Experience seven new vehicles which are able to brake without the driver’s help.Author Maxim Sachkov,
photo: Konstantin Yakubov
You also hooked advertisement in which the cars themselves stop in front of the unexpected obstacle, if the driver overslept dangerous moment? Some manufacturers even arrange demonstration tests in which the car self-brakes in front of an inflatable dummy or a poster with a picture of the machine.
Such advertising will more as a buyer not to lure “old values,” the power of the motor, the handling, the results of crash tests… all the cars Have the basic options are similar. Buyers now react to a number of displays and the availability of latest electronic systems, including auto brake. Because, as the advertising on-the-go “stick” in the smartphone and the car in which case she will stop and save us from disgrace, repair and treatment. But where is the guarantee that the electronics will work just as well in a critical situation on a real road?
Target for the test participants was again our mobile test facility. We upgraded: changed the appearance, changed the filling and made more visible to radar
To us this test has not been undertaken, and because there are no techniques or instrumentation. And the magazine “driving” this technique is – after the first full test of the system auto brake, we spent two and a half years ago (RA, № 6, 2015). And then learned that even with similar hardware
part of these systems cars meeting an obstacle, act differently: some inhibit insecure, and other times and did not notice the impending danger. If not for our unique soft trailer, in which you can bury the front bumper even at high speed – would have smashed everything to pieces.
Has anything changed since our first test? How smarter control electronics? Not treading water whether on-site engineers?
TARGET NUMBER TWO
Not only cars and their systems became more perfect – our test unit has gone through extensive upgrades. It is based on the same platform is an aluminium frame placed on four wheels. In order to test the dynamics, we set the installation on the rails, which drags the tractor. If the auto brake system does not work, the install goes on these rails from budnowska her car. Because of this intact (or relatively intact) and remain a target, and flew into her car.
Installation soft. First under an awning hiding box foam. This time at the suggestion of the expert mechanic “driving” Valeria Zharinova we used as additional dampers air springs. They are more efficient than layers of foam dampen the impact energy, so the extra padding as unnecessary were removed, thereby reducing the mass of installation.
Some cars feel the space in front of him with the help of radar radar. These sensors “see” only those items which reflected radio waves. Frame, our metal, but thick sheets of foam absorb electromagnetic radiation. So on the back of the box we glued two strips of aluminum foil below the radar are guaranteed to pinpoint installation.
An upgraded filling is covered with more durable PVC case. Now “the body” will not “flap your wings” and thereby mislead automotive electronics. More modern was the appearance of installation is rare “Volkswagen Transporter” became “the universal of Logan MCV”.
This time we gathered at training ground seven cars – different brands and classes, the most affordable three times cheaper than the most expensive. But fresh, more than half of them do newcomers 2017. Each will undergo a full testing cycle: stop before a stationary object deceleration when braking the vehicle ahead and other.
Target for the test participants will once again be our mobile test facility that simulates a rear portion of a passenger car. After analyzing last year’s test, we upgraded a little changed the appearance, changed the filling and made the machine more visible to radar.
The ring is called
Among the brands who have already held the exam for the auto brake in 2015, includes Land Rover, Volvo and Volkswagen. This time they present a new Discovery, V90 Cross Country and Tiguan.
Stands for Mazda crossover CX‑5 new generation with the upgraded system auto brake.
Have Skoda two years ago, there was no cars able to brake independently, and now the honor of the mark protects a large crossover Kodiaq.
Only a few months ago, the firm Subaru began to supply Ukraine with the vehicles equipped with complex safety EyeSight, and we took to test the crossover XV.
Mercedes-Benz gave at the mercy of universal E‑class version All-Terrain – all-wheel drive and a raised. It is equipped with the most sophisticated and expensive system of auto brake. So check whether there is a sense to overpay, if you care about your security.
How are we going to beat?
Our unique testing methodology applied on the previous test, we have not changed. It consists of several exercises – static and dynamic. More precisely, the subject is always in motion, and that pseudo-first Logan stands motionless in the hope that the approaching car will stop at a safe distance, and then moves, overtakes the test car.
