The content

  • The ABS system
  • Pendant AIRMATIC
  • Pendant Hydroactive
  • Pendant with magnet
  • SCS
  • MBC or magic Body Control
  • Conclusion

The ABS system

Nothing to do with the brake system. This is a set of settings that limits the motion of the car moving body.

ABC appeared in 1998 and today the more advanced MBC based on it.
ABC is a system that is used on the Mercedes. Thanks to her suspension German car safely hold the weight of the car and successfully dampens the oscillation of the body. In addition, the system helps to combat rolls and pitching on rough roads.
System represents a special circuit that changes the location of the standard coil springs at each wheel. The offset takes place, as mentioned above, in the vertical plane. As for the control unit, it receives data in real-time about road conditions and acts accordingly. The unit compares the data on road conditions with information supplied by the sensors. After analyzing the ABC system sends a signal to the valves on the front and rear axles. Those, in turn, are connected and thereby affect the relevant mechanisms.

Современные сокращенные названия систем, управляющих амортизаторами и подвескойThe ABS system is very complex, but is fully automatic
In the new Mercedes Coupe S class ABC got in addition another useful function: under the windshield are cameras that transmit information to the control unit, and that, in turn, recognizes in advance the rotation, and controls the suspension as the situation requires. If the bends are too tight, the unit makes more suspension to tilt the vehicle to one side of the roll.

Pendant AIRMATIC

In this suspension, instead of the usual metal springs are installed pneumotonometry and so the suspension operates much nicer.
Presented by Mercedes in 1998. Pnevmoelementy the developers have provided for controlling the clearance at different vehicle load. So, this suspension can raise or lower the vehicle body, thereby affecting the ground clearance. At the same time improve the aerodynamic properties of the car is better behaved on the road.
The principle of operation is to electrocompressor which pumps air into the cylinder. After that, he sends him on a telescopic stand. Here mounted in a special valve, which regulates the control unit. These valves, in turn, regulate the passage of air so as to change the height of a road gleam.

Pendant Hydroactive

The system, which in 1989 was first used car Citroen XM. Installed on this car hitopadesa received electronic control. Since then it is called hidroaktivni.
This suspension operates in the following manner: with the beginning of the pump forces oil (it is special), then the lubricant is supplied to the wheels equipped with shock absorbing elements. The wheels are connected with the spheres filled with nitrogen under high pressure.
Современные сокращенные названия систем, управляющих амортизаторами и подвескойA hydropneumatic suspension system
Cars with hydropneumatic suspension have been before. But suspension settings controlled by the driver manually. Implementation of e-governance has allowed not only to shift responsibility for this function the robot, but greatly increased the efficiency of the suspension. Now a shock-absorbing element may be soft or hard depending on the automatic settings. Now in its third generation, the system is able to change the ride height and increase it to 13 mm, if the speed is low. On the other hand, the system can reduce the ground clearance by 15 mm, if the vehicle’s speed exceeds 110 km/h.

Pendant with magnet

Different magnetorheological suspension. Has its own special secret of functioning of the special fluid in the shock absorbers. It is this component that allows you to change the viscosity depending on the voltage.
Obviously, lower or higher viscosity fluids can impede or, conversely, to facilitate its movement through the channels of shock absorbers. This a priori leads to a change in damping properties of the suspension, increases its ability to absorb the shaking of the body.
The first such unique system has been introduced at the time, Delphi for cars concern GM. Initially it was installed on the car Cadillac Seville STS. And today it is used in almost all brands ranging from Audi to Ferrari.

SCS

The system used on cars. It is called not only so, but also otherwise, for example, Cats, Ecs, CVRSS, and so on.
Mostly, these interact with the metal springs, but there are some that are combined with a gas strut. For example, such a system, combined with pneumotonometry, was equipped with a Mitsubishi GALANT 1987. In addition, among the pioneers with electronic suspension control to recall the Lancia Thema and other cars.

MBC or magic Body Control

A unique system with two cameras mounted behind the windshield of the vehicle, determines the condition of the roadway on which the vehicle travels. Mercedes designed it and automatically changes the suspension settings depending on road conditions.
Современные сокращенные названия систем, управляющих амортизаторами и подвескойMagic Body Control equipped cars, the Mercedes S-class
This intelligent function equipped with the Mercedes S-class with eight – and twelve-cylinder engines for an extra charge. The camera can be used those that already exist in the car for other safety systems, such as the preservation of a lane or autobrake. As you might expect, the smart system receives the image and analyzes thanks to a clever software. She is able to recognize even 3 mm roughness at a distance of 15 metres from the front of the car. As for the speed of information processing, it can ensure the normal operation of the system. Although the ideal is a system operation in daylight or bright light. At medium speed it does not make no mistakes.

Conclusion

The above control system is very smart. They passed not one test, and all the risks associated with poor operation or failure in a specific situation is nullified. Thanks to these unique systems is not only more comfortable driving, but also safety issue which in recent times is noteworthy. And most accidents and accidents happen due to purely human factor: not have time, forgot, didn’t notice and so on. Automation will negate almost all of these shortcomings, provide a guarantee of safe riding.

