Many years in the Soviet Union believed that all-wheel drive is needed only to improve patency. But in the 1980s came the first domestic “Quattro”.Sergey Kanunnikov “driving”Expert

Since the world in 1980 met Audi quattro — speed sport coupe with four driving wheels, the epidemic of creating such cars has spread with enormous speed.

Audi was the first car where the four-wheel drive made in the first place, not for crawling through the mud, and the fuller realization of the possibilities of a powerful engine and improved handling. This model is different from the careful engineering and meticulous finishing.

After a dozen firms began to engage in such structures, interested in the idea, of course, and Soviet engineers. But a specific domestic market (or rather, lack thereof) of such schemes are not promoted. However, in the second half of the 1980s, our factories gradually began to create their “Quattro”.

VAZ-2108 4×4 (VAZ-29084)VAZ-2108 4×4 (VAZ-29084)

It all started, of course, with rally cars of the international group B. In 1988 in Togliatti built VAZ-2108 4×4 (aka — VAZ-29084). From the “eight” in car left a bit. Engine volume of 1.85 liters and power of 150 HP was standing in the base, behind the seats and brought all-wheel drive. Of course, for mass production, this design was unusable. However, if it seriously came to international homologation, the cars still would. But — did not happen.

Moskvich-21416Москвич-21416

Meanwhile, AZLK created closer to the everyday life of four-wheel drive design — Muscovite-21416. The first prototypes were so-called free transmission without center differential and cross-axle lock free. Those who went on these vehicles, and remember that on slippery surfaces, and sometimes at high speeds the car behaved like wild beasts. By working with the British company FFD options transmission, in particular a viscous coupling, stopped at a simple and inexpensive limited slip differential Quaife. The car is as unified with the standard Muscovite. However, the rear was an independent suspension with struts similar to the front.

GAZ-3105 Volgagaz-3105 Volga

No less interesting was the Volga GAZ-3105 — Executive car which was to replace Tea. From her new Volga went like a space rocket from the launch pad. The V8 engine capacity of 3.4 liter developing 170 HP and worked with a five-speed manual transmission. All-wheel drive with lockable center differential. The drive to the front differential went in a hollow transmission output shaft. The testers spoke of GAS-3105 well. But those who are primarily addressed to pricey Volga state officials have already lost interest in domestic products. The circulation of GAS-3105 was less than six dozen cars.

T3Lada Samara Lada Samara T3

His version of rally “Quattro” with the appearance of VAZ-2108 was created and the French firm Poch for the marathon “Paris-Dakar”. From Soviet car Lada Samara T3 were, however, some external features and individual elements. Under body, assembled on a tubular frame, was the engine and transmission units of the Porsche 959. Motor 3.6 l capacity of about 300 HP placed in the database. However, the interest in Lada Samara French sport prototype increased.

US-Apelsinam 0290-0290 Orange

Another Soviet sports prototype for rally — US-0290 Orange. The car was based on the body of the ZAZ-1102 Tavria and some node Fields. In the database, behind the seats stood the engine VAZ-2106 turbo, developing about 120 HP Orange has become one of the signs of rapid, as it seemed then, of the rise of the Soviet automobile industry of the mid-1980s.

Lada 4×4 4×4 VictoryLada Victory

In the early 1990s in the Wake of the flowering of national tuning of the Tolyatti firm “Metallic-Kvadro” has created a VAZ-21099 Victoria (Lada 4×4 Victory). Outwardly almost indistinguishable from the standard car in drive the rear wheels equipped with nodes all-wheel drive Volkswagen Golf with a viscous coupling. The car was doing single copies. So even small series can be considered conditional.

IZH-2126 4х4ИЖ-2126 4×4

In the late 1980s for four-wheel drive and took the Izhevsk plant. The first prototypes in the early 1990s did the tuning firm Norma-a Car. The machine was designed for engines VAZ or TIES, to the standard transmission was added to the original rasgado. Front subframe fixed gear Cornfields, and the wheels held out shortened drives from the same SUV. The machine is longitudinally put and the engine VAZ-21084 working volume of 1.6 liters, 84 HP

Included two versions of the car: traffic without a downshift and all terrain — with a two-stage razdatkoy. In 1998, did the prototype with a 130-horsepower engine and Hyundai with the independent rear suspension of his own design. Tried different, including import, transmission. Provided inter-axle differential lock, includes buttons. It just Russian Subaru with a maximum speed of 180 km/h. But the price of this Property was close to, if not zubarovsky, to the cost of a decent foreign car.

Moskvich-2144 Ivan Qualitymusic-2144 Ivan Kalita

Conventionally, the serial can be considered sedans factory Muscovite (formerly AZLK) of the 1990s, which is scanty, however, the quantities did under the symbol 2144 French motors Renault power 112 HP and 145 HP under the names of Prince Vladimir and Kalita.

GAS-3104ГАЗ-3104

Gas to the AWD scheme tried to go back to the late 1990s when he built a prototype of GAZ-3103. But it was limited.

