For starters, let’s find out — what are some of those “fly swatter”? Deflector hood — “fly swatter” in the vernacular. Is made of plastic. Installed this thing on the edge of the bonnet of your car by using the four mounting points. It is a kind of simple tuning of the car. The main function of such a contraption (according to manufacturers) is to protect the windshield and the surface of the car while in motion, from all kinds of insects, gravel, dirt, and other vermin, which is so rich, “our” roads.
After you install between the baffle and the surface of the machine a small distance. While driving vehicle this gap forms a flow of air, which gives insects and dirt from getting on the windshield “steel pet”. If this is true, we would not have heard all sorts of complaints from car owners about the various scratches and corrosion on the surface of the machine under this construction, as well as various remains of dead insects on the windshield. Maybe it’s all in the fakes and substandard parts?
What should be the “real” baffle
The deflector should have a smooth shape without any sharp corners and all sorts of sharp protrusions. Material for the ready car deflectors should serve as elastic acrylic glass. The mounting points are made of high strength steel, and fixing the hood of the car uses latex lining, with the help of which such fixture is attached to the surface of the car. After installation the gap between the baffle and the surface of the car must be at least five millimeters. Installation is even a “fly swatter” on the hood of a car does not carry any flaws?
Advantages and disadvantages
The first thing you should pay attention is self — adhesive fasteners. This mount is quite unreliable as the counter air flow is able to easily break this device. There were many cases when at high speed the whole construction really broke and “fly swatter” went into free flight, not even waving the pen at parting. We pay attention to other fastening systems, for example, with bolts — this involves a deliberate infliction of harm to their car so as to install the mounting will require drilling the hood. And this is the inevitable corrosion and buying a new hood.
Between the design surface and the machine is bound to accumulate dirt and other debris, and moisture, which, in the case of bolting, will accelerate the corrosion of metal, and all sorts of debris and dirt will cause additional scratches. If you make the gap smaller or even removed, then the oncoming air stream will push the design to the surface of the vehicle and vibrations from the deflector will cause scratches. As for protection from insects, this function is performed by this device only at a speed exceeding one hundred miles per hour. Note that self-adhesive design at this speed would most likely break off and may walk straight into the windshield. Yes, accelerating to such speeds in an urban environment hardly anyone can. The principle of operation of the fly swatter
The installation process
If you decide to install yourself such a miracle of human ingenuity, it will not take you much time. Install the fly swatter on the hood is very easy and does not require any skills.
First of all, you need to decide what type of mounting you will use. For convenience, we will describe both methods of fixing them, and then it’s up to you:
Self-adhesive fasteners, perhaps the quickest and less traumatic method of installation for your “horse”. Because, if anything, can be easily removed baffle, with no concern for the holes left from the mounts.
To start you will need to thoroughly wash and degrease the surface of the vehicle and mounting points. Then on to mounting point design neatly glued latex lining, then the whole structure is glued to the surface of the car and it’s done.
To install the baffle by drilling you need to accurately mark the positions of the drill and drill holes in the hood. Then it is necessary to machine holes corrosion-resistant drugs. Further, feel free to tie a “fly swatter” to the surface of the car and the trick.
Need a fly swatter on the hood or not — you decide. In any case, the deflector harmoniously complement the design of your “steel horse” and make it more attractive!
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The modern person spends in a car very much of its time, so stay in it, must be hard necessary, but also comfortable. Every driver strives to improve technical equipment and to equip the interior of the car. Basically all these devices are connected via a splitter to the cigarette lighter. Splitter cigarette lighter on the hinge
Today, there are many different appliances that are needed by the owner of the vehicle. This may be a netbook, a GPS, a transmitter (FM modulator), air ionizer, radar detector, electric, charger for mobile phone and other equipment: a small car refrigerator, tablet, DVR and much more.
All this is connected, as a rule, only to the cigarette lighter socket. But, how to combine several pieces of electronic equipment at the same time? The output here only one − you need a splitter lighter socket. A versatile tool, capable of connecting four pieces of equipment. Of course, you can buy a splitter for one, two or three nests. But this is your choice, though, is more favorable (and technical standards, and material) is considered to be the hub for four inputs.
If you go into the details of principle of operation of this device, it can be compared to an ordinary tee or extension socket, i.e. from a single source is supplied simultaneously power multiple outputs. Because of the ease of use splitter cigarette lighter only are classified in five types:
The number of output jacks.
The type of connection to the main socket.
The maximum operating current.
Length, diameter and shape of the input plug.
Number of nests plays a huge role in choosing a splitter, because someone with only one exit, and someone is missing and four. It’s all very individual, but should take into account all contingencies.
Power DC splitter cigarette lighter is 10 amps, 14, 5, and 8. In order to determine the number of amps you should pay attention to the fact that the more power supply has a splitter, the more assurance that you will not burn out, it will be safer. Before you make a purchase, please check the exact characteristics of your cigarette lighter, because it must be identical with the characteristic of the coupler. If the power in your socket will be below the current “tee” splitter will not work, and it turns out that you wasted your money.
There is a cigarette lighter splitter, which is installed the hard way and in this case the plugs very close to the nest. But there are those that are able to bend to ninety degrees or consist of two parts, connected by a wire. This is a very convenient model, because sometimes, you need to connect the device, located at a distance. For example, the DVR is located behind the mirror a distant view and, if you have a wireless gadget, you will not be able to connect. Wire length can be quite different.
There are models in which, quite simply, there is no fuse. Many people do not pay attention to it, but in vain. Because sometimes the strain and if the fuse is missing, the equipment will be damaged. From this we concluded that the best splitter of cigarette lighter is one in which the fuses are installed. So, when you buy a splitter, consult with the seller about the availability of the part. Do not skimp on your own car, because this could all end in tears: melted wires or a fire.
The most common diameter plug suitable for cigarette lighter at 21.3 – 22.3 mm, and the length of slot 29 is 35 millimeters. But, in fact, now most often occur over a universal model suitable for any entrance. The plug is different in shape of the tip, which may be planar, annular or conical. Ignore this fact.