The content

  • Warm or not – that is the question
  • The time required for warm-up
  • Warming up the engine in winter and warm in freezing temperatures
  • The opinion of experts

Warm or not – that is the question

Let’s look at what happens at the moment of ignition. Gasoline and the necessary amount of oxygen in the form of a combustible mixture into the combustion chamber. The engine electrical system supplies current to the spark plug. As a result, the ignition of the combustible mixture, which increases the pressure inside the cylinder, it contributes to the motion of piston group of the engine, and they, in turn, through the details and the mechanism rotates the wheel.
Another important factor influencing the rapid starting of the engine is the oil temperature in the crankcase. Oil is supplied to the motor only after its launch. But in the first minutes begins with a fairly intense friction, that contributes to their wear and tear, but the more the temperature rises, the faster the oil is heated to the required performance. Oil is filled between the parts, friction is reduced, productivity is increased, and as a result, the engine runs evenly and steadily.
Зима на пороге: прогрев двигателя необходимость или пережиток прошлогоIn winter, all fluids of the car from low temperatures become more viscous, including the oil in the engine
To more easily understand this principle, imagine: jelly and hot oil. Even in jelly spoon turned with difficulty, and in the second embodiment, even potatoes Bouncing in a pan.

The time required for warm-up

We are already in the beginning of the article was disassembled seasonal changes in the operation of the vehicle. It is necessary to change not only tires, but in a different way to produce the heating of the motor. The base will take the operating temperature of the motor, it is about 90° C, and from this we will draw on. If the street is +20 degrees, to reach the desired temperature much faster than at -10°, and -20° C.
Of course, it is difficult to combine temperature and time of heating. Each car has its own characteristics, its capacity, and even individual Parking spaces. That also affects the period of readiness of the motor to move.

  • Consider an interesting innovation, which facilitates warming up of the engine: “Remote engine start”. Wonderful high-tech function, perfect in all respects. You calmly go about their morning procedures: gymnastics, gather the kids to school or shave, check my email on the Internet, in fact, not building your life needs hot “favorite car”. Enough to go outside, sit in the car calmly and move to the correct route. But in order to make more comfortable your travel arrangements, you need to install on your car a modern and reliable car alarm that has the function of starting the engine remotely. In this case, the engine speed during warm-up is stable.
  • More affordable option the usual warming up of the machine. So what is the difficulty? However, at low temperatures there are nuances. It’s one thing if the car spent the night even in an unheated garage. To stabilize the speed is about 5 minutes. This is assuming that the temperature does not fall below -5 degrees. At lower temperatures not only increases the warm-up time, but the mode of movement must be slightly different. Start slowly, not to peregazovki, gain speed like with “lazy”.
  • These points will give a positive result if you advance will take care of changing the oil for winter, and the cooling system will flood high quality liquid.

    Warming up the engine in winter and warm in freezing temperatures

    Let’s talk about what are not always cold winter, and it would soon be spring, what experts advise in this case, whether to warm up the engine, or “sat down, turned on the ignition and wonderful.” There is no single answer. On the one hand, this procedure is not very positive impact on the environment. Let’s be Frank, we primarily use is not environmentally friendly cars.
    Зима на пороге: прогрев двигателя необходимость или пережиток прошлогоSome motorists specially insulated engine compartment
    But there is another more significant side to this issue: long-term operation of the motor. Agree, the constant “shock” loads will not contribute to the normal operation of the “heart” of the car. Therefore, “gentle” warming up helps in any time of the year to stabilize the rpm. As a result, the engine starts to work without stress and overload.

    The opinion of experts

    Most of the designers and the creators of cars are recommended to use top quality coolant (“Antifreeze”, etc.), good oil. Most of the tests showed interesting results. On cold engine wear is not observed, but under the condition of light load.
    Зима на пороге: прогрев двигателя необходимость или пережиток прошлогоNot worth much worry at the moment of ignition and forget about fast starts
    Engineers explain this peculiarity by the fact that a small load helps the engine slowly, but more effectively to achieve the necessary operating temperature of the motor. If to explain in simple, not race, crash hard in the moment of ignition and forget about fast starts.
    But to the question whether to warm up the engine in winter spices give a definite answer: Yes. In cold weather fuel injected engines must be warmed up for at least 30 seconds, and carburetor for about 1-2 minutes.

    Low ambient temperatures now and the coming frosts in the near future make you think about the correct preparation of the car for the trip. You can choose the option that is more suitable for you: install “smart” electronics or to properly warm up the car after Parking in the cold. But in any case should listen to the above advice, it helps to preserve the motor and you will be free from problems.

    The content

    • Is it possible not to become a “victim” of bitumen?
    • Methods of getting the bitumen to the surface
    • How to remove?

    Is it possible not to become a “victim” of bitumen?

    In order not to suffer from this oil, you should follow some precautions. For example, it is not necessary to accelerate to high speeds on roads that have only recently been paved. You also need to observe an interval of at least 1-2 meters in relation to other cars on the road.

    In addition, on this site do not need too often to turn the steering wheel. During its rotation, in the movement come and wheels. This leads to the fact that near the wheel arches are going a variety of particles from the road. The bitumen may also have to be there. But unlike other substances, it can stay here forever, that will cause a lot of discomfort to the driver. In addition, this may be the casting of bitumen on the sides of the car.
    It is much easier to wash off the substance from the car waxed. And vulnerabilities can be used to paste a protective film, if there is a possibility that it will soon have to drive along a newly paved road.
    Удаляем битумные пятна с поверхности автомобиляIf you do not keep your distance, tar spots can appear on the front bumper or the hood
    Of course, it is a pleasure a lot. But it will be a reliable protection not only from the resin, and from various small stones and other particles.

