
    2005 — Range Rover Sport
    This year was started the production of the Range Rover Sport. The car used is similar architecture of the Discovery 3 with the changes that have resulted in increased traction.
    500 000-th Freelander leaves the production line just eight years after its release.
    История Land Rover: маленькие начинания — большие результаты
    2007 — celebrating the 60th anniversary of the brand
    The vehicle is marked with paw prints and the logo of the Born Free Foundation and offered as an award to encourage philanthropy in defense of animals.

    Currently with Tata Motors

    2008 — Sale Of Tata Motors
    Land Rover and luxury brand Jaguar are sold to Indian company Tata Motors, which keeps the entire management team and promises to invest in the future of technological development brands.
    Anniversary the company celebrated the release in a limited edition Defender SVX.
    The preferred habitat of land Rover is the open road. No other all-wheel drive 4×4 in the world failed to win the respect of the main part of admirers of off-road vehicles. That makes him the favorite of all layers of the population, ranging from Queen Elizabeth to Fidel Castro, from Sylvester Stallone, Michael Jordan, Oprah Winfrey to Michael Jackson and sting.
    A distinctive feature of the brand land Rover is individualism, authenticity, freedom, adventure and excellence.