Lada 111 GTi 2.0 4x4Lada 111 GTi 2.0 4×4

All-wheel drive wagon VAZ-21116-04 (Lada 111 GTi 2.0 4×4) — with the viscous coupling in the drive train, independent rear suspension, disc brakes in a circle. The car was a 150-horsepower 2-liter Opel engine. Created a more affordable option — VAZ-21113-04 c domestic engine. But this version did not become serial.

Now it sports Aurus. But as far as he is a serial?

Four-wheel drive Volga, Moskvich and Lada: 10 Soviet quattro

Many years in the Soviet Union believed that all-wheel drive is needed only to improve patency. But in the 1980s came the first domestic “Quattro”.

Four-wheel drive Volga, Moskvich and Lada: 10 Soviet quattro

  • 12 predecessors Niva VAZ-2121 we’ve gathered here.

Photo: archive of the author’sfour-Wheel drive Volga, Moskvich and Lada: 10 Soviet quattro

Many years in the Soviet Union believed that all-wheel drive is needed only to improve patency. But in the 1980s came the first domestic “Quattro”.

Four-wheel drive Volga, Moskvich and Lada: 10 Soviet quattro

The abundance of the gas station allows easy travel around the country without the canister in the trunk. However, not every backwater meet branded filling stations. And on new toll motorways, sometimes for fifty kilometres there are no petrol station. That’s when five litres of fuel can be very useful even!Alexey Revin “driving”ExpertMichael Kolodochkin “driving”Expert

We bought 11 five-liter cans, plastic and metal. The findings of our research relate to the tested samples and are not used to assess the whole range of eponymous products.

What and how is tested?

What is five liters? Purchased the canisters differ markedly in shape and size. How much they fit? If more than five gallons, okay. If less canister gets fail.

Pour! On the transfusion of fuel is affected by the presence of siphon tube for air access, handle design, fitting the neck to the body and its diameter. This option is one of the most important: that when refueling realize how convenient canister. It’s one thing when gasoline is powerful and uniform flows in the gas tank, and quite another when the canister starts to “hiccup” and the gasoline splashes out of the neck by the funnel.

The inflatable! Gasoline expands when warm. Saturated vapor pressure, which inflates the cans from the inside, according to GOST 32513-2013 “motor Fuel. Unleaded gasoline” can reach 1 bar. But this limit, which in everyday use is hardly achievable, even if you permanently leave the canister in the sun. So, to check we were limited to a pressure of 0.7 bar. Evaluate deformation and the ability of the canister to return to the previous form.

АТО3330, КНРАТО3330, CHINA

Price ~ 890Material metalPoints 8

The real volume of 5.4 liters. A special locking mechanism (locking pin) protects the canister from accidental leakage. Fuel pours out well. At high pressure the bottom is “floated”, while the canister remained stable.

Autoprofi KAN-KAN 500Autoprofi-500

The price is ~ 1700 RUBMaterial metalPoints 9

The measured volume — 5.5 liters under lower cut neckline. Fuel is leaking perfectly, this contributes to a separate drain screw. And all is good, but the bottom at a pressure slightly deformed.

Garde CP005G, РоссияGarde CP005G, Russia

Price ~ 295 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 8

Canister is stated as “enhanced”. When pouring fuel her side, not “play”, although cardio in lake installed only near the neck. The flow is stable, but slow. The volume in the filling under the neck — of 5.55 liters. High blood pressure led to easy residual deformation.

Garde CP005R, РоссияGarde CP005R, Russia

Price ~ 225 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 7

A real volume of 5.7 liters. Fuel pours out very bad: with a gurgling sound, pulling. Pressure canister is not afraid.

Garde Extreme Premium Extreme Premium РоссияGarde, Russia

Price ~ 430 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 9

Filler spout is located inside the canister, which reduces its volume. Funny decision. The canister comes with 5.5 liters when filling up to lower edge of filler neck. The cover is provided with protection against inadvertent opening. Air drainage works at four. Pressure is not terrible.

Oktan classic, classic РоссияOktan, Russia

Price ~ 255 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 10

The volume to the bottom of the slice — of 5.55 liters. Has a child lock. Supplied with flexible spout with technology “AntiBank” (this hilarious term invented by the manufacturer). Empty great! The product is not afraid of pressure.

Rexxon, ЛатвияRexxon, Latvia

Price ~ 1260 RUBMaterial metalPoints 10

The true volume of 6.0 liters. Cover with lock to prevent accidental opening. The drainage tube is not seen, but fuel pours out perfectly due to the solid diameter of the neck. Canister withstood the pressure.

Rexxon, РоссияRexxon, Russia

Price ~ 320 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 7

The measured volume of 6.0 liters. Spout — no drain: the liquid pours quite sickly, can the “hiccups”. Pressure survived.

Zipower РМ4291, РоссияZipower РМ4291, Russia

Price ~ 355 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 8

To the lower cutoff in the canister comes with 6.0 liters of fuel. The nose is welling good but fuel pours out no matter: drainage is not thought out. Pressure can withstand with dignity.