    Methods of getting the bitumen to the surface

    The bitumen used in paving roads, is able to return to your liquid state. However, for this to happen, it needs to interact with certain substances.
    On the road the bitumen quickly becomes liquid under the influence of too high temperatures. And the quality of the resin in this case plays an important role. Usually used for asphalting the bitumen of poor quality.
    Thus, on hot days you receive the greatest possibility of contamination of the bitumen car spots.
    Resin gets on the car, which travels at a speed of even 40-50 km/h. Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of your car is reasonable to drive at lower speeds.
    Incidentally, the thinner will be the bitumen, the worse it will affect the status of the machine. Due to the large content of solvent, it quickly and easily penetrates into the coating. Therefore, even after the tar spots will be removed, it is likely that there will be other – light yellow “patterns”. At risk are all cars that have a lacquer coating. It is in lacquer and “absorbed” asphalt is the most intense. Especially well it is visible against the light paint. While stains remaining after its removal, it is best to be visible on a dark background.
    Удаляем битумные пятна с поверхности автомобиляSpot bitumen is most noticeable on light paint
    And if you don’t take the spot immediately, then after 4-5 hours, they generally cannot be completely removed because they will be totally receptive to anything.

    How to remove?

    Of course, the removal of bitumen from the surface of the machine should occur as soon as possible. In the early hours this process will be much more effective. In addition, removing stains immediately after they occur is much more easy than a day.
    There is a huge variety of tools that can be used for cleaning. This can be a regular margarine and white spirit or something more expensive tool.
    Удаляем битумные пятна с поверхности автомобиляRemoving stains immediately after they occur is much more easier than a day
    The resin that hardened (if it failed immediately to remove) need to be gently scraped off with a spatula. In some cases it is required to soak a bit first, and only then try to resolve. You may have to Polish the affected area.
    To remove stubborn yellowness is also possible. This is done using abrasive paste and professional circle. However, this option is only suitable for cars that have been painted only with paint, and the varnish layer is absent. As mentioned earlier, get rid of the yellow stains penetrated into the varnish layer, it is impossible.

    After all the manipulations for the elimination of particles of bitumen produced, the surface of the car must be thoroughly washed with soap solution, since residual solvent may affect coverage, causing it to collapse.
    The above information will help you successfully cope with the consequences left so dangerous to the paintwork of the vehicle substance, such as bitumen. I hope that the article will be of practical use to all motorists.

    ABS and BAS

    Let’s start with ABS, as the most common systems used today on virtually all manufactured vehicles. In fact, the abbreviation ABS means antilock braking system. It is used and BAS – brake assist.
    ABS has long been known, but the full extent of its potential is revealed with the help of a special device. In emergency braking, the driver often does not have time to press before the end of the brake pedal or hold it in a certain position, because the presence of ABS eliminates the possibility of wheel lock.

    Аббревиатуры современной тормозной системы в машинахAnti-lock braking system
    It is for this reason that in 1996 presented a new tool, called “Brake assist”. He imagined an electronic device which helped to develop a maximum braking force in the case when the electronic unit detects the situation when the driver started to press the brake pedal with great force. And today, BAS are endowed with absolutely all ABS, except that with the exception of a few.

    ECBS for electric vehicles and hybrids

    Recently become popular the electric cars which, because of polluted environment, probably, soon will increase the number produced. These cars and hybrids today are driven by many people and especially for them was coined the system that controls the brakes electronically.
    This electronically controlled brake system monitors the vehicle speed and the engine speed. It is ECBS distributes the share of turnover coming on the generator and hydraulics. In fact, the brakes in this system serve a dual function.

    When you change the speed of the vehicle ECBS takes into account how changing the braking force and monitors the stored energy in the batteries.
    In other words, this system is made for every moment to change the force with which the pads are pressed against the drums or disks. Thus, the deceleration of the vehicle passes the projected and meets the required canons of the driver’s side without any unusual reactions to the pedal.
    Аббревиатуры современной тормозной системы в машинахThe electric system is used ECBS that distributes the share of turnover coming on the generator and hydraulics

    CCM, CCB or PCCB

    What is it, asks an interested reader? Again came the revolution, as in 1917, after which reduce nearly every long names. We hasten to reassure you – all right.
    These abbreviations taken to reduce carbon ceramic brakes. As you know, they are much lighter, less worn out and much better resist stress even during intensive use.
    On racing cars, for example, uses carbon fiber brakes, but they are, compared with these, have some drawbacks when driving on normal roads and require a strong warm-up for effective braking.
    Carbon ceramic brakes are made from discs, which are made by mixing carbon and silicon carbide. Obviously, these brakes will cost much more than standard cast iron. At the price affects not only the use of more expensive components, but also the duration of the production process. The use of such brakes is almost ideal for sports cars, especially if they occasionally get on track.
    You might use the disk for the first time has tested a Porsche 996 and a Ferrari Enzo. This was back in 2000.

