The most common justification for the culprit — like, I haven’t seen… And how to reduce the likelihood of such “not-seing”?Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

You couldn’t see nothing, ‘ growled the driver and added gas.

Jokes jokes, but in some cases accidents occur because the driver of something not seen, not spotted, not noticed. Let’s think together about how to bring such cases to a minimum?

The light path

Most inexperienced drivers, unfortunately, sincerely does not understand what needs to be done to the headlights normally Shine. Flipped a lever or a button — that’s all business: the lights are on. But it happens only on a clean, serviceable car that rides on no less than clean road.

dirty car

In our country, unfortunately, the winter is quite dirty, but because the car that ten minutes ago in the Parking lot glittered with chrome, it is necessary to start the movement, just in front of turns into a mess of unknown color.In our country, unfortunately, the winter is quite dirty, but because the car that ten minutes ago in the Parking lot glittered with chrome, it is necessary to start the movement, just in front of turns into a mess of unknown color.

the dirt on the car

The main stream counter dirt assume just the headlights — even xenon, even led.The main stream counter dirt assume just the headlights — even xenon, even led.

paramilitary on the Lada Grant

You have paramilitary? A good thing, but even a powerful jet mywiki not always cope with the build-up of dirt on the headlamp lenses.You have paramilitary? A good thing, but even a powerful jet mywiki not always cope with the build-up of dirt on the headlamp lenses.

In a somewhat better position are the owners of cars with the wipers-freecities who are trying to remove the dirt mechanically. But the champion, unfortunately, remains a common cloth, which the owners of blind machines wipe lights on the roadsides. Uncomfortable, dirty, but there is no escape.

Incidentally, in some cases even net lights Shine bad. Some drivers, for example, have no idea that their vehicles have a headlight range control — but today, it is present in almost all manufactured cars. All that is required in this case, is to twist the right handle and make sure the lights Shine in the sky, and where it is needed. However, on more expensive machines, this happens automatically.

There is one small nuisance, familiar to older lights. The glass on them over time are cleaned out and get dull — alas.

But you can increase the brightness of the lamps. Please note that the higher the voltage, the brighter the bulb shines. The first step is to clean the contacts of the wiring in the whole circuit from the battery to the bulb to get rid of unnecessary voltage losses. If the state still leaves a lot to be desired, on cars older than 10 years helps the following method. Assemble the circuit power spiral lamp with very short and thick wires directly from the battery. To provide a fuse and a relay winding which controls the wire that previously ran to the lamp. In auto parts stores you can buy a set for such a tuning of the power supply circuit of the headlights. But man, a little electrical understanding, can do everything on their own.

Fade over time, and the light bulbs themselves. But few people change them due to age: we usually expect when seeing a car suddenly turns into a one eyed pirate, and sometimes even in the blind. By the way, the same with Philips lamp replacement strongly recommends that you change both — or “duet” will be incomplete.

As for the bulbs, then we think the best option is ordinary, without any inscriptions of type “+ 30%”. First, the interest on the practice of hiding only at certain points of the beam, but not everywhere. And secondly, keep in mind that all these “pluses” not only will you pay the extra money, but will bring the term of their next replacement! The stronger the promised stream, the less the resource. After all, in the same dimensions of the lamp with the same energy consumption you can get stronger only light spiral from a thin wire, which burns out faster. Although producers do not like to talk about it.

lamp forced

A typical example of a lamp that is “forced” in brightness.A typical example of a lamp that is “forced” in brightness.

Now a little about protivotumanki that we so love to include all those who have them. Fog lights are bright and illuminate very wide stretch of road directly in front of the car. This creates a sense a much better visibility of the road, but in fact the driver’s eyes get used to the overly bright spot in front of the hood. It deprives him of how one ought to see further forward, where the lighting level is much lower. Thus, the driver blinded himself by his own foglights. This effect is particularly evident in winter when the curb, dusted with fresh snow, seem unbearably white.

lack of visibility

Really to properly use fog lights only if driving in dense fog conditions. Usually the visibility is still not possible to move faster than 30-40 km/h. truly properly use fog lights only if driving in dense fog conditions. Usually the visibility is still not possible to move faster than 30-40 km/h.

And a little more on the headlights. They include not only in order to better see yourself. In some cases, they need to see you! Especially when it’s dark, dirty and generally uncomfortable.