To decide, how to choose a splitter lighter socket, you need to know how they are divided by the layout of the housing. It should be noted that the choice should be based on your own needs. Splitters are of the following types:
Solid, that is, the plug connected to the socket thoroughly, and is integral with the blocks. The downside of this type is the impossibility of the direction of the outlet at different angles, so the location gets very uncomfortable. Since the main nest is not capable of withstanding mechanical loads, it can be bent. Well, the advantage is considered a cheap price.
When the plug is connected to the input by means of a special hinge or as it is called “flexible stem”, it’s called hinge. The advantage of this option is that you can splitter cigarette lighter set at different angles that can be adjusted. A huge disadvantage of the hinged devices is the high load on the cigarette lighter socket as in the first case. Because of this, the entrance quickly deformed and broken.
With cord splitter cigarette lighter is particularly versatile, as it is very convenient to use. And also helps to prolong the service life of this device.
Splitter cigarette lighter with wire
Best splitter cigarette lighter and has extra features such as USB connector along with other connectors. This is considered to be the highest. Generally, these products have a wide variety of forms, the design of which is developed one day. They can be made in the form of cupholders, gun, vacuum cleaner, tee, classic view and so on and each of them differs with its originality and eccentricity. Many have a led for status indication and illumination.
Summing up, it is important to emphasize the basic requirements to how to choose the splitter cigarette lighter socket. First compare the data on the characteristics of the socket of your vehicle with the splitter, then set the presence of a guard and demand the quality certificate. Because high-quality devices that will last you a long time, always have this document. You also need to consider the overall power consumption of the electrical engineering, which you will connect.
A very important factor is the cost of the splitter. Don’t forget that the best splitter cigarette lighter won’t cost a penny. Saving on price, you’re putting your car at risk. And yet, do not purchase such devices in natural markets, because there nobody will give you any guarantees. Technique buy only in proven areas, where procurement of goods is directly from the manufacturer. The only way you will get guaranteed quality.
Currently, all auto and online shopping sales of automobile accessories offered in a wide assortment of various fan-out. Based on this, one conclusion arises splitter cigarette lighter is a crazy demand and is a very popular fixture.
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Prices for fuel oil and gasoline to rise at a rapid rate and each owner of motor transport want to save it. Some less committing trips, and someone is looking for an exit in the other direction. For example, are designed for sverkhnovye development of the fuel combustion catalyst, which acts quite differently to the combustion of gasoline and diesel fuel composition. This can be explained by the fact that the fuel structure and condition of the combustible mixture are different from each other. Under the action of catalyst Envirotabs fuel, the fuel burns inside the combustion chamber at a lower temperature and leaves less emissions output.
Basic data specs
The fuel combustion catalyst is, first and foremost, components, accelerating the entire combustion process without changing the basic structure of the fuel, i.e. it is a kind of extension mix, which aims to convert the combustion of various fractions of the fuel composition in the vacuum flow. For the ignition of various components of gasoline and diesel solution requires an energy of lower catalysts.
If this is modernizing your device to add, then increase the speed of kindling fuel with high excess temperature of the fire. Hence the conclusion that the catalyst affects all charcoal hydrogen gasoline, which burn at the very end, when the boiling point reaches a maximum. The catalyst is a kind of means that the minimum low temperature leads to the normalization of pressure, and, hence, to decrease the hardness of revolutions of the engine and reduction of emissions of harmful substances in exhaust gases.
So what happens when the fuel system gets a catalyst? First, the oxidative processes are accelerated and the minimum flow rate of the fuel solution decreases. And, secondly, the catalyst combustion of fuel in motor gasoline deepens the pyrolysis of non-evaporated fuel just can’t burn because there is insufficient amount of oxygen. This is because the engine works with such a coefficient of excess oxygen, which is almost equal to one. Important! When selecting combustion catalysts to draw attention to the opacity of the liquid. If the liquid in the bottle or opaque packaging makes it impossible to assess the transparency, it is better to refrain from purchase of such a catalyst. Turbidity or opacity gives the presence in the catalyst of metals that are designed to increase the octane and cetane number. Thus, typically, such additives (in the common people ferrocene − MPG) are not only harmful for the engine, but also for the environment and human health. We suggest you to look through these − for petrol and for diesel.
During use of the catalyst ratio must be 0,001 – 0,01%, while not modifying the physical and chemical properties of the basic petrol, but ensuring reduced combustion and transfer of gasoline to a higher class that meets all the emission standards EURO 2, 3 and 4, of course, if the engine is in excellent working condition.
The fuel combustion catalyst – this is a specialized organic compound of the first, second and transition group metals. All the components are so minimal that absolutely does not affect the contamination of the combustion chamber and spark plugs. They perform only to a certain extent, the role of converters, which kataliziruûtsâ. For example, in the fuel fuel is injected, a special combination of certain compounds of iron, which after passing through the chamber, it deposits on the walls of the exhaust device in the form of metals. In more severe fuel injected iron.
A little background
In the fortieth years of the last century, scientists have studied high-molecular compounds and radiation, during which were discovered the effects of changes in status, and number of radicals under the influence of small external impacts, which gives rise to the germ system. Then came to the conclusion that there is a need to introduce a new concept of dynamic order. As noted by the researchers, the presence of this order does not follow from the state of equilibrium and chemical structure. But unfortunately, this position was contrary to the established views of the time, so most of the work were not published and were not taken seriously.
At a later date leading minds still had on their development drew attention. They were able to prove the incomparable use of catalysts. The fact is that if we add a very negligible amount of different native enzyme to a simple composition of amino acids, then begin to appear and multiply actively condensates, which, in turn, have fermentativnogo. And these facts are not baseless. Therefore, the fuel combustion catalyst has found its place in use.
Scientists have proven that the germinal centers appear in the case, if the fuel impact of a special electromagnetic field. Under such impact of gasoline-oil device acquires useful properties. In the end, increase free radicals in the fuel-air solution. This leads to better combustion, and the strength of the oil film increases.
The fact is that gasoline and diesel fuel with typical liquid state, have a large number of organic hydrocarbon compounds: in a molecule of carbon atoms is from seven to eight, and hydrogen – from ten to eleven. If actively controlled electromagnetic pulses at the molecule, you can get the germ that contain the minimum number of carbon and the same molecular weight. Due to this is fuel economy.