    BRAKE BY WIRE

    Electro-hydraulic system Bosch SBC, pioneered on the Mercedes SL. It consists of fuses, actuators, sensors of speed of rotation of the wheels, the hydraulic circuit high pressure control units and sensor ESP yaw rate.
    What is the hydraulic high pressure circuit? This is the direct provision of aid by the hydraulics in the braking problem. In this case, provided the connection between pedal and brakes. Under normal conditions this circuit is automatically disabled, and all control passes to electronics.
    The same sensor yaw rate deals with measurements of the movements of the body around the vertical axis.

    EPB

    The electronic Parking brake was first demonstrated in 2001. At the same time it was decided to give a regular place of hand brake lever controls multimedia systems.
    Now the Parking brake is fully electronic. This avoids the risk, which had often arisen in situations where the driver forgot to put the car on Parking brake or remove.

    SBC

    Brake system where standard mechanical and hydraulic connection is replaced by actuators controlled ET.
    This system was developed simultaneously by two companies: Bosch and Mercedes. The main purpose was to improve the efficiency of ABS and ESP and add new features. For example, SBC considerably improves the stability of the vehicle on the road and reduce braking distance. The system according to the following scheme: first the EC recognize the command on the braking, which is transmitted by sensor pedal travel and effort and after processing information, sends signals to the Executive authorities.

    RBS

    Regenerative braking again is designed for electric vehicles. When slowing down the operation of the electric motor vehicle batteries, or hybrid, this engine turns into a generator to recharge the battery and simultaneously slowing the vehicle down.
    Instead of dissipating the heat from the discs and drums, this generator increases the range of using nekupirovanny energy. Thus, hybrids and electric motors to significantly reduce fuel consumption, increase the service life of the brake pads. And the more that happens long and light braking, the greater the required energy can recuperate.

    EBP

    System acceleration of reaction of the braking system is also fully electronic. At the moment when the driver takes his foot off the brake pedal, EBP automatically brings the brake pads close to the discs. And thus, this system is ready at any time to perform emergency braking, if the foot is lifted off the brake pedal abruptly and unconventionally. For the purpose of implementation of EBP is to reduce braking distance.

    HDC

    Very useful system for the control of the descent. Often set on crossovers and SUVs, safely, lowering the speed down on steep roads or the slopes, a priori, braking each wheel individually, of course, using ABS.
    Аббревиатуры современной тормозной системы в машинахThe SUVs are often installed in the control system of descent
    The driver just has at the moment of releasing press on the button, as it makes Kim Basinger in commercials Opel, calmly to trust the system. While not even need to press on the brake pedal.

    That’s all. The article managed to bring all the known additions to the braking system of the vehicle. They bring tangible benefits by automating some of the functions formerly performed by the driver. In addition, these systems increase the safety of driving, turning the car in a fully reliable means of transportation.

    Types and characteristics of springs

    So is the spring, which, being compressed, accumulates energy. The shock absorbers can be divided into the following subtypes depending on the technical features of the design:

  • Hydraulic twin-tube.
  • Single-tube gas hydraulic, high pressure.
  • Gas hydraulic twin-tube, low pressure.
  • Accordingly, the principle of operation of any such device based on the transformation of the energy of the suspension into thermal energy. This is how they keep the natural “jumping” of the car, providing a comfortable ride for driver, and long life to the vehicle itself.

    The standard shock can last for several years, although the first signs of wear can be noticed already after 30000 kilometers. And the larger the vehicle, the more noticeable the wear; and the more careful maintenance required for these products. If you are the owner of the car is so powerful that his springs are subjected to overload due to overheating, the best solution would be to install dual shock absorbers.

    The device of the shock absorber

    In recent years, the dual shocks of the resource are among the best-selling and most popular products in the automotive market. In addition to the standard cylinder, rod and piston, they are equipped with an additional cylinder with built-in flask with liquid and another piston. When driving the latter compresses the liquid contained in the flask, causing it to flow through the valve in the outer cylinder. Such a device affects the performance and efficiency of the element, respectively, increasing the useful operation and reliability of the vehicle itself. If you decide to install this kind of on your car, you should remember some highlights.

  • The shock-absorber rod is its most important part, to protect which you want to set the washer to prevent damage to the stock of small solid particles.
  • Bushing, pressed into the body itself, necessary for centering of the stem.
  • The main parts of the shock absorber support is the thrust bearing and the bump stop.
  • The first thing to remember when installing the shock absorber, is that it should be located in the vicinity of the wheels, and also necessarily perpendicular to the motion of the suspension. In other words, if the suspension moves up and down, the damper must be installed vertically.