As a whistle

Wipe the glass before the trip? Yes well it: at best go a couple of times the wipers come down… come Down, of course. Especially in the afternoon and in good weather. Just don’t be surprised if in the dusk the headlights suddenly draw on your “clean” glass of a curve of a rainbow, what you want to squint. Especially if the glass is not new. In this case, each Viserbella immediately begins to fight against you on the side of dirty forces. How to be? Sometimes just wash the glass, but what if it really old? Honestly, this will have to accept. However, you can resort to mechanical polishing, but in practice few use it. First, the procedure is not cheap, and secondly, the optical properties of the glass are a little “swim”. In the end, it may be that the only solution will be an replacement glass for a new one.

filter driver

Some drivers like filters that are installed on car sun visor.Some drivers like filters that are installed on car sun visor.

By the way, don’t forget that the glass should be periodically wiped inside! To make sure that it gives the effect, once is enough to ask the cleaner to wipe the glass in the cabin. When you sit behind the wheel, instantly you feel the difference.

The wipers and omyvayki

About wiper blades is to say, in General, nothing: their necessity is too obvious. You do not need to establish records of longevity: old brush a priori work noticeably worse. How often to change the windshield wipers? Ideally — twice a year, but come one. Of course, it all depends on the mileage and operating conditions, but in any case, to save on it is not: replace them at least for the winter.

What to mywiki, then it’s easy and difficult. Just because there is no choice: all liquids on the shelves of chain stores — isopropyl, and in the cold they may refuse to flow through the nozzle (depends on their design). Then — good-bye, visibility, and Hello, black market. Fluids based on methanol frost is not afraid, and visibility is not exactly spoil, but alas, legally you can’t buy them. When using washing liquids on the basis of isopropyl alcohol can be improved a bit and wash the windscreen, change the adjusting washer nozzle. For those vehicles where possible, by the end of the pin or pushpin turn the ball in the nozzle so that the stream was aimed higher. She will continue to be sluggish due to the high viscosity, but to get to the glass will still be in the working area of the brushes.

The human factor

However, the most difficult and capricious “detail” the car is, of course, the Homo sapiens behind the wheel. Let’s talk about the vision. No wonder they say that short-sighted meets less familiar, but more bows.

table for eye tests

It is difficult to understand the logic of the driver who knows that he sees not as before, but can’t find the time to visit the optometrist.It is difficult to understand the logic of the driver who knows that he sees not as before, but can’t find the time to visit the optometrist.

In conclusion, I want to say that the review does not happen much. The sooner you will see the problem on the road, zablagovremenno will react. But the problems on the winter road enough. Therefore, in order not to blame yourself for unpleasant consequences, try to do everything you can to save the review.

Improve visibility: a few simple tricksPhoto: from archive of the authorImprove visibility: a few simple techniques

Michelin X-Ice North 4 SUV — for those who are on the winter road it was a combination of driveability, safety and comfort.Sergey Mishin “Behind the wheel”

How much? Over 300 studs per tire! Michelin broke its own recent record: in passenger cars the tyre X-Ice North was “stuck” to 250 spikes. And as such “hedgehog” manages to take care of the asphalt, not fraying it in excess of the permissible?

As in the passenger bus, the number of “studs” depends on its width. And similarly, for the tires of each dimension the number and location of spines is calculated separately (using computer simulation) to find the perfect balance between grip on ice and the noise from the blows of “claws” on the road.

The rubber compound is the same — with a new generation of elastomers that allow the tread to maintain elasticity even at a temperature of -65 °C. And the spikes are the same — with reduced area of contact with the road case diameter.

The main difference from the passenger version — the dual frame is not only able to withstand the heavy SUV, but also to ensure high durability of the tire to damage.

I took a Land Rover Discovery and drove around, rolled, snow and very slippery ice tracks. If you compare with competitors (Bridgestone Blizzak Spike‑02, Conti IceContact 2 and Nokian HKPL 9 in SUV), the new Michelin had a great tenacity, especially on acceleration and braking. On these tires “disco” quickly gaining speed, and before the turn allows you to brake later.