Mammoth, Rosemont, Russia

Price ~ 310 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 6

The measured volume of 5.9 liters. The content translates well. On the label the statement: “After filling the canister with fuel, verify integrity of canisters”. And later will not? On the bottom has a corrugation which is at higher pressure — at this point, the case may eventually crack.

Eureka, Russiamerica, Russia

Price ~ 310 RUBMaterial plasticPoints 6

The real volume of 5.5 liters. Fuel pours out extremely sluggish. High blood pressure led to easy residual deformations of the bottom.

After the test

In General, the results of the examination can be considered positive: none of the cans failed. However, the difference between leaders and Laggards is significant. Only two cans not raised any claims — Oktan classic plastic and metal Rexxon.

Happy journey and good fuel!

Five-liter cans: choose the best

The abundance of the gas station allows easy travel around the country without the canister in the trunk. However, not every backwater meet branded filling stations. And on new toll motorways, sometimes for fifty kilometres there are no petrol station. That’s when five litres of fuel can be very useful even!

Five-liter cans: choose the best

  • How to save at the gas station told here.
  • Norwegian 5-liter Jerry can Smart Can — best-in-class.

Five-liter cans: choose the best

The abundance of the gas station allows easy travel around the country without the canister in the trunk. However, not every backwater meet branded filling stations. And on new toll motorways, sometimes for fifty kilometres there are no petrol station. That’s when five litres of fuel can be very useful even!

Five-liter cans: choose luchowfu: George Cages

Experts “driving” checked in the circuit with different retention mechanisms. Both greatly improved the permeability “test” crossover, but to use only one of them.“Behind the wheel”

All fixtures for enhanced off-road capability in snow most of our readers and subscribers trust simple, effective and reliable circuits.

We decided to run a comparative test of the two circuits. One of them is kept on an ordinary castle, and the other is attached with the inertial coil. Put on chains and drive around in the snow.

To get started, install the wheel circuit from the first set.

Under lock and key

Get the chain out of the plastic box in which it was sold, and cracking. The chain rests on the cable lock. Open the lock and shoved the cable under the wheel. Due to the dense sheath of the cable easily passes around the wheel, never clinging. Join the ends at the top of the wheel with a lock.

Then put a yellow hook on the yellow part of the circuit (they should be at the top of the wheel) and start to tighten it and align the cable. The red part of the circuit while at the bottom and is responsible for its tension. Tighten it as much as possible and fasten with a red castle. Due to the special hooks to fix the free end of the red chain. The first stage of installation completed.

Now you need to drive a few tens of meters below the chain centered. After the trip, she stood in place but slack. We have not the big wheel, and the chain is universal, so it is a red area almost completely passed through the red castle. So pull up the chain will have a different way.

To do this, we will get yellow the first yellow of the hook link and hook program second. Now the red area appeared stock, so that the chain can be well tightened. Again fix it with the help of special hooks. Tightly is not necessary, since this area is not power. The installation is finished.

Go on a snow-covered field to evaluate the effectiveness of the device. On the chains, the car feels confident. Virtually no wheel spin. The fixture works.

With coil

Install the chain with a different mount. This set was sold in little more than a convenient bag-cover with pockets inside, through which the chains intertwine. The fundamental difference of this kit from the first automatic mechanism of a tension. Expandable circuit, make sure that the links are not linked. The markings on the coil must be directed inward. When we install a device, it will be outside.

Pokes the rope with a chain under the wheel. Is it the same as in the first case, easily passes through the dense shell. Raise up the ends of the cable and connect with a simple lock. Take out the chain out, even out of her and shifted so that the black hook on top.

Pulling the cord from the coil. Move the red latch to the right, catch a mate and align the chain to the black portion of the chain located symmetrically relative to the center of the wheel. Click on the red button on the coil and she starts to pull the cable and simultaneously pull the chain. The device is mounted.

Check how well the coil will adjust the position of the chain in motion. For this we will pass a few tens of meters. The device works fine. It is seen that the mechanism effectively pulled the chain and it never sags. The device copes well with its task: the car confidently overcome a pretty difficult sections, including the roads with snow and mud.

Circuit from the first and second sets quite easily installed and work well, really increasing the maneuverability of the cars. The chain is retractable is more convenient: after installation you can go directly, without further adjustment. The coil tightens the chain as soon as the wheels are set in motion.

  • How to jump-start a car with a dead battery, see (and read) here.
  • Antioxy, belts to the wheels, snow chains (and many other useful accessories) are presented in the online store “at the wheel”.

All questions and proposals for the series “Technical environment” please send to address: techsreda@zr.ru.

Other editions of the “technology environment” available in our special projects as well as on our YouTube channel.

Through the fields without all-wheel drive? Easy! The circuit under test

Experts “driving” checked in the circuit with different retention mechanisms. Both greatly improved the permeability “test” crossover, but to use only one of them.