The test always starts at low speeds – from a sin far away. Depending on the first results make a decision whether to run the test throughout the program or is it better to stop testing, in order not to smash into splinters and “Logan”, and the car.
“Stand-up” – stop before a stationary object.
Start with a “static” tests. Our installation simulating the rear part of the Renault Logan MCV, stands on the site (e.g. at a stoplight), and the subject is coming at her with a certain velocity (Fig. 1). The first race takes place at a speed of only 15 km/h In the boost phase driver withstand a given rate and not take the foot off the gas pedal. The car slowed in front of the obstacle? If Yes, then each new attempt to increase the speed by 5 km/h until groped limit. 50 km/h tests stop, as in contact at higher speeds there is a risk of damage and install, and the car.
Due to the unstable operation of the electronics is sometimes necessary to duplicate attempts to clearly establish when it is the limit of the control electronics.
“Give me a sign” – the rating system warning of a possible collision (Fig. 2).
The driver steers the machine to an installation on a small (20 km/h), medium (50 km/h) and high (90km/h) speeds – and closely follows the clues of electronics. At the first warning he presses on the brakes and assess (subjectively, of course), in a timely manner if the electronics gave the signal. It happened that the assistants are treacherously silent, and the driver had to Dodge a trailer in the last moment to avoid being hit at high speed. Not to Dodge – smash test unit will damage the car and he himself can suffer, because at speeds over 50 km/h with enough hard contact to fire an airbag.
“Catch-up” – a car overtakes a moving installation (Fig. 3).
It is an imitation of the most common traffic situations. The first reproduces in the city the situation: “Logan” goes with a speed of 20 km/h and the subject catches it with speed 50 km/h Then play catch-up in the trace pace: setting holds a 50 km/h and the speed of overtaking her car – 90 km/h.
“Slow down” – braking before the tail tube.
Installation and machine moving with a speed of 60 km/h. “Logan” starts to slow down, and the car overtakes him, because the driver overslept dangerous moment (Fig. 4).
The task of the system of automatic braking in all exercises is obvious – to prevent contact.
Objective assessment received by the cars on the results of the races, we bring to the table. But, as often happens in such complex trials, the dry points can not give a full picture of how the behavior of the heroes of our test. On different machines – systems of different levels that react differently in certain situations. Therefore, without a detailed account of each vehicle is not necessary. Share your impressions we are not in chronological order, and go on increasing – from less successful participants of the test to its leaders.
The system of Autonomous emergency braking Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is an option for Discovery.
Last time we had a Land Rover Discovery Sport, which
scored no points, the same as calmly drove both in stationary and moving target. The AEB system first appeared on the Sport, and the new “disco” was released in people with already upgraded electronics, the “brains” of which we laid, in particular, the function of recognition of pedestrians. Ensure the revised soft safe braking?
The speed of 15 km/h Kaboom! Discovery arrived at the “car”. Try again and after hitting our installation leaves again on rails. The third time, “disco still slowed down, but then it again failed. Out of ten attempts, only three were valid.
According to the manufacturer’s speed range, in which the Discovery system will recognize the car from 5 to 80 km/h But to prevent collision it is bound at speeds up to 50 km/h. Alas, in “disco” showed more modest results.
After a short rest and regular reboots of electronic components, Discovery made a series of unmistakable attempts at speeds up to 35 km/h inclusive. The value we entered in the Protocol: double-mercilessly kicking the installation of 40 km/h, Land Rover went to dynamic tests.
System AEB auto brake debuted on the crossover Discovery Sport and the larger Discovery set upgraded AEB – similar hardware but with new software. The objects and distance to them AEB determines with the help of a stereo camera located behind the windscreen in the area of cleaning wipers.
Catch-up Discovery too play not wanted, and at a low speed and a high braking before decelerating in front of a car refused, – however, at the last moment signaled the driver of the danger. Already losing hope, I decided to bring the tests to the end. And – about a miracle! – disco braked for slowing installation. His potential has been exhausted: subsequent attempts were unsuccessful.
“Give me a sign”
And the system auto brake and collision warning can be disabled by placing a check mark in the menu next to the appropriate item.
Warning system, in fact, not working. At low speed it gave the signal already in the process of braking, and at higher decided not to remain silent.