The tread pattern the same as the passenger version. However, I tire of the “wide” size (255 mm or more) it has more pieces, allowing you to evenly distribute the pressure in the contact patch. Tires are available in sizes from 17 to 22 inches, speed index T (190 km/h).The tread pattern the same as the passenger version. However, I tire of the “wide” size (255 mm or more) it has more pieces, allowing you to evenly distribute the pressure in the contact patch. Tires are available in sizes from 17 to 22 inches, speed index T (190 km/h).

The transition to slide in the turns — smooth, “wide” and therefore more understandable. Even slipping with the trajectory, the car is still under full control, without delay in response to the steering wheel or gas.

However, sweeping slides, you receive the same feeling as on the passenger XIN 4. On these tires there is no desire to potrivit — driving side is not “insert” and not provoke the bullying. But the driver in all modes retain a feeling of confidence and complete control over the car. And that quality is more important for “civil” tires.

Records of Michelin X-Ice North SUV 4:

  • High spikes have on the tire 285/45 R22: 316 “studs”, creating 31 line braking.
  • The greatest number of lines of the braking — 39 — boasts tire 305/35 R21 having 290 “claws”.
  • At least spikes (287 pieces) and 22 of the brake line carries the tire dimensions 225/60 R18.

  • How can I prolong the life of the thorns? Tips from the tire experts group “driving” — here.
  • The widest range of tools for improving the patency for any tire presented in a special section of our online store.

Photo: Michelin

Most drivers know only the basic penalties and articles of the administrative code. However, even for well familiar with this document, the selected sentence may become an unpleasant surprise.Cyril Mileshkin “Behind the wheel”

A few years ago in the administrative code introduced a separate, more severe sanctions for repeated violations by a number of articles. This is the most flagrant violations: departure on an oncoming lane, running a red, speeding in 40 km/h or more, the control of an unregistered vehicle permitted by the law outside of the 10-day period. In the best case you can count on increased penalties (in excess on 40-60 km/h). But in all other cases, if you can not get the camera, and inspector, there are chances to remain without rights by a court decision.

Moscow and St. Petersburg on the rights of the cities of Federal importance have some articles of the administrative code of the individual penalties. Thus, the violation of stopping and Parking in both cities is not 500-1500 rubles, as throughout the country, and 2500-3000. Entry to the truck in the forbidden zone will not cost 500 rubles and 5000. The locals probably know, but the nonresident was very surprised to see the amount in the resolution. The more that both disorders are actively working camera.

But a lot of differentiation in the Moscow KoAP — on the part of the Parking lot on the lawn. No one is arguing that you can’t do that. However, the punishment must match the gravity of the offence. The owner will pay 5000 rubles, which is already a lot for such a violation. And if the car is registered to the legal entity and the resolution stand in relation to him, will have to fork out 300 000! What did invented such a penalty, in addition to unhealthy greed — a mystery.

The machine with unreadable numbers is 500 roubles under article 12.2.1. However, there are available to interpret the presence of any suspiciously “convenient” motorist dirt or leaf from the tree on the label under article 12.2.2. And this is called the use “of devices or materials that prevent identification” and is punishable by a 5,000 rubles or deprivation of rights for 1-3 months.

No insurance policy is different. Forgotten houses the policy (as well as control outside the current period or is not inscribed in it as the driver) is “worth” 500 rubles. And only if the contract was not, in principle, working paper 12.37.2 with the penalty of 800 roubles. Although there is much more important that in the first case you are left without insurance protection in case of an accident, and the second will pay the victim out of pocket.

Fans of “light” tuning can pay for the carelessness in the study of Cao. There is an article 12.4.1 for “setting on the front of the vehicle of light devices with fires of red colour or reflective devices in red color, and equally light devices, colour of fires and which do not meet the requirements of the Main provisions for the admission of…” with a fine of 3,000 rubles. However, it works only while the car’s not going anywhere! And for driving under the same conditions under article 12.5.3 expected uncontested deprivation for 6-12 months. Whether the beauty of such victims?

Paragraph 12.5.3.1 for excessive tinting orders to punish 500 rubles. Humane! But in the current realities of the traffic cops like to pull over here making undocumented changes in the design. In mild scenarios will receive the order to eliminate a 10-day period and to present a “healthy” car. Will do — cancel the registration. But some “law enforcement” can try to prohibit the operation on the spot and call a tow truck. It’s illegal, but there are precedents.