Through the fields without all-wheel drive? Easy! Test of APIPA fields without AWD? Easy! The circuit under test

Experts “driving” checked in the circuit with different retention mechanisms. Both greatly improved the permeability “test” crossover, but to use only one of them.

Through the fields without all-wheel drive? Easy! Test of zepetto: “Behind the wheel”

The wires for the “booster” by definition should be thick. But what if only a thin?Michael Kolodochkin “driving”Expert

Why do we need only the thick wire? Only because they have very little resistance, and therefore, even when a current of hundreds of amperes the voltage loss will be minimal. Otherwise, the wires will turn your eyes into a burning thread, which almost immediately burn out, trying to make a circuit, and even burn you.

Somehow we sometimes hear from the “experts” that they say, the dispute will be able to “light up” any wires. That’s bullshit. This is possible except in those rare cases when the home battery is not fully discharged, and only slightly below “the waterline”, but if it warm outside. In this case, the starter motor will not twist the external, namely native battery, which quickly will get the missing “doping” even on thin wires, after which cope with the task itself. But the starter current on those wires when it will not go — it is strange that many do not understand.

In Zhigulevsk the time, help often came in the mounting paddle of a standard set of tools. Two car set close to the metal bumpers were placed shoulder, pressing her leg, and the positive terminal of the battery connected all the ways in which they managed to come up with. Generally twisted together all wire, which only managed to find the farm — until the destruction of the lamps-pet… Sometimes it worked, while providing the normal contact was, frankly, hard.

Today, the metal bumper is rare. However, the instructions to the car together repeating the same phrase, saying, categorically denied touching the metal parts of the machine-donor and “run down” of the car. Therefore, no circuit blade will not help for lighting need two thick wires — period. If there are two sets of thin wires obviously you can try to hook them in parallel — this will increase the chances to let the silent motor. The two wires between the pros, two — cons between…

Last chance to somehow help the poor with the help of a thin wire — it’s stupid to connect them to the required points and… leave in this position for a long time. The more discharged the battery is, the longer it will have to wait. And in 30-40 minutes you can unhook the wires and try to spin the starter, the crankshaft suddenly happen?

Everyone who wants to share in other ways “booster” with the help of unfit occasion, we invite you to speak.

  • And it’s better to have on hand a good starter.
  • Accessories sharadkumar, organizers and other useful accessories from our online store —best ideas for Christmas gifts.

“Behind the wheel” announces a contest of video clips about cars for our YouTube channel. The authors of the best video reviews will receive prizes, but most importantly, each of you has the chance to become our permanent presenter.“Behind the wheel”

Three simple steps to victory

  1. Select the car or any other object (accumulators, tires, automotive electronics, garage, etc.) for shooting.
  2. Remove the video duration from 5 to 15 minutes.
  3. Upload this video to YouTube and send us the link for viewing on konkurs@zr.ru.

Don’t forget to tell the letter about myself.

What should be in the video?

  • Positive!
  • Charismatic leading (or leading).
  • The benefit to the audience: the pros and cons of the car or its component, life hacks, etc.

Who are we looking for?

For permanent cooperation we need a moderator over 22 years, with driving license and experience of driving. It is important that you be active in social media, not afraid to get wet in the rain and lie in the snow for a good angle.

It is important to know

1. The timing of the contest?

We accept competition rollers with 2 to 30 December 2019 inclusive.

2. When and where will announce the results?

20 January 2020 we will announce the winners on our YouTube channel and on the website “Behind the wheel”.

3. If I don’t win, will I get a response or a review?

Yes. We will reply to all authors , and give recommendations on how to improve the videos.

4. Will post my video publicly available?

We will post videos only with the consent of the authors.

5. I’m going to be famous?

In case of victory in the contest — Yes!

6. How much can you earn?

The work is much. Life is enough.

7. But if I’m not from Moscow?

It is possible to create in my home city — it would wish. And you never know — suddenly you will move to the capital?

Our prizes

As prizes we are giving away 5 DVRs Artway MD-106 Super Fast Combo with a convenient magnetic mount, which will help you to create a new videoshader from real life.

Important links

  • Our YouTube channel is here. By the way, don’t forget to subscribe!
  • Position about the competition “Take the car” among the visitors to the video channel of the magazine “Behind the wheel” — to download.
  • Modern DVRs, carports and all for warming the car in the shop “Behind the wheel”.

Photo: “Behind the wheel”

What to do if you flew the thrust position sensor body? The reader “Behind the wheel” found a budget solution that is applicable to almost all cars.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

A common fault in modern cars — breaking thrust position sensor body. The original part is not cheap. Provide a low-cost solution applicable to almost all cars.

Purchased, two rod tip accelerator for the Volga (detail 21-1712155), which are descended from GAZ‑21, they will cost about $ 100.

Connect them with M6 stud length Kontron nuts.

The length of the thrust is exposed in accordance with original detail.

If you want the pull is shorter than 90 mm, you can cut the threaded part of the tip, which is about 15 mm.