This occurs about as follows: when in the fuel system appears molecular complex, in short, the fuel combustion catalyst, then changing a temperature of ignition and combustion occurs in a different way. The engine will start softer, overload, and shock are reduced. This, and the fact that the catalyst is able to reduce the number of harmful substances, it has been proven during the experimental tasks. Why do we need catalysts?
The advantages of using such auxiliary means, as a fuel combustion catalyst, the following:
As the combustion in the main engine is complete, there is an increase in efficiency.
Is cleansing all the spark plugs, combustion chamber and exhaust gas pipes. Erase all deposits and scales.
A certain percentage of fuel consumption is reduced to 6.
Increases economy operational life of vehicles
Strength increases the power of the engine.
Decreases the perceptibility of the engine poor quality gasoline, i.e. the fuel with the catalyst improves the quality.
On a smaller high-quality gasoline – effective high performance.
Increase regeneration processes and reduces the load on the afterburner catalysts.
Decreases the content of hazardous factors in the gases that are already considered waste.
Physico-chemical properties of fuel are saved.
The working part of the engine is carried out more gently.
Gasoline octane number is exceeded several times.
To enter the fuel combustion catalyst, you have the opportunity, directly before pouring fuel. For this purpose tankers, vehicle tanks, vessels tanks, gas station storage, and so on, we have wide range of applications.
But, there are also disadvantages:
Fuel price increases by one percent.
Angle correction of ignition timing is possible on the basis of metals, including alkali.
Perhaps this is possible it would be to make a point, but it should be noted that the fuel combustion catalyst can be successfully used when burning solid fuel. Incidentally, in the Russian villages of past centuries in order to help ignite the fire in the stove, threw in just a pinch of ordinary table salt.
A great variety
Today, there are many manufacturers of this wonder drug, which differ from each other and the quality and price. Among them there are both domestic and foreign. All their marketing is the most attractive of ways. Who do you choose − to solve only to you.
If you want to buy the fuel combustion catalyst, but still have doubts, then you want to read reviews from those who have already used this tool. Unfortunately, you will be disappointed, mainly because all the responses looks like some kind of advertising campaign. Most likely, they were written exactly for this purpose. Therefore, the conclusion is only one: he did not try – do not know.
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Antirain is a chemical agent intended for cleaning and protection of glass surfaces. Perfectly suited for use not only on the windshield, but also on side Windows, mirrors and lights. Thanks to the amazing properties antirain helps protect the most fragile parts of the machine from dirt, dust and precipitation. Therefore, the tool antirain enjoys great popularity among motorists.
In today’s automotive shops and supermarkets can be found antirain in completely different ways, for example:
Vials with spray – usually they go in volume from 100 ml to 250 ml and more. Have a convenient form for use, you simply have to click several times on the handle of the sprayer and the required amount of liquid gets on the entire portion of the glass, then you will only have to wipe it with napkins.
Disposable napkins are sold in a package you can buy them in any quantity, since the manufacturer produces these products in various configurations, for example, it may consist of 25 or 100 pieces. The main advantage of this package lies in the simplicity of the design, you just need to get a napkin and wipe the glass. Also, these wipes are conveniently stored in the glove compartment of the car.
Capsule – a special container within which is contained the liquid antirain, one such things is enough to wipe all the glass and lighting of the car. Due to the small size of their easy to store in the car.
Means Antirain firm Turtle wax
How the tool works antirain
The composition of antidote glass is a special substance that prevents water droplets linger on mirror and glass surfaces. Glass as if lubricated with oil, roll in which all the droplets, leaving no trace. Agree, which is nice after the rain to contemplate the windshield spotlessly clean and not in dirty divorces and water spots.
Means antirain helps not only from rain and snow, but also from contamination. For those who often ride in rainy weather during dark time of day, this tool will be indispensable, as neither have to leave your car to wipe glasses and lighting. You can save not only your time, but also health, because once under the shower, it is possible to catch a cold and get sick.
The glass is treated with a cutting-edge tool will always be in perfect condition without creating any inconvenience for you while driving on any roads. For example, if you have to travel at speeds above sixty miles per hour during heavy rain, you’ll see raindrops fly away on their own, gliding over the lubricated surfaces, even without using the wipers.
Before you decide to buy antirain car, you need to examine the range offered by automotive shops. Wide range of this tool is so great that at first it is difficult to determine the choice. For this it is best to read tips on car forums or to choose their own, as they say, by trial and error. Before and after using Antirain
Advantages of funds antirain
For several years, drivers are actively buying antirain, which helps them to cope with many problems and make his life easier. Consider each advantage of this, so to say, a wonderful means:
Improves visibility for the driver. As the researchers say, it helps by 20% to improve visibility on the road. The glass becomes very clean and the driver while driving to distract.
Easily remove insects from surfaces after long journeys on country roads. The one who often travels outside the city, knows that insect remains are removed quite hard, even after several polyvac machine. Therefore, once you decide to go, for example, in the village or fishing, treat antidote the body and glass to protect your car from those nasty stains.
For a long time glass and mirrors are clean without stains from water. The use of antidote helps the motorist is much less likely to clean the glass from dust, dirt and water stains.
Enough increases the effect of janitors, they are much better able to cope with the dirt on the windshield due to the slippery properties of this tool, all the dust can be easily removed.
Also easy to remove snow or ice and prevents icing of the Windows, which will reduce the time cleaning the car in winter.
How to make antirain yourself
At least in automotive stores and shelves full of all kinds of ultramodern tools to clean and protect glass and mirror surfaces, you is quite yourself can make this tool with their hands.
You will need a few ingredients:
Candle wax, which is sold in pharmacies or hardware stores.
White spirit – thinner, is sold in all DIY stores.
The method of preparation is quite simple, nothing to cook and no need to hover, only in the vessel, dissolve in 20 parts of white spirit is just one part of paraffin. Wait until fully dissolved, stir and using wipes to lubricate the surface of the glass or mirror.