Two more articles of the Code with a thin face. Running a red is a serious matter, fraught with accident. For the first time for him punished for 1000 rubles, at relapse shines 5,000 or deprivation for 4-6 months. Check out behind the stop line, strictly speaking, it is also a journey on forbidding signal: movement is restricted to the marking or sign “STOP”. However, in KoAP it is a separate article. Sanction — 800 rubles, and “repeated” are not taken into account. How to interpret a specific case the inspector is an open question. But if you really just rolled over the transverse line before the intersection, running a red impute you can’t. Formally, for this you need to completely pass the crossing or Zebra crossing if the traffic light is purely pedestrian.

The same situation with departure on an oncoming lane. To detour obstacles with traffic violations is 1000-1500 rubles. For overtaking or a detour of the tube, which is not an impediment — it is 5000 RUB or deprivation from 4 to 6 months, and at recapture to walk for a year.

The knowledge of these nine “slippery” places of law will help to avoid illegal sanctions. Well, someone, learning about them now, just will not once again be broken.

  • For that and fined as the traffic cameras? Read about it here.

Photo: “Behind the wheel”

The main thing — to have patience, to act carefully and take into account the characteristics of the part, requiring repair.“Behind the wheel”

In one of the previous editions of “the Technical environment”, we were told how to repair damaged threads by installing on it the bushing in the spring. And now imagine the other way is by using a steel bushing with external and internal threads.

To show how this is done, we will be on the aluminium cover with a damaged internal thread. To install it place a steel sleeve, you will need a simple device. Although such a tool you can buy, easier and cheaper to make it yourself. How — to teach. For work you will also need a drill.

Homemade tool

Screw the bushing into the hole on the aluminum cover will help us a device that we have collected from a long bolt and two nuts. One of them is standard, the other high. The latter is necessary in order to make a small “belt”, the locking sleeve into place. Due to this we will screw it in detail flush.

To install the threaded bushing the hole in the part must be pre-drilled to the desired diameter. Our bushings size inner thread, which will replace the former, — 10×1,5, and outer — 14×1,5. Given the size of the latter we need to drill a hole with a diameter of 13.25, which is what we do. After that we clamp the cover in a vise. We take our device from the bolt and two nuts and is cranking on his sleeve. Watch that its edge was at the edge of the bolt. Back bushing high nut and fix them tightening the second nut.

To make it easier to install the bushing, machined a hole in the lid penetrating lubricant. The most important thing is to center the bushing. Due to the small misalignment bushing will go crooked, which could damage the item and even damage it beyond repair. Sleeve simultaneously performs the function of the tap, she cut the thread, which rests in the details. If, as in our case, the cover of aluminum alloy, the sleeve includes easy. If the item, for example, steel, then it is advisable to cut a few turns ordinary tap by setting the sleeve in the right direction. If you notice that the bushing has gone crooked, you can remove it, align and start all over again.

Screwed up our sleeve in the lid until high nut reaches practically the end cap. We see that, despite our efforts, the sleeve went slightly uneven. Nothing to do, will have to wrap it to the end. Weaken the nuts of the device and Unscrew the bolt. Bushing in place. Wrap it a regular bolt and make sure that it worked.

Repair damaged thread using a sleeve real. The main thing is to have patience, to act carefully and take into account the characteristics of the part, requiring repair.

  • How to repair stripped threads on plastic, see here.
  • How to restore the threads with the springs, — the link.

All questions and proposals for the series “Technical environment” please send to address: techsreda@zr.ru..

Other editions of the “technology environment” available in our special projects as well as on our YouTube channel.

Photo: “Behind the wheel”

If it’s not working the oven, take on Board the advice of the reader “Behind the wheel”.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

In some vehicles, the structurally imperfect flow of warm air from the stove down: the driver’s and front passenger’s feet were freezing.

Propose to install in the pipeline, the supply air down, the computer fan is 12 volt, powered through the auxiliary switch from on-Board power supply.

Air circulation, and with it the heating will be significantly improved — checked.

D. Zubrow, Odintsovo

Prize to the author of the Council — canister ZIC Lubricants by SK.

Dear experts car! Sending tips, don’t forget to inform your postal address with six digit postal code, surname, name and patronymic (in full) and phone number for communication. This will significantly simplify and speed up the delivery of well-deserved prizes.

Their advice you can send an e-mail exp@zr.ru. Possible illustrate their own know-how photographs and/or diagrams.