Compared to other test takers range Rover looks pale. But this is the most expensive car in our team. But the progress of Discovery compared to the previous test visible. So look forward to the next time machine that will have opponents worthy of resistance.
System Smart City Brake Support (SCBS) is standard on the top configuration Supreme. The machine configuration is Active (average) it is offered as an option. Mazda CX‑5 previous-generation system was simpler – it was based on lidar (laser radar) and worked in the speed range from 4 to 30 km/h. that we were able to test the CX‑5 is equipped with an upgraded Smart City Brake Support (SCBS, smart assistance when braking in the city). Lidar has changed the front camera, which was to identify not only cars, but pedestrians, and the maximum response speed increased to 80 km/h.
The test results have been modest in the manufacturer information. In a duel with a fixed installation Mazda almost without fail, it has reached 45 km/h. “Almost” – because at 40 km/h once it is slightly kicked “Largus”. But then worked flawlessly, including at higher speeds. However, doing it too sharply – apparently, every time play safe.
System auto brake Mazda developed jointly with Magna, based on the information from the front camera, and it works better than the machine of the previous generation with a laser radar.
Dynamic test Mazda has worked pretty well, except that in a catch-up at high speed in an attempt slightly touched the installation.
Perhaps the later notices the object. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the car slows down abruptly and nervously – as if the driver noticed the danger at the last moment.
“Give me a sign”
System Smart City Brake Support can be disabled by opening the corresponding item in the settings. There you can set the time of alarm actuation.
At relatively low speeds warned of the danger perfectly – giving the driver just enough time to braking without the intervention of ABS. At medium to high speed indication and audible alarm treacherously silent. The result is a quite low marks for this exercise.
When it detects danger SCBS issues a warning signal, and the windscreen projects a guide to action.
Mazda as a whole did very well, but the engineers have some work to do. Causes of failures are rooted, rather, in the raw software system SCBS. For new hardware it had to update, and the polishing time was obviously not enough.
System Front Assist with emergency braking City Emergency Braking is standard on all Tiganov.
Last time we took the test Volkswagen Golf due to a technical malfunction of the auto brake system. In this test system, Front Assist, warning about dangerous rapprochement and performing the auto brake, worked on the Tiguan without a glitch. Her only seeing eye – new Doppler radar developed by Continental controls near (40 m) and long (up to 170 m) area in front of the car. Many of the features that the previous systems require multifunctional camera (including braking from low speeds) are now only on the radar.
System auto brake works in conjunction with active cruise control. When driving on autopilot distance from a moving car can also be adjusted, but these settings do not affect the activation of hitchhiking.
Static Tiguan worked without hesitation – clearly recognize the object and stayed in front of “Largus” calmly and confidently. But at the speed of 39-40 km/h self-braking stopped.
The Tiguan space probes radar hidden under the logo. It operates at a frequency of 78 GHz and “sees” objects at a distance up to 170 meters. However, only those that have sufficient reflectivity: the car was spotted as it has a lot of metal and plastic road fence – no.
At low speed, the Tiguan was perfect stop in front of the “tube”, and fast “catch-up” stayed very close to the installation and once I even lightly touched it.
“Give me a sign”
The function of the proximity warning can be configured by setting one of three levels of sensitivity. Or just disable.
20 km/h Tiguan does not warn the driver about dangerous rapprochement, until the distance becomes critical, and then… very slow! On medium speed it sends a signal, but guaranteed you can manage to slow down, only when the distance set in the mode “before.” 90 km/h the system does not see the danger, and therefore did not submit distress.
The Tiguan is a bit disappointing. From so advanced in the technical plan of the company I am expecting a result, but it is not. With increasing speed automatics starts to fall behind in work are experiencing. When the system has enough time to assess the situation, electronics does everything in German, clearly and effectively.
System Front Assist is a part of optional equipment of Kodiak in picking Style (indicative price 9 800 UAH).