    Двойные амортизаторы прокачка подготовка и установка на автомобильSet dual dampers should be in accordance with the recommendations of topoisomerase
    If equipped with rear suspension earrings, a damper should be rejected back to synchronize with the movement of the suspension. Important detail when installing the shock absorber of the double resource is its correct orientation. If Monotube shock absorber you can set the camera up or down, then flip two-tube shock absorber is not recommended. Otherwise you risk to get “dead space” with an air tube, which will disrupt its correct operation. Therefore, when installing this equipment, always follow the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    Pumping. Preparing to install

    So, before proceeding with the installation, aiming to provide a soft suspension car, you need to verify that your absorbers will provide the desired result, and does not require sverrishola and excessive time consumption.
    Before installing a double shock absorber on your vehicle it should “pump” because unprepared is one of the most frequent causes of breakdowns piston system that in turn leads to loss of warranty from the manufacturer. In other words, the shock absorber first of all you need to bring it into working condition.
    During storage, transportation and loading-unloading, the working environment of the absorber can enter from the inner cylinder into the outer, so that there are knocks in the suspension and the micro-valve. Before installing, you must perform the following steps:

  • Turn the shock absorber and without jerks (gently) squeeze it.
  • Hold this position for a few seconds.
  • Turn the damper rod up and stand in this position for about 10 seconds.
  • Push rod until end of turn, not turning the entire device.
  • Turn the stem down and after 2-3 seconds to repeat the previous operation for several times.
  • Holding the damper rod up, short precise movements of the rod control its quality work.
  • After this training, the shock cannot be reversed until it is mounted on a vehicle.

    Shock absorber mounting

    During installation of this device should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations, as well as some common rules that will set the attenuator to serve you long and efficiently. You should not install (this applies to not only double, but gazomaslyanogo absorbers) using a pneumatic tool, as they can damage the stem or simply break.
    Двойные амортизаторы прокачка подготовка и установка на автомобильFully tighten the nuts only after the vehicle is removed from lift
    Finally tighten the nuts only after the vehicle is removed from lift. The wheels must be under full load. Correct and smooth operation of the equipment described here will contribute to the collapse and convergence, as well as balancing the suspension. After “pumping” it is necessary to check all mounting parts, their configuration and technical condition.
    Making sure that the shock absorber spring is in a compressed position, loosen the main stem nut. After that the shock absorber is attached to the upper support by using the remaining nuts and bolts supplied. The installation is performed one at a time – the complete dismantling of a rack of a vehicle, installation, installation of rack, and only after that, similar actions are performed with the second counter.
    Двойные амортизаторы прокачка подготовка и установка на автомобильWhen attaching nuts and bolts will pay special attention to the tightening torque
    Don’t forget about the safety rules at work, especially when working with the spring as its compression and uncompression can not only damage the piston, but also to injure the person. When attaching nuts and bolts will pay special attention to the tightening torque recommended by the manufacturer.

    Dual shock absorbers, the process is time-consuming and responsible. If you are not confident in their abilities, the best thing you can do is to contact the experts. If confidence galore, follow the manufacturer’s recommendations, do not forget about the safety rules and use the right tool.

    The concept of compression

    To most comprehensively describe the importance of compression, it is not necessary to consult reference books and terminology. Just remember that compression is the maximum pressure in the cylinder, emerging at the end of the compression stroke. The magnitude of this pressure can be measured in different units, but the most widespread measurement in atmospheres. It should be mentioned that compression is not constant, as the compression ratio of the engine, and changed in the smaller side as it is worn. But more on that later.
    As for the value of the optimum pressure in the cylinders, for a particular model of engine it is individual and depends on its volume. To have the maximum idea about the difference of these indicators, just look at the table below:

    Engine model
    Volume
    Pressure (atmospheres)

    YAMZ 236
    11,15 l
    34-37

    EURO 4
    11,76 l
    33-39

    Lexus ES300 (used)
    3 l
    15-16

    VAZ 2101
    1.6 l
    10-13

    D
    4,75 l
    25-29

    Causes of low pressure

    As mentioned above, the rate of compression depends on engine wear. In this regard, there may be various reasons because of which the pressure in the cylinder can be reduced. The main such reasons include the following:

    • mechanical wear of the piston system. In this case, all the parts that are in direct contact with each other, there are scratches and dings. This occurs mainly due to use of poor quality fuel, after which combustion residue remains, adversely affecting the cylinder wall and the piston;
    • the occurrence or wedging of the sealing rings. The reason ― poor-quality gasoline. The accumulation of residues Gary ring just stick to the grooves on the piston and not properly decompressed when heated, which leads to a loss of pressure;
    • chipped. Since any component of the piston system has a time limit of its operation, sooner or later the fatigue, which from the details begin to break away small particles that can lead not only to loss of pressure, but causes severe damage to the engine as a whole.

    Methods of increasing compression

    Perhaps, before you wonder how to increase engine compression, you should determine the root cause of the pressure drop in the cylinder, and only after that to start Troubleshooting. Today, there are several ways to solve this problem, which are used depending on each case. Let’s start with the most common cause reduce the compression – wear piston system.
    Степень сжатия и компрессия двигателя: подробное описаниеUrbaine compression depends on the wear of piston system
    Since the problem of wear of the cylinder-piston group of the engine is related to gapping of parts to each other, to solve this problem in innovative ways. On the market you can find a large variety of different additives, with which you can build up on the worn area of the metal required thickness, which would be enough to increase the compression. In addition, some materials such additives, capable of holding motor oil, so that the pressure increases even more. However, this method should be used only when you are sure the cause of the fault. For example, the use of additives in the bedding of the piston rings will not affect the situation or even it will aggravate. It is therefore important to conduct a thorough diagnosis before starting repair. About what the compression should be the model of your engine, can be read in its technical documentation. On this basis, it is necessary to draw certain conclusions regarding the possible causes of failure.