Afanasyev, Nizhni Novgorod

Prize to the author of the Council — a set of tools Airline.

Dear experts car! Sending tips, don’t forget to inform your postal address with six digit postal code, surname, name and patronymic (in full) and phone number for communication. This will significantly simplify and speed up the delivery of well-deserved prizes.

Their advice you can send an e-mail exp@zr.ru. Possible illustrate their own know-how photographs and/or diagrams.

  • The experienced motorist any section of pipe will go to the cause.
  • Quickly and with your hands you can cover the engine with a special blanket. Only original avtoteplo of shalabina, the effect proved.

Photo: Afanasyev

The main problems that happened with the car out of the Park “Behind the wheel” since the last report relate to the chassis. The repair costs are quite reasonable for such a vehicle. Moreover there are things which are definitely not worth saving.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

Editorial Largus 2012 hitting 130 000 km.

Runs in recent years have become smaller, but the load is significant and diverse.

He carries twenty solid, 75-amp batteries, then push the installation to check the system auto brake. All purchases of various fluids, components and parts for our expertise also done on Largus. Yet he had to carry the engine and transmission small car.

Well, every day the car is idle in traffic, and therefore fuel consumption, even in summer does not fall below 12 liters per 100 km in the Winter on a liter more.

Problems with the suspension

Buzzed wheel bearing — at first barely noticeable, then the noise intensified, but the backlash when swinging posted of the wheels was observed. The feelings buzzed the left wheel bearing, but the sound will spread in the car in a most marvelous manner. Posted both front wheels, started the engine, put the car in gear and heard a noise from under the car with a stethoscope. Tried to determine the source of the hum by using a long screwdriver held to the steering knuckle and to the ear. All of these methods and not allowed to make a conclusion on what bearing is faulty. In the end, the diagnosis was set according to the results of a simple road test: when turning right the hum was getting stronger, so blame the left bearing that is loaded more. Disassembly confirmed fears.

On the treadmill outer ring of the bearing has occurred pitting the so — called pitting. The bearing was replaced. The hum stopped.On the treadmill outer ring of the bearing has occurred pitting the so — called pitting. The bearing was replaced. The hum stopped.

New podchinit firms Optimal with nut, retaining ring and sensor holder ABS. Mount ABS sensor unreliable and uncomfortable. Bearing a cost of 2300 rubles.New podchinit firms Optimal with nut, retaining ring and sensor holder ABS. Mount ABS sensor unreliable and uncomfortable. Bearing a cost of 2300 rubles.

Once everything was disassembled, replaced and brake discs. Their thickness was only 17 mm. Keep in mind that under heavy braking the discs that wear easily overheat. New brake discs cost of 3300 rubles.

Brake discs passed 130 000 km and do not have heartbeats or any other problems other than insufficient thickness. Great result.Brake discs passed 130 000 km and do not have heartbeats or any other problems other than insufficient thickness. Great result.

How to save on brake pads?

In the good, along with the discs and replace pads. Why? The working surface of all the worked disk has a concave shape. And the surface of the pads, respectively, the convex, it is bedded to the old drive.

But it happens that the brake disks require replacement, and the pads have not worn out. As in our Largus. In this case, you can save and not spend money on new pads. Take sandpaper placed on a flat table and, like on the stove, grind in a circular motion the old pads onto the plane. You can control the equality of the thicknesses of the pads by the calipers. If you don’t want dust in the garage, the same can be done on the stretch of smooth asphalt. In the end, the pad surface becomes smooth, and they do not spoil the new wheels.

So we did. The old pads still like.

Ball joint

Not for long, I went in silence. Pounding the ball joint on the left side. But it was recently changed (by mileage 105 000 km), and not in Assembly with the lever, and by pressing the new support. This method of repair will cost two times cheaper than a replacement arm Assembly. Because support costs 700 rubles, and the mount Assembly with lever — 2750 roubles.

The left lever Lada Largus after mileage 130 000 km the Left lever Lada Largus after a distance of 130 000 km.

The photo shows clearly how far out the ball from its seat. Keep in mind, the operation of the machine when such malfunction threat.The photo shows clearly how far out the ball from its seat. Keep in mind, the operation of the machine when such malfunction threat.

Also deformed the rubber.Also deformed the rubber.

Now, however, drawing not just sluttily in the ball connection, but also began to samoupravlanja from the hole in the lever. Second time to drive the ball just not worth it — it’s a lottery. After pressing the connection is already weakened by the previous disassembly.

All of the above was the reason for replacing the lever Assembly.

Of the last fault: during a recent inspection discovered a tear on the rubber of the back support of the power unit. Will have to change.Of the last fault: during a recent inspection discovered a tear on the rubber of the back support of the power unit. Will have to change.

In General, Largus continues to cope with their responsibilities. He rides and drives. The cost of repair is relatively small. But the greatest costs are continuously rising in price fuel. Because I fill only 95-th gasoline at branded filling stations.