On various automotive forums you can find other recipes, but this is the most popular among motorists. So if you ever decide to make such a tool, be sure to write about your successes in the comments of this article.
Antirain car body parts car
Nanoreactor antirain car today is not only used for headlights and glass but for the car body. The surface with a clean machine lubricate tool, and then wipes rubbing it. This procedure will protect your car from dirt, snow, rain, it will always Shine with great purity. Today such services are offered by many automotive centers for a fee, but you can make it completely independently, while saving their cash.
After checking all the positive properties, you will want to purchase for your car this wonderful tool that will help you for a long time of your “iron horse” to keep in perfect purity. The main thing is to pick up that tool antirain that will suit you and your car, especially now that it produces quite a huge variety of automotive manufacturers of cosmetics.
You can discuss this article on forum.
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In the language of the creators of this lineup, Japanese, “Speakers” is set to “in the heart”, which emphasizes the middle class by price. But this series is not particularly inferior to the more expensive counterparts and has many great features:
Suitable frequency range is reproduced with perfect clarity.
Speakers work without distortion even at maximum load.
Stylish, modern design that can become the decoration of the interior of any car.
Acoustic elements are perfectly combined with receivers of different manufacturers.
The use of innovative technologies to improve the sound.
Features of various models
Range “Speakers” is presented by three variants. We will explain what characteristics are peculiar to this acoustics. Some of the parameters are the same across the range − no repeats we will point out. Pioneer TS R1350s
This type of acoustics is often positioned as a youth, distinguished and sporty design. It’s all so. But in addition, it is worth noting that often important factor is clarity. The lovers of tours with “music” will appreciate the gorgeous features even full on sound. While its quality is not influenced by the speed and the accompanying trip on our roads vibration.
Input power (250 watts) – max.
Speaker size – 13 cm
35 W nominal input power.
Weighs only 680 grams.
For mounting, 4,7 cm
The material the tweeter is the same for these models – piezoelectric.
Size of 12.9 4.6 cm
Despite the lower weight compared with PP taxes, provides an excellent return on mid-bass. Pioneer TS R1750s
This model, like the previous, gives an incredibly wide range of sound and clarity. Music lovers often appreciate not so much the volume as the sound quality. That is a priority for the creators of the speakers.
Some similarities and differences from previous models:
Maximum input power similar to the “TS-R1350S”. While nominal input power is higher and is 40 watts.
Multiplayer is the same for this series: “with Mica Matrix”.
The size of 16.5 6.4 cm
Weight 700 gr.
The installation depth of 47 mm.
Pioneer TS R6950s
Fans of powerful sound will appreciate this version: intense bass, the opportunity to listen to any song in a stylish design.
Nominal input power is 50 W, with a maximum of 300 watts.
Impedance – 4 Ohms (this figure is the same for all three models).
The voice coil is copper, and analogues of this series.
The dimensions of 23.7 8.7 16.3 cm
The weight of only 900 gr.
For installation it is enough of 6.7 cm
The sound does not “hit the whip” by ear, and creates a unique musical background of any trip.
Not only in man, but in the car everything should be fine. Proceeding from this truth, the developers acoustics model range has attracted talented designers to create them appearance of the speakers.
This approach has allowed the company to produce the modern range of that can become additional stylish decor for car interior and to conform to the aesthetic tastes of motorists.
While most experts are positioning the speakers, as a sport, it is not so, an interesting approach to appearance makes it versatile for both women and men and quite acceptable not only for the youth but also the older generation.
A great price perfectly adequate sound quality. But you’ll be given the acoustics, is able to convey the slightest nuances of sound. Quality is a separate article, incentive to buy this Speakers from Pioneer.
A new development is the addition of more expensive series TS-G and TS-A, occupying the segment of the middle class. Guarantees crystal clear sound, no worse than more expensive options.
Open most of the articles describing this series, and you will notice the focus on the youth audience. In this case, unfortunately, no mention of motorists who appreciate and love different styles of music. Regardless of the direction: jazz, Blues, refined classics, chanson or pop direction, hip-hop and aggressive rock, this speaker system allows you to enjoy it fully,
We provided an overview of the Speakers from concern, “Pioneer Corporation”. This kind of acoustics has unsurpassed performance, thanks to which it can satisfy the most pretentious taste. Selecting one of the models, you will not be disappointed. And to fully enjoy your favorite music while traveling.
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Any modern system, whether GLONASS or GPS, trying to determine the location of the object. Each system implies a special device through which is determined by the location of the vehicle relative to the terrain. This Navigator, or more precisely, a navigation system, which is built into the car. What makes a Navigator? It communicates with the satellites orbit the Earth, where each of them gives the Navigator an individual signal to the device could distinguish one from the other. The modern Navigator to determine the three-dimensional spatial coordinates, it is necessary to simultaneously receive data from four satellites.
To be more precise, the Navigator must know the distance to these satellites to calculate its position. The default navigation is not easy automotive device, and a segment positioning system.
Machines in orbit are in a special way and it is called the almanac. On the basis of this scheme and performed calculations. When the car is moving, the coordinates for the Navigator are changing all the time. To this end, the signal from the satellites is constantly being updated and the distance is recalculated at certain intervals of time (a few seconds). All this gives the advantage of modern systems to track the movement of the object, in this case the vehicle, calculating the speed and distance traveled.
Needless to say that every automotive Navigator, which is the Navigator, keeps in its memory the almanac, even after shutdown. It is very convenient and each time he does not need again to look for them. In addition, if the device is used during the day, then the next reference to the satellites takes a few seconds. “Hot start” is the name of this option is that often advertise the producers of navigators. If the Navigator does not turn on for a long time, the binding to the satellites will take longer (10-20 minutes) and the option will be called “cold start”.
So, GLONASS or GPS – which is better? Let’s start with the history of the systems and then to consider their advantages and disadvantages.