    As for jamming or “saccovanzetti” piston rings, there are other methods. We can say that even the old, but very effective. To increase the compression in this case is quite simple. You need to Unscrew candles, pour in each hole about 100 grams of motor oil and wait for about an hour. Clean oil will soften the accumulated fumes, and the next time you start the engine it will simply develop on their own. If you know, what should be the compression of the engine of your car, then you can compare it with the performance after this procedure, by measuring the magnitude of a pressure gauge. If there are no changes, it is likely that the reason lies in mechanical damage, so the only way out would be a visit to the workshop.

    The definition of compression ratio

    We have already determined that compression is the pressure level in the cylinders. What is the compression ratio? Actually, it’s very simple. The compression ratio of an engine is the ratio of the working volume of the cylinder to the volume of the combustion chamber. On this basis, it should be noted that this value is constant for the brand of your engine, not measured in any units, so to compare it with compression makes no sense. Also, this parameter directly affects the engine power. What it is, the higher the pressure above the piston, and therefore the higher the torque.
    Степень сжатия и компрессия двигателя: подробное описаниеMeasurement of the degree of compression
    Moreover, knowing the compression ratio, it’s easy to determine what the compression should be on your engine. This requires this parameter to be multiplied by 1.4 atmosphere. The result is, of course, approximate, but, it can be relied upon as the approximate value of the optimum pressure.
    To find out the degree of compression, enough to perform three simple steps:

  • To measure the working volume of the cylinder. You do this by dividing the total displacement by the number of cylinders. For example, if your four cylinder engine has a size of 1100 cubic meters, will be equal to the working volume of 275 cm3.
  • Measure the size of the combustion chamber. This procedure must be performed when the piston is in the upper meter point. Then you can use a regular syringe, in which typed engine oil. Fixing the amount of poured oil, you will receive the indicator.
  • Divide the first result by the second. The resulting number will be the compression ratio of the engine.

  • So, making certain findings, we can safely say that the engine compression and compression ratio are two totally different things. Knowing these basic concepts, it will be much easier to identify these or other problems associated with cylinder-piston system of the motor.

    The content

    • How to use the Navigator
    • Tips on installing a Navigator in the car

    How to use the Navigator

    Once you have purchased for your car modern browser, you first open a brand new box, which will itself lie in the electronic device, charging and, of course, the manual Navigator. Having studied in detail is applied to the Navigator documents, and then setting, you’ll need to set it up. To do this:

    • To activate the Navigator.
    • After you turn on your screen should appear, indicating that the Navigator searches for the satellite. Once the signal is caught, the display will show “POSITION”, you can view its location, namely the road on which your car.
    • It was convenient to use the card, you need to “Menu” go to “Settings” − “Map” − “map Up” where there will be a choice of “North up” and “spin motion”. It is best to choose the latter, it is much more convenient in use while driving.
    • To select the route for further movement of motor transport is necessary to press “Menu”. The screen will display several options: “next map”; “at”; “favorite”; “waypoints”; “by coordinates”. In our case we will choose “address”.
    • Then there are fields for entering the streets, houses and accordingly the city. Easy enough to enter − when typing the first letters of the street, the program automatically produces the expected names. At the end of installation the full address press “go”. If you can’t find the right street, you write the one that is near, therefore, and with the house number.
    • Then the navigation system automatically plans the route.

    Как быстро научиться использовать навигаторLearning to use Navigator is not difficult
    If the Navigator paved the wrong route, for example, you need to call back in one place, you can adjust it a bit to:

    • To do this, move the map to the desired point. A finger tap on the place, save and specify the name of this point.
    • Then click “Find” − “Waypoints”, select the desired city. Immediately appears on the display “Show on map”, you need only to click on it, then will open the city map with the required choice. At the end of the process you should press “Stop”.
    • The program will automatically recalculate your route, specify the distance and travel time. You only need after adjusting each route to save it using the “Export”button.

    You can choose in the navigation system convenient route, for example, pressing the “Avoid route”, which includes unpaved roads, toll roads, highways etc. You can also, in route to check the availability near hotels, cafes or petrol stations, you just need to mention in the settings guide.
    Как быстро научиться использовать навигаторIf the device is connected to the Internet, it will show actual information about traffic jams
    If you connect to the Internet, you can get information about traffic jams − this handy feature will help you to save time.

    Tips on installing a Navigator in the car

    The Navigator worked efficiently and there were no hindrances to its success, it must be set correctly in the car. For this, there are a few simple rules:

    • The Navigator should be installed so that it will not obstruct the view while driving.
    • The antenna is built inside the Navigator, should not be close to metal parts.
    • Calculate the length of a cable for charging navigational electronic devices.
    • Install it so that the display is not insolated.
    • The angle of the screen should be located for the driver so that during the motion it is convenient to observe the route.


    Navigator today it has become an indispensable item for virtually any person. Athletes, motorists, fishermen, mushroom pickers, hunters rely heavily on this device, which helps to calculate routes, find or keep a place and to go there without using the old “antiquated” methods, or the compass, and using only modern technologies.

    The content

    • You lit temperature indicator
    • Why the engine temperature is so important
    • What to do
    • To summarize

    You lit temperature indicator

    This lamp lights when you turn the ignition on. This is normal. But few seconds after you start the engine it should go out. If it remains lit, it means the coolant level in the cooling system is too low or there is a fault of the system itself. It happens that the indicator lights up during movement. Again, this may be due to lack of antifreeze. Another option is the cooling system can no longer cope with increasing temperature of the unit.