  • As to heat the interior of the car? Detailed instructions from the experts “driving” — here.
  • When connecting the brushes with the heating BURNER complete with keyfob new car is not removed from the guarantee, as there is no interference in the regular vehicle electrical system, and installation can be accomplished on their own!

Photo: D. Zubrow

Most of us are to blame for the fact that the tires are deteriorating. But this can be avoided.Alexander Khlynov

In the process of using the bus can get a variety of injuries, most of which blame the driver. In the result, the rubber is wasted, and as the law prohibits the use of different models of tires on the same axle have to spend money on a replacement and the second bus.

The most common injury — a puncture. This is the most harmless type of damage, but only if you noticed and immediately repaired. To drive on a flat tyre absolutely not, even a few meters! Damage caused by driving on a flat tyre or low pressure, is catastrophic. This causes the sidewalls to deform more than necessary, causing the bus to overheat, delaminate, and the frame becomes unusable due to broken cords. As a result, the tire would have to throw out. In addition, you can damage the edge of the rim.

Punctures are of two types: a damaged cord or without it. To determine this, you need to remove something that pierced her. If the edges of the puncture tightly together, the cord is not damaged and to repair a tire can be without removing from disk. Otherwise, if the edges do not converge, will have to ressortiront wheel repair with the strengthening of the frame inside. Alternatively, in the field and in the absence of a spare wheel, a puncture can be repaired without removing the tyre from the wheel, then carefully drive to the tire store or garage and do a complete overhaul.

The repair should cleanse the puncture and mark it. Then it all depends on what kit you have — they tend to be some instructions. There are sealants that are filled into the tire through the nipple, after which the wheel is rotated by the puncture down and the substance seals the hole. Repair with the harness or insert somewhat more complicated, but more durable: the edges of the hole are polished with a special tool, and then treated with a special composition of the harness is necessary to get into the tire through the puncture, the special awl to pull out (not completely) out and trim flush with the surface.

In case of damage to the cord at a puncture of a tire must be removed from drive to install on its inner surface reinforced with an extra patch cord. One side of these patches is the adhesive layer, which contributes to cold vulcanization. After such a repair will require wheel balancing. To seal a puncture from inside are also used patches in the form of a mushroom, with the stalk which is put into the piercing. Such patches is also covered with a special type of adhesive for cold vulcanization.

Cuts or breakdowns, in contrast to punctures, non-repairable, as they violate the integrity of the frame, which is impossible to strengthen. In addition, the sudden breakdowns always occur on the move: the bus sharply lose pressure until the vehicle has time to make a few turns “on the rim”, that breaks a cord and destroys the layers. To use such a weakened tire, even if you were able to patch up and strengthen the fracture or cut in the future is not recommended.

As a result of improper tire storage can be formed cracks. The danger of such damage is that through the cracks to the cord, enters the moisture that brings the frame into disrepair. In addition, through the cracks might get air. Unfortunately, cracks are not repairable and the tires with them will last a long time: sooner or later they are deformed, covered with blisters due to rusted and paraplegia Corda or due to drive pressure below the recommended.

A bulge or hernia can appear on the bus for a variety of reasons — it always happens due to rupture of the cord or bundles in the framework. In the first case was done hitting on the obstacle and the shock broke the filament of the cord or the cord was cut with a sharp object. In the second case, the hernia is either next to it no damage, so there it is either because of factory defects or due to frequent driving with a pressure lower than recommended. The danger of hernias is that at any moment they can explode and cause skidding, which will lead to an accident. If a tire with a hernia there is nothing to replace, it is better to move it to the rear axle and to drive very carefully. Like cracks, the hernia cannot be repaired. Sometimes a small swelling, the result of blows or cuts, strengthen with reinforced patches, but there is no guarantee that the tire will not explode. Therefore, tires with hernias, it is recommended to replace.

The tire sidewall can be damaged as the result of friction on curbs or edge of pavement at the exit to the sidelines. If you are prone to a similar manner drive it is recommended from time to time to inspect the inner and outer sidewalls and, in case of detection of abrasion, change the tires to prevent exposure of the cord — rubber thickness on the sidewalls is small (1.5–3 mm), and to fray frame it can very quickly.