  • On that note, getting a Largus with mileage, find out here.
  • You can ask a question on the operation of any of the editorial car in our section “RR Park”.

Lada Largus: everything broken after 100 000 km

The main problems that happened with the car out of the Park “Behind the wheel” since the last report relate to the chassis. The repair costs are quite reasonable for such a vehicle. Moreover there are things which are definitely not worth saving.

Lada Largus: everything broken after 100 000 Mlada Largus: everything broken after 100 000 km

The main problems that happened with the car out of the Park “Behind the wheel” since the last report relate to the chassis. The repair costs are quite reasonable for such a vehicle. Moreover there are things which are definitely not worth saving.

Lada Largus: everything broken after 100 000 km

Think car buying, maintenance and repair of pleasure and headache of our day? As it is not so! The usual “drivers” of the past, the contemporaries of Pushkin and Gogol, were baffled.“Behind the wheel”

In the nineteenth century, personal vehicles — not just a means of transportation. Even inferior crew cost a lot of money, so most went on foot (buses and trams do not exist). Of course, in those days there were “kulibins” who make their own carts themselves. But these diys were more like a log with wheels, rather than the transport.

The bulk of the population (of the wealthy) still prefer to save some money and buy the crew decently. A nobleman from a wealthy family could hardly count on something more presentable than a sulky (a light carriage on springs, not to be confused with the peasant wood-sledge. — Approx. ed.) national Assembly. Especially since they cost a lot — an average of 700 to 1,200 rubles banknotes. In terms of today’s money this is slightly more than a million rubles. So a sulky — a kind of “top” Lada Vesta Sport or Hyundai Solaris the time of Alexander I.

Eyewitnesses recalled that the owners of the droshky often liked to drive. Low weight allowed the crew to develop a high speed. Writer and editor Faddey Bulgarin spoke of the courtyard as “the restless crew in the world” and about “daring” the courtyard of Pushkin any schoolboy knows. By the way, a quick ride at that time was no less dangerous than now. It was easy to roll over or crush an unwary pedestrian. So driving in the city is allowed a maximum of trotting, and it is 13-15 km/h. However, with the “radar” at that time in the streets no one was standing.

People with above average incomes could afford the wheelchair or its variants — for example, a barouche or the Phaeton. Regular stroller was worth twice drazek (about 2000 rubles) and the cost and the class could compare today with the Toyota Camry. Strollers differed convertible and harnessed a pair or trio of horses: in this crew was a pleasure to ride in Sunny St. Petersburg. In addition, the wheelchair was mounted on soft springs, so the passengers had not experienced strong shaking, as in the same courtyard. Some owners were proud of this feature. “It’s amazing, light as a feather; and when you sit in it, just as if, with the permission of your Excellency, you nurse in the cradle rocked!” — boasts one of the heroes of the novel by Nikolai Gogol’s “the Carriage”.

The ultimate dream of the owners of private carriages is, of course, was the coach. To buy in those days a good coach from expensive wood — about how to acquire a Bentley Continental GT. For the money that he asked for a great coach, one could, for example, to buy a house in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk. — Approx. ed.). The double carriage began about 5 thousand rubles, and if to a hand of the eminent master, the price tag could double. Add to this the fact that the carriage need to move (one good horse was worth about a thousand rubles) and you will understand what to afford your own coach could only elite.

Domestic Assembly against the “foreign cars”

Any buyer of the crew was faced with a choice: to take a domestic product or a “foreign car”? Even then, many referred to our Assembly with distrust. And all because when you purchase Russian crew were high risk to stumble on that the rebuilt model of the old parts. So our reality is not lived years. “Cars” was considered more reliable and were distinguished by a graceful design. By the way, among the famous masters of that time many immigrants from Germany, Johann Joachim, Johann Rebelious, Carl Brautigam… it Seems that even then the Germans knew a lot about good “cars.”

Service for more than two century, too little has changed. The richer people were made the “official” glorified Karetnikov. Those who had more modest financial resources, used simple wizards or repaired themselves. Artisanal craftsmen often lied to customers. Even Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin “our everything” Pushkin once again became a victim of such would-be masters.

“The coachman, my Dodger; charged me for repairs 500 rubles, and in one month my coach though cast. It taught me something: not to deal with polotentse. Rebelious or Joachim would have taken me 100 rubles extra, but not cheated me” — he complains the spouse in the letter.

A familiar story, isn’t it?

“Royal” tuning

What a car enthusiast does not want to give your vehicle personality! In the XIX century was the same. Each “tune” as best they could — there would be money and imagination. Budget idea for the upgrade was Podgornyi bells, which in addition to the signal functions had some cool “doopsy”. First, with proper setting up a few bells served the equivalent of a modern radio — created a pleasant background sound. Second, it demonstrated the creativity of the owner, the sticker on the back glass or figurines on the dashboard. The bells were decorated with ornamental painting and inscriptions in the spirit, “Go — hurry, call it in console” or “Ringing a lot — way more fun”.