GPS arose almost immediately when launched the first earth satellite, the Soviet by the way. Americans first noticed that the signal from the satellite changes as you move it. This succeeded to create a system that allows to calculate the coordinates of not only the satellite, but the object on the earth, bound to it. The history of GPS started with Sputnik, the first artificial Earth satellite
In 1964 starts the world’s first navigation system TRANZIT. Used it then only for military purposes. With the help of this navigation was carried out launch military rockets with submarines. But for civil purposes TRANZIT absolutely no good. The accuracy of the location of any object, also motionless, was limited to fifty meters. About mobile objects, and not wanted. Besides the world’s first Navigator could not ensure the continuous determination of coordinates, as being in a low orbit, was in sight from the Earth in just one hour.
Within three years launched a new satellite, more sophisticated. It was located at a higher orbit – Timation-1, and then ran for another and the second Timation. These two satellites have joined and created a system, known as “NAVSTAR”. Again initially this system was used as a purely military one, and since 1993 have been allowed to make it completely free, is only aimed at civilian needs.
Today, the NAVSTAR system operates perfectly and consists of 32 satellites among which 24 are considered to be major. The orbiters systems provide full coverage of the planet, but just in case, in reserve there are 8 more. The GPS satellites are moving at a considerable distance from the earth in several orbits. A complete revolution around the Earth the satellite performs almost the whole day.
Now about GLONASS. The system was created since the days of the USSR (no matter how criticized this Union of short-sighted people, the fact that the state’s power to deny a great way). Once brought to orbit artificial Earth satellite, began work on the design of the positioning system.
The first navigation satellites from the territory of the Soviet Union was launched in 1967. He meant only one satellite to determine position, but later he created a system that were equipped with receivers that receive the signal. It was not GLONASS. It was called Cicada (civil version) and Cyclone (military version). The system was intended to determine the coordinates of objects in distress.
The GLONASS system was developed in 1982. Takes place 11 years and only after that system is put into operation, after the collapse of the USSR. Twenty-four satellites, among which, owing to the poor situation of the country in terms of economy, some still don’t work. This fact was identified in the 90s that the Russian system competition to make the American could not. Today, by contrast, after starting the target program “DPS”, GLONASS is already regarded as a direct competitor.
The satellite constellation GLONASS is a dual – purpose system, where, first of all, are military targets. Today involved 17 satellites, located at an altitude of 19,100 km revolution around the planet slightly faster than GPS satellites. GLONASS is constantly being upgraded, and the Russian developers have set a goal – to catch up with the Americans. Navigation satellite GLONASS-M
As becomes clear, GLONASS historically lagged behind the American system. But over time, the gap was reduced. The era of the 90s had a negative impact on GLONASS, which was not needed, because the country was then raging economic crisis. The system gets back into hibernation, where it gradually pulled out and upgraded.
One head good, two is even better
Now that it is better to choose? Frankly speaking, the ordinary citizen of the country has no difference what system is used it the Navigator. And don’t even need to bother with this, because the civilians of both satellites are equal. Both the American and Russian satellite system can be used by the motorist. Access to GLONASS, in particular, provided free of charge and without restrictions, however, as for GPS.
If we consider the satellite system from the perspective of the military or government, then your own shirt closer to the body. At any moment the Americans can shut down, limiting it only for the army. Already, he was the first war in Iraq. Yes and the authorities of our country require that all state employees to use their own navigation, while others only recommend. Even recently in the Duma wanted to introduce a bill prohibiting the use of GPS in cars belonging to the public authorities.
On the other hand, the question remains: which system is more improved and better? It would be useful to know the Russians, a Swedish company, nationwide network of satellites officially recognized the advantage of GLONASS, as in the latitudes, where their country, the Russian system is more efficient.
But, again, today any GPS or smartphone and supports GLONASS and GPS. Therefore, more properly be put this question: which is better, GPS or GLONASS/GPS? The answer, of course, the second option is a satellite navigation GPS/GLONASS, especially when it comes to positioning accuracy. But there are dual-system vehicles, and minus the high price, because they are two of the microchip. But also increases the reliability of signal reception and positional accuracy. Errors in longitude and width in determining the location of the object if you are using dual-system navigation, reduced to five feet. For comparison, if Navigator will only work on the GPS, the errors will average 4 meters. The GLONASS is 6 metres.
Select the Navigator
As was said above, Russian satellites a lot, but more American. That is why the majority of GPS navigators work on or use the system GPS/GLONASS.
To choose Navigator, need to know that they can be divided into three groups, depending on the scope and proposed services.
Navigators for cars.
Navigators for bicycles and pedestrians.
Universal travel navigators.
Our goal is to familiarize the reader with automobile navigation devices that are on the range and multiplicity of the most popular.
The main task that should solve the car Navigator, this is how to move from one point to another. At the same time must be used maps, road signs, etc. Below is a list of what needs to be a good Navigator. Using it, you can pick up a good quality Navigator.
A powerful processor.
Support touch input.
The presence of voice prompts.
The possibility of obtaining information about traffic jams.
The ability to update the software.
The necessary multimedia capabilities.
Based on these parameters, to choose for his vehicle the Navigator will not be easy. As for the choice of the satellite system, as mentioned above, it is advisable to purchase devices that support both GLONASS and GPS.
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Synthetic motor oil began its origin with the beginning of the space age. Rocket engines and motors of jet aircraft required a high reliability and exceptional performance from lubricants. Huge speed settings, and exorbitant temperature during operation of such equipment required a completely new, high-tech lubricants. For the period from the 40-ies and early 70-ies with the help of synthesis has created a large number of various oils.
The obvious superiority of synthetics in the space industry and aviation gave rise to the use of new technologies for the production of lubricating fluids in the automotive industry. In 1972, on the market appeared first on now the engine oil, created on the basis of synthesis and known by the name “AMZOIL”. And in the seventy fifth appeared synthetic motor oil Mobil 1.
The factory Mobil
Functions and properties
First we need to know what she carries out oil being in the engine. Of course, the main and perhaps the main task of any lubricant is to minimize friction between internal engine parts. Should also be provided to protect internal engine parts from corrosion and other oxidation processes. The liquid needs to be able to sink from areas of friction, and to prevent all kinds of deposits in the engine.