    It should be noted that color display of different brands of cars can vary greatly. For example, blue color indicates low temperature “engine”, and red is high. To learn about these intricacies can be from the instruction manual of a particular vehicle.

    Why the engine temperature is so important

    The internal combustion engine, which is installed on modern cars, the unit is not the easiest. It consists of a large number of individual mechanisms and entire systems. “Iron heart” of a car is influenced by many different factors. But temperature is the key.
    In case the temperature of the unit is less than optimal, will suffer the process of formation of the fuel mixture in the cylinders. As a result we have reduction power engine and accelerated wear. Engine overheating is even more dangerous. It leads to deformation of the cylinder head, cooling system and lubrication will lose tightness. The drop of coolant level and excessive oil consumption is not that bad. The consequence of overheating may well be a loss of elasticity piston rings, damaged cylinder walls and jammed the engine as the final sad result. In any case, without lengthy (and costly) repair will not do.

    What to do

    So what should I do if the led lights temperature? First of all it is necessary without delay to enable the heating system (this will take some of the heat from the unit). Quietly, without sudden acceleration to choose a quiet place and stop. Before you turn off the engine, open the hood and check the fan that cools the radiator.
    Почему горит лампочка температуры на машинеThe temperature of the lamp may light due to a malfunction of the thermostat
    Now you can turn off the ignition. Touch the radiator. Cold? Probably faulty thermostat. The hand feels warm? Silted radiator or “failed” pump. Do not forget to check the belt tension.
    Take a break – the engine needs to cool down. Opening a hot engine, you run the risk of getting burned by steam from the neck of the radiator. A symptom of sufficient cooling will restore the softness of the water pipes. You can now open the radiator and bring the coolant level up to normal. In a hot engine to top up the antifreeze not! May crack cylinder head.
    Now slowly and don’t go overboard in the pedal, go to the garage. Fellow travelers, if there are better to plant.
    Почему горит лампочка температуры на машинеIf the burning temperature sensor is not worth much to worry
    So, if lamp is lit the temperature of the engine must:

    • to turn on the heating;
    • to stop;
    • with the engine running to check the fan;
    • to muffle Assembly;
    • to estimate the temperature of the radiator;
    • check the belt tension;
    • wait until the engine cools down;
    • top up the coolant;
    • carefully to go to the garage.

    To summarize

    The lighted bulb temperature of the internal combustion engine indicates a serious problem. Ignoring this signal will result in serious damage to the vehicle and very expensive repairs.

    The content

    • What are the reasons
    • What about the repair?
    • What to do if you’re on the road

    What are the reasons

    Causes of hernia can be different. The most common are considered to be treacherous potholes. And no matter how fast the car is moving, in this situation will have value only the quality of the skirt and the size of this very well.

    Quite often there are cases of manufacturing defects and violations of the technical specifications, then the defect will manifest itself, for seemingly no apparent reason after about a year of operation. But in today’s state of our roads is unlikely to prove that you are not guilty, and solve the problem will have for you.
    Грыжа на колесе: причины, следствие и способы ее устраненияThis can happen if the wrong Park
    Also to the side bloating can cause a cut or protestest in one certain place, therefore, when Parking, keep your distance to the curb, otherwise the probability to encounter a hernia on the tire will increase significantly.
    Following the cause of the bumps is an accident. In that case, if the blow fell on the wheel, you may want to change it immediately, in order to avoid another incident, but this time associated with the hernia. And don’t forget to check the pressure in the wheels. Lowered the tire more susceptible to deformation.

    In order to present clearer picture of the appearance of bloated, you should understand how to construct a tire, and what processes occur in it. The bus is a multilayer structure consisting of metallotorgovoj frame, durable textile layer made of polyester fibers, brace and protector. We are interested in textile component. Synthetic threads permeate the entire side surface of the tire and sealed between two layers of rubber. They are designed to maintain the correct shape of the tyre and to ensure its durability.
    At the moment when the wheel of the car at the speed of flies in the pit, the load increases to such an extent that the tire may touch the disk, there will be deformation of the rubber and, respectively, tear of synthetic fiber textile layer. Further, the pressure does its job, namely bulges plot of elastic rubber in the form of a hernia.
    Грыжа на колесе: причины, следствие и способы ее устраненияHigh pressure bulges the damaged area rubber
    What happens to it during the subsequent operation of the wheel? “Beating” tire will destroy the bushings of the suspension arms, wheel bearing, ball joints, shocks. If you have suffered a front wheel, then be prepared for the repair of the steering rod and the steering rack. The movement of the vehicle is accompanied by heating of the rubber. Therefore, the tire pressure increases, constantly changing its shape due to internal damaged cord, and in one awkward moment, the hernia bursts. This always happens unexpectedly, the driver practically no time to navigate, because the explosion leaves behind a trail of such diameter that the wheel instantly goes down. To provoke an explosion are the following:

    • bad road;
    • heavily loaded vehicle;
    • high speed;
    • getting into the next hole;
    • sudden braking.

    If you discovered a hernia on the wheel, and you think that it is very small and does not pose a serious threat, then you are deeply mistaken. Known mass of cases when such minor swelling burst and led to tragic consequences. That is why manufacturers recommend to be attentive to such things and not to continue operation of the affected wheel.