Two years ago, Skoda in our test were not involved: there was nothing to brag about. For the first time the system auto brake appeared on Superbe, and now gradually adapting to other models. Debutant Kodiaq have played well. Something even better than his older companion – Tiguan. And it’s weird, because on the hardware, and even the location of the radar sensor, palpable ahead, systems of these cars look like twins. I suppose that the reason lies in the settings and working
Behind the grille hides the radar also developed by Continental, as the Tiguan. But the whole system works a little better. Maybe the sensor is seeing a little further or “brains” move a little faster.
In front of a stationary target Kodiaq stops confidently. Speed limit system response is 50 km/h 15 km/h higher than the Tiguan.
Doppler radar mounted behind the grille, probes the situation in front of the machine at a distance of about one hundred and fifty meters. He can spot a car at speeds up to 65 km/h, and pedestrian – from 5 to 30 km/h.
Catching a moving installation, Kodiaq inhibited more confident and safer than the Tiguan, and never touched. And earlier signaled a possible collision, allowing the driver more time to maneuver.
“Give me a sign”
The menu offers the same three settings function warning from tiganescu it differs only a few strokes in the design. But the electronics Skoda gives the driver a little more time to maneuver. Glance involuntarily clings to the inscription: “last Selected distance”…
And Tiguan, and the Kodiak system warn of it at low to medium speeds, but for some reason are silent on high. The algorithm of the system of preventive security similar to volkswagenwerk: when auto brake from a speed greater than 25 km/h automation pulls the belts to reduce the risk of injuries for driver and passengers – all on the Tiguan.
Place in the middle – not bad for a beginner. In our test student
has surpassed the teacher. His contribution to the success of the Kodiak made a good electronic base, tested on other cars of the Volkswagen group.
Complex EyeSight involves several systems of active
security (including the auto brake system).
To develop active safety systems firm Subaru began almost three decades ago. In the process of evolution appeared digital assistants,
who received the information from video cameras, of radio and laser radar. Having tried different schemes and accumulated experience, the Japanese have focused on the systems based on stereo cameras. And raised them to such a level that efficiency, they are not inferior radar systems, despite the fact that significantly cheaper. In 2008, the series went to a first safety system called EyeSight. But in Ukraine, it appeared only in 2017: XV crossover put the EyeSight system of the third generation.
In security complex EyeSight in addition to the functions of the auto brake includes active cruise control, pre-control of the accelerator system, the warning about leaving the band and about the beginning of the movement of the vehicle ahead.
All the exercises in statics XV fulfilled as a blueprint: and 15, and at 50 km/h the system warned about the dangers of short braking and, having received no response, completely took the initiative in their own hands. Slowed down not very gently, but smoothly and without interruption.
Eye complex safety EyeSight lenses of a stereo camera. In the obtained images, an electronic brain not only clearly identificeret objects, but also accurately measures the distance to them. The more divergent of the image projected on the camera’s sensor, the closer the real object. And the distance to it quite accurately calculated according to the number of pixels between the two images.
Subaru has successfully passed all tests in dynamics. A small note: when you perform a quick “catch-up” XV stops on the verge. Whether the difference of the velocities a bit more, there would be a contact with the obstacle.
“Give me a sign”
The stereo camera and the human eye similar characteristics. Therefore, in those circumstances, where the bad people see, goes blind and the optical system. For example, in heavy snowfall and fog EyeSight can be switched off – the display will appear a warning.
EyeSight system faithfully warns the driver about dangerous rapprochement, but much earlier than required. Even the sluggishness of the driver enough time to brake. Subsequent tests on public roads showed that the system doesn’t bother positives indicators and buzzers. So, additional lead time is only a plus in the fight for security.
Subaru is not without reason waited with the conclusion of the complex EyeSight in the Ukrainian market. The Japanese have tested and carefully adjusted the electronics so in our case it worked steadily. Test result – the third place. Very well, given that XV is the most affordable in the test machine.
Security system City Safety comes standard on every Volvo.
Honor of the Swedish brand, who are supposed to be a symbol of security, on the previous test, defended the sedan S60. He took second place, but did not meet expectations – due to frequent failures when stopping before a stationary installation. Newest universal V90 Cross Country is equipped with a system of the same name, City Safety, but the hardware and the software algorithms is a completely new complex. It is set on a Volvo, built on a modular platform SPA. According to the manufacturer specifications claim that the new system City Safety works way better, looks more (to 200 meters), focuses faster (up to a speed of 200 km/h), recognizes the car, standing and running pedestrians, cyclists and animals.