Perhaps the most important property is viscosity. This property must be your “sweet spot”. At low temperatures the product must not be excessively stiffen, as well as at high temperatures, the oil should not turn into watery muck. The thermal resistance of the product must be more than two hundred twenty five degrees Celsius. Poor thermal properties will lead to burnout and vaporization of the lubricant, resulting in increased demand of the car in the podlivaniem fuel. Poor resistance to low temperatures may cause crystallization (the oil may freeze and become solid).
Important parameter are non-oxidizing properties. The product should contain a minimal number of components prone to oxidation, or, in General, not have such. Otherwise, the lubricant will have to be changed frequently in order to prevent oxidation of internal parts of the engine. The market presents a wide range of motor oils
Types and composition
Any lubricating fluid consists of its base and various additives. The quality and properties of the product in the first place, is assessed as its basis. Additives play the role of auxiliary elements. They enhance and otherwise alter the properties of the basis, achieving, thus, higher performance product.
In the composition of this product is mineral Foundation, which is made from conventional oil. The characteristics of such types is very low. For example, in winter at minus twenty-five to start the car with the “mineral water” will be extremely difficult. The only advantage of this type of lubricant is affordability. Also based on this type of product make base oil (mineral oil with a smoother chain of atoms). In a process for hydrocracking such a framework gets rid of the most unnecessary and harmful properties. In some respects after such treatment the oil is superior to even synthetic. For example, higher viscosity and low oxidation give greater engine protection. This is inferior to synthetics, however, is much more durable.
A kind of Golden mean between synthetics and “mineral water”. Semi-synthetic oils are obtained by connection of mineral and synthetic bases. In the composition of such product shall contain a synthetic basis with a share not less than twenty-five percent of the total weight. However, specific standards of what the number should be one or the other type, no. The maximum share of synthetics in the mixture can be about forty percent.
The ideal, from the point of view of thermal properties, oil. The resistance of such products to low temperatures is very good. Synthetics are able to maintain their performance characteristics at a temperature of minus sixty degrees. The lubricant also does not lose its properties when heated and synthetics can withstand more than one hundred degrees. This lubricant has excellent oxidation parameters, practically does not evaporate and does not leave sediment in the engine. The absence or small amount of precipitation explained by the fact that synthetics are not added additives or are used in very small quantities. Additives have little life and very quickly fall out of the base, thereby forming a precipitate and sediment of all kinds. The service life of such oil exceeds the term “mineral water” about five times. However, there is a significant drawback. The price of synthetics is many times greater than the cost of their weaker brethren.
What is better to use
Without a doubt, mineral products are very cheap but their operational parameters are too low and don’t meet the needs of modern cars. Also the service life of such materials is very small and this will lead to a large consumption of the product.
For the urban environment, and for cars with mileage of one hundred and fifty thousand kilometers, no doubt, perfect semi-synthetic motor oil. Carrying the optimum thermal and oxidizing properties as well as providing excellent protection of internal engine parts, this product is no wonder won the title of “Golden mean” in the market of lubricants. Affordable price and quality make him a leader for the brand.
For new cars and for cars without run a smart choice would be synthetic. Since this oil well will keep the engine in its original form due to its detergent characteristics. For maintained cars, this type is not used because in the operation of a vehicle, the engine formation of cracks and crevices between the pads. Oxidation and deposition of products of their previous score and do not leak. Synthetic washes away all deposits and result in almost zero oxidation of the product data the gap is not clogged, why, and begins to leak lubricant. Given the cost of the oil, using it in cars with mileage will be extremely expensive.
In conclusion, we wish you not to succumb to the advertising of unscrupulous garages who will offer to buy synthetic oil for low prices. Remember, a true synthetic is very expensive and is not suitable for every engine.
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Of course not – the sun visors give the car a purely practical use. For example, if such protection was not on trucks “long voyage”, the driver had a difficult life. Every day of its journey on the motorway he had to seek protection from the sun, are mercilessly “sting” him in the cabin. And if here to add another unbearable heat and the deterioration of the review because of glare, it is not only the driving comfort was jettisoned, but it still would have risked an accident.
And why only truckers? The lack of this element affects the drivers and other vehicles. As proof, we give a case where the driver leaves the tunnel on a Sunny clear day. Probably most drivers with experience has been in this situation and know how it is when the visibility made it impossible to see even the hood of the car coming from the opposite direction. Sunscreen band somehow cope in these cases, but this is clearly not enough.
In addition to purely practical values, the visor will give the appearance of the car is truly excellent. This element can either buy or order for a specific car model, especially one that was manufactured years earlier. Visors can be of various shapes, colors and sizes
The ideal, of course, is the installation of the factory kit that exactly fits the car and it was specially prepared for him in the factory. Besides the regular sun visor will fit the design of the car, its color and other visual elements.
You should not talk about what place the piece will need to very carefully and with great care. Pay attention be sure to fit the body. Care should also be familiar with the manual installation, because even the most minor infraction will result in insufficient mounting strength. Improperly installed visor fall off during movement − it should be remembered!
Wonder whether it is possible to model cars of the domestic auto industry to set this protection? Of course, you can. Even the production is open. In the city of Togliatti began producing the first peaks for models of the same automobile. The visor is made from polyurethane material, the weight of which is for the visor is 2.5 kg. the sun shroud Mount is performed on the through bolts and the piece is covered with the glass sealant.
Especially important peaks for the Russian realities. Tinted glasses have not held in high esteem, including windshield. Installing them is punishable by law, so you have to fight with sunlight. Here and helps an eave.
The visor on the UAZ Patriot with his own hands
Today, many Russian motorists are transplanted to the UAZ Patriot. And the domestic auto industry support, and the SUV is great – at least go through the swamp. Installing the visor on the UAZ is just a dream. The plant does not produce it, but you can order and install it yourself.
Just note that you need to order a canopy made of fiberglass, not heavy and was durable. In addition, it will be resistant to heat, frost and branches, which when traveling forest paths or just tree lined roads mercilessly lashed to the windshield.
Custom visor the first thing to try. Who knows, maybe it doesn’t fit, although sizes are all taken into account in the manufacture? Further it will be necessary to secure the visor 10 screws. But first obey the order to apply silicone adhesive-sealant, preferably transparent. After mounting the canopy with screws, zagruntovat hats and are painted in the color of the product.