Often the cause of damage to the tires can become defective tire, which was damaged bead ring. In this case, the tire loses its geometry and “sits” on the disk wryly writes of the “eight” in rotation, and during the drive you receive transverse vibration. To repair such a tire is impossible — you need to replace it serviceable, until it has damaged the suspension: linkage, hubs and bearings.

About whether you are using the tire and what invisible damage they have received, is characterized by wear of the tread, varieties of which for convenience are collected in the table:

Tread wear

Reasons

Troubleshooting, repair

Sided wear in the shoulder area

Abrasion of one edge of the tread is talking about the wrong angle of installation of wheels (the alignment) or frequent maneuvering at high speeds.

Checking camber or change driving style to a more calm.

Double-sided wear in shoulder area

Riding with the air pressure in the tire below the recommended.

Inflate the tires to the recommended pressure by the vehicle manufacturer (the plate with the recommendations is attached in the opening of the driver door) and find the cause of the fall: puncture, fissure, hernia, nipple, rust on the wheel rim in place fit the tyres etc.

Wear in the center

Too high of tire pressure.

Lowering to the recommended pressure (indicated on the plate in the opening of the driver door)

Wear in the form of rings and furrows

Can meet on trailers or rear wheels of pickups and vans due to bumps and jumps at high speeds.

Changing wheels on a loaded axle for wear-leveling, riding with a heavier load.

Chipped wear with cuts

Frequent wheel slippage on a rocky surface.

Move the wheels on the leading axle, be careful to work the gas pedal when you start moving.

  • The bus may be unusable for a number of other reasons which you can learn about here.

Photo: Petr Urbanek / Unsplash

Not everyone knows, but in the administrative code provided a real punishment for drivers who don’t clear the left lane under certain road conditions.Konstantin Vasilyev

First, refer to the SDA. They say:

9.4. Outside the settlements, and in settlements on the roads, marked with 5.1 or 5.3 or where the permitted maximum speed over 80 km/h, the drivers of vehicles should conduct them whenever possible more close to a right edge of the roadway. It is prohibited to occupy left lanes at the free right.In settlements taking into account requirements of the present point and points 9.5, 16.1 and 24.2 Rules drivers of vehicles can use the most convenient lane. At heavy traffic when all lanes are occupied to change the runway is only permitted to rotate to the left or right turn, stop or detour obstacles.However, on any roads having to move in this direction three lanes or more, to take the extreme left lane is permitted only in heavy traffic when busy with other bands, and to turn left or turn…

In other words, if there are at least three lanes, drive in the left lane at the free right impossible. In Moscow’s Third transport ring, MKAD and several broad avenues in those rare periods when they are not clogged.

Why compromise?

Thing in the principles of safe traffic: the faster the vehicle moves, the left on the roadway it must be placed. On the left is much rarer congresses and contiguity, to whom from drivers there is a reason to slow down. Compliance with this rule in most cases increases the throughput of the road.

It’s safer!

“I’m going with the maximum allowed speed” — a very common excuse that you hear from the driver in the left lane. Like, I thus prevent violating the speed limit other drivers. After all, if you give in to the left lane and someone’s on it will beat you to it, then he is going the speed limit. Logical, but:

  1. It doesn’t change the fact that you are violating traffic rules.
  2. In most cases, it creates unnecessary anxiety on the road. In the end, you just overtake in the right lane.

Is there a penalty?

Is. For unreasonable driving in the left lane of the penalty in 1500 roubles (article 12.15.1 administrative code). Whether really to receive it? Virtually no. Stationary cameras photofixation violations of this welcome is not trained, but real inspectors prefer not to pay attention to similar driving situation.

What is the main problem?

While driving on European roads I’ve often noticed how carefully local drivers follow this principle — not to take left lane. Whenever possible, take to the right. If catching up with someone ahead of him on the left, and back into the right lane (even if you go with a small excess of speed). As a result, a huge number of rebuilds. But they are all relatively safe for one reason — Europe used to overtake on the right. We have this commonplace. Therefore, on our roads, freeing up the left lane immediately after the advance of another car, it is realistic to meet someone who did the same maneuver in the right lane or even the shoulder. So, teach our drivers not to take the left lane at the same time it is necessary to promote the ban ahead of the curve on the right.

  • 11 secrets of experienced drivers (in driving school they can’t teach you!) you will find here.