Option for more affluent citizens — lights. And, the more, the greater the transported passenger. Special chic was on the crew of double lamps or lanterns with faceted glass. Latest beautifully refracted the light and was something like a modern xenon.

Filthy rich citizens pay for the exclusive, as we would say today, tuning. Inside their crews were velvet or silk, sequins or embroidery thread (thin metallic silver or gold thread. — Approx. ed.). Rage — of precious or semi-precious stones.

However, not all members of the elite were wont to expose the wealth and status of the show. Emperor Alexander I was on the usual single carriage, covered with light gray cloth. Like he made a foreign campaign of 1814, which ended with the capture of Paris. And this despite the fact that a ruler was a coach Park with exclusive models crew…

And now about why we suddenly remembered the carriages, phaetons and carriages of the nineteenth century.

Try to imagine a cold night in February, 1816, on Ligovsky Avenue in St. Petersburg. One of the houses passers-by observed the accumulation of elite crews. The carriage, drawn by a tandem (that is, the rolls-Royce in stock), wait for owners… Today their names are known to everyone: Sergei Trubetskoy, Ivan Yakushkin, Pavel Pestel, Eugene Obolensky… Young officers of the guards gathered in the apartment of brothers Muravyov-Apostol, to create Russia’s first secret society — “Union of Salvation”. A movie about him comes out in the cinema on 26 December.

Three questions “the head of the transport Department”

— Transport in the film — props?

— Carts and army polutorki, says the artist props Alex Virchenko, we made especially for filming. In the Bryansk region still exists a factory which is engaged in their production. The sled we basically hire and take from private museums. Of course, this is not a historical objects and replicas that were created from the surviving drawings and sketches. The same applies to coaches.

— The crews somehow “make up” for filming?

— Of course. For example, each noble carriage was applied to the coat of arms. Transport factorials that didn’t seem like it’s brand new. Some elements we costarelli, replaced handle crews on copper or brass — they are more consistent with that time. For a film sewed curtains and cushion even inside the carriage all looked beautiful and believable.

— Most likely, or still valid? Historians to you “prikopat”?

— Together with the preliminary preparation of the shooting of “Union of salvation” took a little more than a year. For large-scale historical film is not enough. So, of course, had to simplify something, to close your eyes on minor inaccuracies. For example, some horse-drawn transport may not be entirely true recreations of the elements of the chassis. This compromise, which had to go in order to catch in time.

  • What became of the cars from our favorite movies, read here.

Photo: Direktsiya Kino, the First channel

Grandparents Solaris, Camry and Bentley’s that’s how I went in the XIX century!

Think car buying, maintenance and repair of pleasure and headache of our day? As it is not so! The usual “drivers” of the past, the contemporaries of Pushkin and Gogol, were baffled.

Grandparents Solaris, Camry and Bentley’s that’s how I went in the XIX century!Grandparents Solaris, Camry and Bentley’s that’s how I went in the XIX century!

Think car buying, maintenance and repair of pleasure and headache of our day? As it is not so! The usual “drivers” of the past, the contemporaries of Pushkin and Gogol, were baffled.

Grandparents Solaris, Camry and Bentley’s that’s how I went in the XIX century!

This year in our market debuted several crossovers. Which one you think is the best?“Behind the wheel”

Soon will start the most important event in the life of our journal — the Grand Prix “at the wheel”. The most prestigious automotive award will determine the best cars from among those that debuted on our market in 2019. The most beautiful, technically perfect and practical machine detects picky and attentive jury of our readers.

Just a few days the official start of online voting, but we now offer you to choose the best mid-size crossover monoprivodnom. And believe me, this is not an easy task, because each nominee its obvious advantages… and disadvantages. About every car can be read on the website “Behind the wheel” — links under the photos.

Changan CS35 Plus, universal, 128 HP, front-wheel drive

Geely GS, cross-coupe, 133 horsepower, front-wheel drive

Citroen C5 Aircross, universal, 150-180 HP, front-wheel drive

Chery Tiggo 7, station wagon, 122-152 HP, front-wheel drive

FAW Besturn X40, universal, 108 HP, front-wheel drive

DFM 580, station wagon, 132 horsepower, front-wheel drive

Photo: “Behind the wheel” November 28,

Which of these crossovers would you call the best?

Geely GS FAW Besturn X40 DFM 580 Citroen C5 Aircross Chery Tiggo 7 Changan CS35 PlusПроголосовать

This season, the Continental company started selling a new model of winter tyres — IceContact 3 “revolutionary” spikes ContiFlexStud.Ilya Pimenov “Behind the wheel”

The motto of Continental IceContact 3 — “winter revolution.” If I continentalism marketer, I would have strengthened the effect and used the phrase “white revolution”, meaning non-violent change of power.

The main “chip” of the new model tire that distinguish it from predecessors, — rubber metal spikes ContiFlexStud. Last year, the German tire manufacturers began selling the first model with such spikes — IceContact 2, only in one size — 235/45 R18 (for Citroen DS4/5, Ford Mondeo, Kia Optima, Opel Insignia, Skoda Superb, Tesla Model 3, Toyota Camry, Volvo V60, VW Passat) and in limited quantities.