The new version of the active safety system City Safety is able not only to monitor the cars following in the same direction, but also helps the driver at intersections.
Indeed, progress is being made! A single failure while braking in front of stationary trailer. However, when braking from a speed of 45 km/h the car almost touched the setup, and we decided that this is the limit of possibilities. But with 50 km/h wagon slowed even more confident.
Behind the glass in the cleaning zone located the eyes and ears of the City Safety – radar and camera combined in a single unit. Priority camera pedestrian detection, and radar to detect primarily cars.
Universal flawlessly passed all the driving tests system City Safety. However, under certain braking automatics are so much tightened the belt that I always catch my breath. How would this concern about security is not turned into a trauma.
“Give me a sign”
City Safety is a complex security Intellisafe. In technical documentation is that it has to slow down for the standing or moving in front of a car, pedestrians (including leaving for another car), cyclists and large animals.
The system timely informs the driver about the danger at any speed. Just do not post the settings later alert: may not be enough time for reaction. In several races I was not able to avoid contact with the installation. Only when early warning, you can safely slow down without the risk of an accident.
Again second place! Stability – a sign of mastery. It is the stable job is the main advantage of the new system compared to the predecessor. Minor blots did not allow the car to rise to the highest level; to outdo the leader, have yet to try.
Automatic braking system Collision Prevention Assist is included in the basic equipment.
Mercedes-Benz decided not to skimp on the design and equipment of vehicles with active security. Some members of our test events ahead of the tracking cameras, others with radar and a E‑class there is a stereo camera and radar near and far action. You can bet that “tails” with such a rich Arsenal will be the winner, but we did not assume that the clarity of operation of the system so we will strike.
From under the windscreen of the Mercedes-Benz looks ahead through the eyes of a stereo camera. It can detect objects at distances up to a mile, and the viewing angle is 50°.
When performing static exercises Mercedes-Benz first showed a fairly sharp deceleration c small velocities. At 35 mph he began to stretch the belt, and the braking process took place in the following scenario: a warning signal, and then smooth braking and if the driver does not intervene, the automatic “booster pedal”. With increasing speed, the picture does not change. And, crucially, remains confident that the machine will slow down. In my excitement I even passed the critical mark of “50 km/h” (in contact at higher speeds there is a risk of damage and install and car) and Mercedes obediently stopped from sixty.
“Give me a sign”
The auto brake system cannot be turned off, which is perfectly justified and logical. It does not intervene in the management, until there is an emergency. Using menu to adjust and disable only the function of the proximity warning.
Testing the proximity warning at low and medium speeds, I found that the system measures exactly as much time as is necessary for the driver to have time to react and slow down on the verge of triggering the ABS. At a time when there was alarm at 90 km/h, we automation at the same time pressed on the brake. I was afraid that bump, and at the last moment took over. As it turned out, in vain: the next time a Mercedes stopped a meter away from the unit. And in the end, the car just put the squeeze on the brakes, demonstrating that fully controls the situation.
The primary task radioradara hidden in a three-beam star, – to identify the cars on the near and far approaches. Up to 70 meters it scans a sector with an angle of 90°, hereinafter the “look” is narrowed to 20°, and beats for 250 meters.
After such a triumph checking in dynamics looked boring formality – the E‑class in all three exercises performed with precision, not giving them a reason to doubt its infinite possibilities.
Mercedes-Benz confidently performed all the exercises, never allowing a miss. The system installed on it auto brake is the most complex and expensive. This is the case when the benefits justify the investment.
Our tests showed that the progress in the development of auto-brake systems is noticeable, automation really started to work adequately. However, still some better, others worse. And the conclusion is clear: the presence of auto brake system on the car is not a guarantee of security.
By and large, among the tested cars only one Mercedes-Benz worthy of the highest rating only him I would trust with my life. In dozens of races he has not made a single mistake. And that so clearly and perfectly – should work all without an exception of the security system. They are designed to save, and that work should be.
BEHIND THE WHEEL OF THE NO. 02 2018