Photo: “Behind the wheel”

Condensation in the headlamps — the phenomenon frequent enough. Depending on the symptoms it can be ordinary or require urgent treatment.Cyril Mileshkin “Behind the wheel”

Any lights inside the temperature reaches high values and most of the year is very different from street. For this reason, the optics do not sealed: the heated and expanded air needs an outlet. These two factors create the conditions for condensation.

In most cars the headlights are not fogged up. Therefore, those owners who suddenly notices a similar phenomenon, once you start to worry. If unpleasant effect occurs occasionally (e.g. after washing) and the self disappears after 20-30 minutes, the reason for panic. This is a natural physical process that does not require your intervention. Consult the dealer or to nothing lead: service men, most likely, too will be called a natural phenomenon.

Another thing, when the condensation inside the optics have registered on a permanent basis. It reduces the efficiency of light, it distorts the distribution, kills all components, wiring, reflector, lens, lamp. In this case, to leave the problem unattended.

The natural desire of many motorists to solve the issue a little blood. Someone in the spotlight to push through a silica gel bag, someone manages through the hole for the bulb, wipe the inside with a rag. But to deal with the consequence stupid, not eliminating the cause. Why would you get into the optics of it in a few days?!

Without removing the headlight from the car, you can try to clean the vents in it. Not the fact that they’re in good access, but you can try. The more dirt they accumulate and break vozduhom often enough. Return the breather cleanliness and efficiency — and more condensate will not see.

In more complex cases, the headlight loses its tightness and picks up moisture from the outside. Often the seam between the housing and the protective canopy (before it was called a lens, but in modern cars it has lost this feature). This can happen after disassembly/Assembly of optics in the process of repair and corny with age.

Will be lucky if a crack you can see visually, and it’s on the top side of the seam. In this case, the processing defect of the sealant is possible without removing the headlight. But most still have to dismantle it and corrosive search for “puncture”. Ignore this procedure soon will be looking for new optics instead of blinded.

  • How to use light devices of the car, find out here.

Method, which is sent under the heading “insider Tips” P. Smagin from Magnitogorsk, will please every motorist — the novelty, simplicity, efficiency and cheapness. To carry gloves!Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

Offer a simple, effective and inexpensive way of dealing with the smell of the air conditioning system. At each change cabin filter (at least once a year) I pre-impregnated with his usual brilliant green (solution of brilliant green). Pharmacy drug prevents the development of bacteria. The procedure done for the third year, and to odors from the ducts, none of the companions have not yet complained.

P. Smagin, Magnitogorsk

Prize to the author of the Council — a set of tools Airline.

Dear experts car! Sending tips, don’t forget to inform your postal address with six digit postal code, surname, name and patronymic (in full) and phone number for communication. This will significantly simplify and speed up the delivery of well-deserved prizes.

Their advice you can send an e-mail exp@zr.ru. Possible illustrate their own know-how photographs and/or diagrams.

  • 6 errors of the driver, which breaks down the conditioning, we have analyzed here.

All of these models is an unfulfilled dream of Soviet citizens about the cheap people’s car.Sergey Kanunnikov “driving”Expert

Once rightly believed that the mass — as was said, people’s car can only be compact, simple, with a weak motor, but cheap available.

Many Soviet people have dreamed for years about something similar — a bit more expensive, but still roomier and more comfortable motorcycle with a roof and with a motor of at least 15-20 strength.

Attempts to create such cars in our country have made repeatedly, but in a series of incarnated units.

NATI-2, 1932 NATI-2, 1932

Not very good, but serial US-1 end of the 1920s he decided to improve. NATI-2 also had a backbone frame, but was equipped with 4-cylinder engine in the 1.2 L. developing 22 BHP In 1932 he assembled several prototypes with different bodies. The creators of NATA was hoping that some machines, such as a two-door body coupe gets into the hands of not only officials of an average hand, but ordinary Soviet citizens. But the plans of production of these cars in Izhevsk did not materialize. All state funds went to the reconstruction of the AMO and the construction of the plant GAS.

Project Rdpproject RAP

Already in the mid-1930s, designers Peltzer, priests and the artist Dolmatovsky took over the project inputs to directly affect RAP (from the initial letters of the surnames of authors) with the grownup design and motorcycle motor. Expected to start production at the plant in Podolsk. But then the sketches and the wooden layout is not gone.