    What about the repair?

    So, if there was such trouble and on the wheel got a hernia. A reasonable question arises – is it possible to repair whether it’s needed or worth it to say goodbye to the bus? The answer exists – it is possible to repair, and another thing – do. Modern workshops have in their Arsenal several ways to heal rubber uzdotie, however, not all. If the hernia will be large, the qualified professional will not undertake such repairs, as too much responsibility for your life will fall on his shoulders. In any case, the tire patched after the hernia will not get lost strength and reliability, torn synthetic fibers cannot be recovered, and, therefore, to use the wheel with that tire only in an emergency as a spare tire and with extreme caution.
    Consider existing methods of repair:

  • Installing the patch is vulcanized. Insert a piece of rubber can be plain or reinforced. In practice, this does not change the essence of the matter, as the strength of the tire is not returned, broken weight, geometry, balance and even distribution of stiffness, therefore, a small swelling on the site of the patch does not disappear.
  • Mounting the camera under the tire. Significant positive changes this procedure leads not only to temperature increase due to the additional friction and disturbance of balance.
  • Firmware sidewall thick nylon thread and subsequent vulcanization of the rubber. The result of this repair is identical to that described in the preceding paragraphs.
  • Грыжа на колесе: причины, следствие и способы ее устраненияThe tyre better as quickly as possible to replace
    Thus, experience and common sense dictates that you should not risk your health and spend the extra money on repairs when you can easily replace the damaged tire with a new one. All of the above methods is only an imitation of integrity and no way to fail to carry out the original reliable condition.

    What to do if you’re on the road

    Here are a few effective tips about how to behave on the road, if got a hernia on the wheel.

  • To replace the wheel. If a spare tire on hand, to continue the movement, reducing speed and observing extra caution when making maneuvers − better safe than sorry.
  • To monitor the size of the hernia. This unpredictable lady can never burst, or gradually increasing, explode overnight. Watching her behavior, you are able to foresee the future course of events.
  • To change the front wheel with a hernia on the back intact. Explosion of the tire of the rear wheel though dangerous, but not as much as the front. In this situation, you will be easier to navigate and control.
  • Remember that there is nothing more precious than a human life. Not worth the risk unnecessarily. Easy roads!

    Автомобильный дизельный двигатель: плюсы и минусы его эксплуатацииIn Europe, owners of diesel cars paid less tax
    Now Russian citizens can afford many benefits to mankind, they began to prefer the diesel engine, so any potential buyer will be interested to know all about them. In this article we consider the main advantages and disadvantages of the diesel engine, which could face a future owner of a foreign car, so before you choose a vehicle, it is better to weigh the pros and cons to make the right choice.
    The content

    • The advantages of the diesel engine
    • Cons diesel engine

    The advantages of the diesel engine

    Due to the popularity of vehicles with diesel engine I want to know why many buyers opt for this form of transport, so their lures and seduces. Therefore, we first consider the main advantages:

    • Savings of diesel fuel – it plays a role not only the low price of diesel, but the small cost of the fuel itself. Due to the high density of diesel fuel and efficiency of 35-45%, for example, petrol − 20-30%, and there is less consumption.
    • A diesel engine has much more torque than petrol, it has a beneficial effect on the performance of the car in the city, especially in traffic jams, or to be more precise, you can move on idle speed. Please note that a car with a diesel engine is moving much faster than the car with another motor.
    • The noise level can be attributed, of course, not all machines, but if it’s German and has a turbo, the engine is sure to delight you.
    • Improved driving dynamics − this is often cited the drivers of these cars, they claim that the car almost drives itself, delivering its owner only positive emotions.
    • Reliability and simplicity of the diesel engine is connected with the absence in its design of the ignition system, which quite often fails in petrol engines.
    • With proper care and filling quality diesel engine can operate for up to 500000 kilometers without creating problems to its owner.
    • Cars with a diesel engine has no spark plugs, so no need to check them and change if necessary.

    Cons diesel engine

    Now let’s talk about the cons of a diesel engine, of course, they are few, but they exist, so few people hurry to buy such a vehicle. So let’s look at each one in order:

    Автомобильный дизельный двигатель: плюсы и минусы его эксплуатацииTo start the engine in cold weather, a Webasto unit

    • Running in cold weather, the winter, if the thermometer drops too low − the motor is sharply reduced, so it’s hard enough to get warm, so the cabin in such machines a very long heated, and the wearer will experience discomfort. But in Russia long ago learned to cope with this problem and establish a special unit Webasto, which helps the motor to keep warm and, respectively, then quickly warm up. This method is expensive, but effective, if your machine will stand under the window of your home. The second option is a warm garage, if you have it, the car will be warm, so the engine will not freeze and will be immediately ready for operation.
    • Sale of poor quality diesel fuel. Unfortunately, we are not so easy to buy quality, meeting all the requirements of diesel, therefore many owners of such cars use special additives. The most important thing you need to remember that if the car is under warranty, in any case you should not use these additives.


    Due to the large demand for cars with a diesel engine, today in Russia there is a good service, which will cope with any shortcomings of this motor, so the owners are not afraid to give their hard-earned money for these cars. They know and are confident that the pros of this engine will give them the opportunity to experience all the advantages of vehicles powered by fuel safe.