Cutting-in of screws into the car body – it is not that difficult. Importantly, in this case use a drill bit the diameter you need. Suitable 3.5 mm.
Here is the layout of the holes. It is better to do a fresh mind. “Seven times measure, cut once,” just about this case. Useful in marking the acetone and anticorrosive material, degreasing the surface. Prior to drilling, the holes need to soften.
The procedure will be as follows.
Holes are drilled and screws are softened.
Visor applied for the holes.
The surface of the body and the shroud, and openings are processed by anticorrosive.
The sealant is applied.
In the visor you can build 5 more diodes of any color. Cable 3 meter skipping to the left under the windshield, and then passes through the fender under the hood and in the cabin.
After mounting the visor on the UAZ Patriot will probably amplify the noise of the air lapping at fast driving at 100 — 110 km/h and more. But we hasten to reassure you: such a feeling arises only in the case of open Windows of the car. Yes and no visor on UAZ Patriot, when accelerating, the noise from the incoming air is not weak, but do not notice it because at that speed you always have to close the Windows.
Revealed no change in the fuel consumption. The material is light and no load on the SUV. As regards the construction, it stands up very firmly. If everything is done correctly, no vibration and rebesani seen.
Now calculate the costs. The visor, made to order, will take about 6,000 rubles. Delivery depending on distance – I think it was about 1000 rubles. Paint products – 2500 rubles. A total of 9500 rubles.
Still to install sun visor and need the information given in the article, more proof of it.
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Suspension is a whole system, a dynamically developing since the creation of the first car. During these years mankind was invented a huge number of different kinds of this system. Many options have long been forgotten and not used today or have been greatly modified and improved. Suspension it defines, perhaps, all the main characteristics of a car. It depends on what traffic will be your “iron friend”, what will be its handling on high speeds and control in General. The maximum speed of the car also depends on the quality and characteristics of its chassis. Lifting quality machine primarily determined by the type of this design.
Classification of automotive suspensions
McPherson – history
How does McPherson
Classification of automotive suspensions
As a result of his development of this site of road construction were divided into three main classes: Dependent suspension – a kind of ancestor of the undercarriage. Is the first suspension, even before the appearance of the cars was used on carts and different types of carts. Was the only and primary design, up to the thirties of the last century, but thanks to its unrivalled reliability and is used today in some passenger cars, SUVs, trucks and buses. The construction of this site, you can use either a spring or a shock-absorbing spring.
Semi – torsion-link suspension invented by “Audi” group. Was very popular in the 70-90 period. is Also used nowadays on cheap car with front-wheel drive, however, is considered rather outdated version. The main qualities are reliability, low cost and simplicity of design. Independent suspension was first presented in the year one thousand nine hundred and eleventh year. The principle is that each wheel is set independently from the others. In this case, each wheel of the vehicle is a fully independent element, and when the road roughness, trapped under one of the wheels, in no way affects the others. This greatly increases the comfort and stability of the car when driving. To this class belongs the famous MacPherson strut. How does the independent suspension
McPherson – history
This variant of the chassis of the car has also a number of other names. For example, in English-speaking countries back option this part called a “suspension of Chapman”. In the post-Soviet space more used the name “swinging candle”.
The developer is American Earl MacPherson, in whose honor was named this design. Was patented in nineteen forty-fifth year. And in nineteen forty-eighth of the device first appeared on production cars. This car was a “Ford Leads”. But Earl is not the sole inventor of this type of system. It is known that a similar variant of the running gear has already been created in nineteen twenties with automaker Fiat, and the Earl, in turn, used part of their development. Types of MacPherson suspension were originally in two versions – anterior and posterior. However, in mass production, machines were used only the front system. Rear suspension of this type was first used developer Colin Chapman from car manufacturer “Lotus” in nineteen fifty-seventh year, resulting in the system being given a name.
Many people ask this question: what is MacPherson strut? At the moment it happens both front and rear. It also exists not only in the classic version (one guide strut and one control arm), but also in many different versions used by each automaker individually. For example, you can find a system with additional longitudinal lever or with an optional upper wishbone. Such modifications allow to minimize all the shortcomings that carries the classic version.
How does McPherson
As the system chassis is the most common, then each owner will need to know how suspension is a MacPherson strut, in order for you to self-repair this node.
It consists of five main components:
shock absorber strut;
the stabilizer bar.
Upstairs knuckle shock absorber is attached to the front terminal connection at the bottom is fixed on the transverse lever. Using a ball joint connects the steering system. In the very fist is the system of bearings, and brake caliper. The subframe is the most important element of the whole structure. Attached to the car body rubber support. These supports minimize the noise arising from the movement and also to reduce the load on the body that comes from irregularities of the road surface. Shock absorber strut provides the effect of elasticity of the structure. Its main components are the absorber and a metal spring. The shock absorber and coil spring are mounted to the rack, and along with them is the compression buffer. On top of this node connects to the splash guard wing, rubber grommet, and the bottom is a connection to the knuckle. Control arm attaches to the subframe by two rubber bushings and provides longitudinal stiffness to the entire structure. The stabilizer bar minimizes lateral body roll. This item is located in the subframe and secured with double support. The second end of the stabilizer shock absorber is fixed to the front connecting elements with hinges.
Small size design.
Low cost production site.
A small mass of the suspension.
Ease of maintenance due to the simplicity of the design.
Mostly thanks to these advantages, this system of chassis, and has gained such popularity around the world.
A strong camber.
Excessive stress on the mudguard of a wing.
Heavy load on the shock tower.
Very strong longitudinal body roll.
Based on these disadvantages we can talk about what cars use a similar type of suspension. This system is mainly used on inexpensive cars, and also cars of the middle class. Due to the small size also is often found on cars with front wheel drive. Never used on expensive cars, because they do not have sufficient comfort. Never been and is not used in vehicles used for racing, in conjunction with the critical for this kind of cars disadvantages.
However, MacPherson strut took its rightful place under the sun. Despite its shortcomings is ideal for the urban car of the middle class. The main thing is manage your “iron horse” and this type of chassis will not cause you any problems.