GAS 18, 1957 GAS-18, 1957

In 1955, at the urgent request of the disabled veterans who got only a primitive, frail sidecar, created in Gorky GAZ-18. It is a serious machine with closed body got 2-cylinder engine power of 18 HP — half engine Moskvich-402 and even a three-stage automatic transmission. Because the Assembly is already created for the Volga GAZ-M21. Such a machine would be interested, of course, not only people with disabilities. But the GAS was loaded mass production, and the factory in Serpukhov anything like master could not. Did only two of the sample GAS 18.

US-Balkonami 050-050 Protein

In the US in 1955-1956 was actively engaged in microvention US-050 Protein. The machine on 10 inch wheels with up to access the car of the driver’s and front passenger’s front wall was equipped with a motor 2-cylinder engines with a volume of 0.5 l capacity of 17.5 HP and a 23 HP three-stage gearbox. Production was planned to establish motorcycle plant in Irbit, but at the governmental level the decision was made to release the ZAZ-965. And two people’s micro-car, only to do no one was going.

US-А50НАМИ-A50

But it existed, and the so-called SEL variant Proteins — NAMI-A50 with a simplified utility body and awning.

US-031, US 1957-031, 1957

In the US actively developed and the car replaced the primitive Serpukhov the scooter with a canvas top. One of the options was pretty nice to US-031. He also could be of interest not only people with disabilities. Behind it stood the motor power 13.5 HP, suspension was a torsion bar and steering rack. But the body panels are made unsuitable for mass production of fiberglass. On the prototype it does not matter.

US-Sputnikami 086-086 Satellite

The most beautiful prototype inputs to directly affect the work of the Moscow Institute — US-086 Satellite (for VAZ-2108 has nothing to do) in 1962. In a vehicle with a 15-horsepower engine was a four-speed gearbox and an electromagnetic clutch. But this machine is also not out of the prototype stage

US-Agencyname 059-059 Light

Of course, in a cheap, simple little micro-car was very interested and rural residents. With an eye on them designed universalchik US-049 Light. The machine had four-wheel drive, but without a downshift. Engine working volume of 0.75 l was developed 22 HP This experimental car was one of the few still became a starting point for the production model. Light and constructive analogues of US with more simple bodies have progressively become serial LUAZ.

VAZ-Э1101ВАЗ-Э1101

Compact VAZ-Э1101, nicknamed the factory Cheburashka, went to the test in 1972. the Machine for the first time in the history of the Vase was front wheel drive. The system was designed and built prototypes of new engines working volume of 0.9–1.1 l However, in a series of this car, no one had planned. But, in General, it was the first step on the way to the VAZ-2108, and to the Oka.

Pippi, Pippi 1990, 1990

Serial Oka inspired to attempt to create other micro cars. In 1990 presented a peppy little car Pskov factory, who made the bus in PAG. Machine on the nodes Serpukhov motorized SMZ-С3Д was, of course prototype.

Miscomisco

A great project of the late 1990s — Bear. It is advertised as a collection of micro cars to build in the non-core businesses and even garages! Actually, the prototype represented the nodes of the Oka, dressed in a not very neat body with fiberglass panels. Later versions were larger and the aggregates of the brand. From a strange idea, of course, nothing came of it.

Kineshma-М7901Кинешма-М7901

Mikroavtomobili Kineshma family М7901 probation can even be called a serial. At the end of the 1990s in small amounts collected at the plant Avtoagregat Kineshma. On cars set American 11 HP engine Briggs & Stratton, a 26-strong from the motorcycle IZH and even 13-horsepower 2-cylinder diesel. The great demand for this creation, of course, was not, and because the factory has already created prototypes of the restyled.

Oka-2Ока-2

In the 1990s, at the WHA made a number of micro cars, including several variants of the so-called Oki-2. Declared that VAZ-1121 will produce in amounts up to 100 thousand a year. But the demand for CMOS to plummet. And soon, it finally became clear that the modern micro-car, only can not be cheap, and that means the demand for such machines we have a massive will not.

  • One of the most desirable cars in the Soviet Union was universal on the basis of the 24th of the Volga. History and test drive this car here.

Photo: from archive of the author

13 popular cars of the Soviet Union, which would not было13 people’s cars of the Soviet Union, which it would not have been