IceContact 3 are now sold in Russia in 22 sizes. 15 of them (starting with the 17 inch) — with spikes ContiFlexStud. Obviously, the experiment failed.

Continental IceContact 3 in all its glory.Continental IceContact 3 in all its glory.

Do not be surprised if in a few years the usual spikes will disappear altogether, leaving only the rubber. After all, if you trust the brand, they are almost devoid of flaws usual spikes.

Pros ContiFlexStud

One of the main disadvantages “spikes, no seeds” — their noise. Premium tires (such as Continental) are noticeably quieter than “budget”, and they are usually on cars with good sound insulation. Reducing noise is one of the main directions of work of the German tire manufacturers, but studded tires are considered to be noisy.

According to statistics, 70% of buyers of winter tires in Russia prefer studded tires. Noisy? But tenacious!

Thanks to the use of ContiFlexStud noise levels of new tyres entering the salon, compared to the previous, same size, but with the usual spikes were reduced almost twice. New tyres with spikes experienced in Russia for taxis from December 2017 to April 2018, and mileage of each car was more than 40 000 km before they were tested with a Swedish taxi drivers. According to them, new tires with studs were great even in critical situations. Few of the passengers could not believe that he was going on the spikes. Some came out of the car, incredulously examined the wheel.

Subjectively, changing not only the volume but also its frequency, becoming more pleasant to the ear. And, of course, the effect becomes more noticeable with increasing speed.

“Concrete” argument of the opponents spikes, no seeds — they are stronger wear out the road surface. No wonder the studded tires banned in several European countries. ContiFlexStud reduce the wear of the road surface by 20%. The outer rubber shell softens the impact of the metal core of the spike.

Demonstration of the strength of the embedment studs ContiFlexStud the presentation tires Continental IceContact 3. Impressive!Demonstration of the strength of the embedment studs ContiFlexStud the presentation tires Continental IceContact 3. Impressive!

Metal spikes are worn down and leave their nests. Wear and the spikes ContiFlexStud. But rubber sheath worn down along with the protector and the efficiency of the metal pin saved the entire lifespan. Because of the same rubber shell nest of the ship practically does not split and remains in place until the critical wear of the tire. Continental did not merely state the thorns in the nest, and vulcanizare them to the bus, further consolidating the special glue. And they hold 4 times better than normal.

“The usual spikes are not able to completely penetrate the ice on the road, because they interfere with rigid aluminum body, explains Marco Gellings (Marco Gellings), head of Department of development of winter tyres from Continental. — Our rubber spikes ContiFlexStuds allows carbide tips to pierce deeper into the ice. As a result of all these new studs provides about 7% more grip on ice, which means a major breakthrough in the field of active security.”

Possible Continental IceContact 3 better reveal the powerful, fast cars such as Seat Leon Cupra.Possible Continental IceContact 3 better reveal the powerful, fast cars such as Seat Leon Cupra.

The third contact

Range actual retail prices for Continental IceContact 3 — from 4600 to 17 500 rubles apiece. Let me remind you that now we sell 22 the size of tires of this model, from 175/70 R14 to R20 265/50, both for cars and for SUVs and powerful SUVs. In most of them the technology TwinStud: spikes ContiFlexStud alternate with conventional, aluminum spikes. Their placement is determined by a computer program. Some work on acceleration and deceleration, and the others in handling. The first half more than the second. Have thorns “for handling” the asymmetric design of the tip, and they are located at angles of +10/-10 degrees in the direction of rolling (for left and right turns, respectively). The long control region of the tip always looks out in the direction of movement, creating maximum lateral grip needed for a good control on ice. According to representatives of the brand, technology TwinStud improves the performance on ice not on 7. 10%.

Tires up to 17 inches are only with aluminum spikes (though premium them produces the same Finnish company Tikka that spikes ContiFlexStud). They are very good, as befits a premium tire: they have great grip on dry and snowy roads and on ice, canola oil in the rubber compound ensures tread flexibility at low temperatures, an optimal adaptation to the road surface. Compared with Continental IceContact IceContact 2 characteristics 3 has improved on almost all indicators. Braking on dry and wet roads got better by 1%, the handling on the dry (important) — by 9%, resistance to aquaplaning (also important, when it thaws) — 7%. Features on the snow remained on the same level.

But, of course, to unleash the full potential of the Continental IceContact 3, need to buy tyres with spikes ContiFlexStud. Or wait for these spikes to become public.

Photo: Continental

My who quietly frictional? There are tires!

This season, the Continental company started selling a new model of winter tyres — IceContact 3 “revolutionary” spikes ContiFlexStud.

My who quietly frictional? There are tires!My who quietly frictional? There are tires!

This season, the Continental company started selling a new model of winter tyres — IceContact 3 “revolutionary” spikes ContiFlexStud.

My who quietly frictional? There are tires!