Increasingly popular among motorists who want to make your car part of your inner style, be vinyl stickers. Its main advantage is durable in use and easy in application, and, of course, they are relatively cheap and you can use them on any surface — from storefront to the hood of the car. Video about vinyl stickers for cars
As already mentioned, today vinyl sticker is a bright way to not only beautify your car but also save money. This is a great alternative to airbrushing, which is applied in special stores. Set of stickers you can buy in the store or order over the Internet and cause the house himself. In addition, when you want to change the image of auto, they can be removed and re-stick the other. It does not need to repaint the car, which is a very big advantage.
Vinyl sticker is a film that has a special adhesive backing for fixing to any surface and on which permanent ink applied various designs. Material for the manufacture of the film is the vinyl — hence the name. Since vinyl are known for its durability, this sticker can decorate your vehicle up to 7 years despite the extremes of temperature and weather conditions.
If you have correctly applied the stickers on the surface of the machine, it will not have any impact on her coverage.
But if this procedure is done in conditions of 15-25 degrees, then their lifetime will increase for 1-2 years. Thanks to modern technology, vinyl stickers are very bright and colorful color design, different sizes and fancy shapes. This has allowed them to win the hearts of hundreds of thousands of design lovers.
The idea to use vinyl stickers was born on afganka
How we came up with the idea to decorate your car, if a car has been a luxury? Why do people even began to think about this? This was the idea of racing. By vinyl stickers on the hood of the car was applied number, surname or nickname of the driver, the logo of the team for which he competes, so the commentators and viewers could understand what the racer who overtakes. Approximately in the mid 70-ies of the drawings on the cars began to carry a more important role. Thanks to its bright, aggressive graphics on racing cars, each car was unique and memorable. This was the beginning airbrushing.
But eventually it turned out that to apply images this way is very expensive. Because the coloring process was quite energy intensive and require a long period of time to perform, and the price the artist has been corresponding. So enterprising people with creative and practical thinking invented, the use of vinyl will be cheaper and more reliable, and the picture can be changed any time, and in a matter of hours. Stylized more and more cars appear on the streets
Today vinyl styling is widely used among racing teams who are responsible for the aesthetic design of cars. And not only. Stylized more and more cars appear on the streets. Even those most taxis use such stickers for advertising services.
So, vinyl styling is a combination of several labels that are placed on different parts of the car, but they are United by a single theme and plot. The car was subjected to this procedure, stands out from the gray mass of cars on the road, it attracts attention and denotes the individuality of its owner.
Variety of vinyl stickers
To date, motorists who want to tune your car, are available in a wide range of vinyl stickers. It is also necessary to say that there are absolutely transparent vinyl stickers, the use of which does not change the appearance of your vehicle but protects the paintwork from minor scratches of various kinds. Transparent vinyl stickers will not change the appearance of your car As for the colored stickers, they are divided into the following types:
Venography (the one on which there is a picture)
Chameleon (allows you to change the color of the car depending on what angle you’re standing from him and look at his body)
Recently gained popularity imitating carbon film. It can be also used for the interior. The colors of such a film can be very different (up to 400 textures) including imitation leather, stone, ceramic, or a snake.
The carbon film can withstand temperatures from -40 to +80 degrees, which allows it to become one of the most durable and reliable.
How to apply vinyl stickers on the car
Vinyl stickers on the car, you can apply two methods. The first is the “dry method”. If used, the sticker is applied to the coating as soon as you remove the protective film, and instantly dries on the car surface. The main advantage and the main disadvantage of this method is its quickness. Judge for yourself — one wrong move — and all the work was gone, because if you glued unevenly, it is possible to fix it you can take. This method is not practical for gluing large pictures. The advantage of carbon film in the ability to withstand extreme temperatures from -40 to +80 degrees
Second, no matter how corny it sounds, is called “wet”. Immediately before the procedure of pasting the film itself and detail of the coating where you want to apply the Wallpaper, are filled with a special soap solution that is designed to disable the action of the glue. In this way, you get the opportunity to change the film, change its location. When the master will be satisfied with his work, the film is dried, and is firmly adhered to the surface. The disadvantage of this method is the time, because for the execution of such work requires about a day. But if you want to apply film on entire surface or you apply a whole group of labels that require precision, this method is the only right decision.
Disadvantages of vinyl styling very little. But if you give your car to a car wash, we should warn that the transport was pasted, because long-term exposure to water of the coating deteriorates.
We all know that painting a car can fade under direct sunlight. If you applied a vinyl sticker, and a couple of years you decide to remove it, the sticker under the tint may be slightly darker than General color of the car.
Well, if the paint is substandard car, when adlake film can come off and some of the paint.
How to stick vinyl on cars with their hands
The process of applying vinyl stickers on the side of the vehicle simple, nevertheless it requires certain skills. The most important and initial to purchase the sticker which you like so that you are ready to decorate your car. It all depends on your imagination and finances. A vinyl sticker consists of:
Mounting mounting of the film or paper to transfer to the surface.
White paper serving as the basis for the label.
The first and the third point in the process, we need only as an additional protective materials. Precautions when applying vinyl decals:
You must not wet the backing of the stickers. It threatens in future work difficulties with removal.
Do not overheat the decal with a Hairdryer, it can simply melt.
To smooth the surface of the stickers on the car, often use the plastic squeegee. To save this picture from scratch, there is no need to remove the transfer film (paper). We should wait for the completion of the process.
In that case, when you are going to apply the vinyl sticker is not in the garage and on the street, you should consider the following factors: on the street should not be windy and the minimum temperature should be +10. With a smaller value on the thermometer, the film may not stick or fall off in a week, maybe even more.
Want a unique vehicle — use vinyl stickers What you will need for vinyl stickers:
Clean, washed and degreased surface of the car.
If you want to apply big picture, you need the assistant.
Dry piece of cloth.
Plastic or felt squeegee (in most supplied with a sticker).
The spray bottle with clean water and added detergent agent in a proportion of 1:10.
Powerful hair dryer, and can be normal.
Thus, the vinyl stickers will make your car individual, unlike the others.
We are very glad to have you with us, dear readers, don’t forget to leave your comments and share experience in the application of vinyl stickers.
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