Electric cars in Ukraine are becoming increasingly popular.
But is there any economic sense?
Author Jaroslav tit, photos Gettyimages , and Nissan

Fromthe success of electric vehicles – primarily the result of very hard work PR services. Europeans and Americans are seduced by concern for the environment (although this is highly debatable, thinking, where does the electricity) and all sorts of preferences – from tax exemptions to free entry in the historic centers. Our man so will not catch, so, given the numerous shortcomings of electric cars in the course is bright outshining all the disadvantages of advertising argument: much lower price mileage compared to traditional vehicles. Of course, against the background of growing numbers of stelae station the cost of charging an electric vehicle even on expensive Express stations looks attractive: an average of 100 hryvnia against thousands and a half for a full tank – impressive, isn’t it? But this is only the tip of the iceberg – let’s count together, do a profitable electric car.

Who on the newcomer?

New electric cars will be a long time in our country exotic. Despite the abolition of excise duty and VAT, the cost is still prohibitively high, such a technique will be able to afford only large companies, primarily from considerations of the same PR. Here, for example, the Renault Zoe is a tiny machine In class we have offered for 890 400 hryvnia. This, at the moment, the price of the sedan or crossover D-segment. Similar equipment and this is much more spacious Renault Sandero with a robotic box available for 372 thousand – that is, it is almost 2.5 times cheaper than the Zoe. And 518 thousand difference is the cost of gasoline at 250 000 km, that is almost the entire life cycle of the car. If Sandero transfer of gas (which, by the way, greener than gasoline – and seriously believe that more environmentally friendly processes for the production of electricity in Ukraine), then the difference in price with Zoe enough to pass more than half a million km! In other words, even if charging of an electric vehicle will for you is always free, which can be attributed to the category of fiction – it will never pay for itself compared to a car equipped with an internal combustion engine. Never!

Despite the fundamentally different device, the electric car also requires regular maintenance. And imagine changing the oil and antifreeze!

What about commercial models? The electrical “cake” of the Renault Kangoo Z. E. is estimated at 930 201 hryvnia. Close the capabilities of Renault Dokker will cost 322 thousand for the petrol version and 416 500 UAH for diesel. Alas, in this case, the difference in cost suggests a clear choice.

Is there a grain of truth in the plugin-hybrids? Take two BMW 5 series: 530e iPerformance 1 572 497 UAH and close to it on dynamic indicators 530i 1 296 404 of the hryvnia. You see, the price difference here is not significantly. However, 276 thousand is gasoline for the usual “five” at least 100 000 km. In the hands of the first owner the car is hardly held much longer – and hence, in this case about payback high-tech toys to speak of. The hybrid, among other things, the range on a fully charged battery – up to 50 km in ideal conditions, and gasoline to him in any case will be required. As well as the maintenance almost in its entirety, as cars with internal combustion engines – well, except the brake pads need to be changed much less often.

The rescue of drowning

Almost the entire Ukrainian market of electric cars is used cars from USA and Europe. And the undisputed leader in popularity – the Nissan Leaf the most popular electric car in the world. Potential buyers should understand that most of the Bodices come to Ukraine beaten in an accident or even completely recessed, as only these machines profitable to buy our companies who sell carts. After the restoration of varying degrees of professionalism machines go on sale. Someone will get lucky and his Leaf was just a crumpled bumper or a door – however, the author has repeatedly seen the car transporters with the Bodice in such a state that something good must be the road to Chermet, and not to the new owners. But, alas, these are domestic realities…

Despite the abolition of excise duty and VAT, the new electric vehicles in Ukraine to sky-high road – so much so that they will never pay for itself compared to counterparts with internal combustion engines

For Nissan Leaf, we ask for an average of $12-13 thousand – 314-340 thousand hryvnias. Bottom bracket – the lowest price electric vehicle 2013 model year with mileage of about 100,000 km in the most modest configuration. If the mileage is less, and equipping something better one hundred percent guarantee this will be the car, resurrected after a severe accident or flood. A decent and fresh copies will be for a couple thousand dollars more, especially if we are talking about modernized Bodices, released in 2015. These cars put improved battery, including higher capacity, 30 kW·h. But here, it is worth considering why a prudent burgher or the Yankees, perfectly able to take your money, suddenly broke up with very fresh buggy? It is clearly not because the car quickly tired…

And for comparison. For $9-10 thousand (235-260 thousand hryvnias) under the key, that is customs clearance, registration and bonus for the carriers, it is possible to bring from Europe the car of the same size class the same year and close mileage. One of the most popular people variants – Renault Megane in good equipment with a diesel engine and an automatic transmission. If this car sold in the showroom will have a full service history and transparent “biography”. The difference in cost compared to the Bodice – from 80 thousand hryvnias in favor of Megana, and the price of diesel fuel is about 60 000 km.

Batteries are asked to fire

The main headache for the owner of any electric car, and the Bodice in particular – the health of the battery, the most expensive element of the system. Experience has shown that batteries relatively quickly lose their original capacity (degraded), and, paradoxically, the most emergency subject to degradation that is enhanced 30-kilowatt battery. For machine 2013-2014 normal – battery capacity 2/3 of the original, there is a practical power reserve of the Bodice with a 24-kilowatt battery is about a hundred km in the city. On machines with a battery of 30 kWh and a mileage approximately one and a half times more.
Battery, in General, never dies completely. So if you have a persistent nervous system, it is possible to accept a slow, but progressive decline of the reserve and with the “incontinence” of charge. But practice shows that already now put up a few. From a tricky situation there are two exits.

It looks like the battery pack of the most popular in the world and in Ukraine electric car Nissan Leaf. This is the standard battery of 24 kWh with 48 elements.

The minimum program – replacement of completely dead cells. The fact that the controller of the Bodice stops charging as soon as it detects that at least one of the 48 cells the battery is fully charged. Naturally, the first will be charged the exhausted elements and the rest of their charge will be reduced. Not new, but still healthy cells you can buy from 2,500 to 4,000 USD apiece. A 30-kilowatt battery, the elements are dual, and their price is correspondingly twice as high. Work on the replacement of cells long and time-consuming: only one process of “undressing” with the removal of battery sturdy sealed enclosure it is still fun, not to mention prepaymania again all of contacts. Because this procedure does not take less than 13 000 hryvnia – of course, not counting the price of the replaced elements.

Because better perceived complete replacement of the battery. New, from the factory, the battery did not even expect – to replace the take part with of cars with low mileage and broken and cannot be restored even by Ukrainian standards. The price is $3-4 thousand. In the accident the battery never suffers: it is located in a safe place in the middle of the bottom and literally shrouded armor protective housing, in addition, perfectly sealed, so even with a car-“drowned” battery you can borrow without risk.

Cars with traditional internal combustion engine will be in the shadow of electric cars – the latter much inferior to them not only in the stock of autonomy, but in the economic component possession.

In General, when planning the purchase of a new Nissan Leaf, keep in mind its not the cost of the inevitable repair or battery change or hope in time to get rid of the car. However, this is not the only cost that will require you at least this model of electric car.

Greetings from DVS

The weak link of the Bodice – reducer that reduces the speed of the motor. Let’s start with the fact that it requires a periodic oil change, almost like all the usual internal combustion engine: with the active drive every 20-30 thousand km, and in the soft style of driving fluid will last twice as much. Two quarts brand oil Nissan estimate an average of 700 UAH, and its replacement – as agreed with the mechanic: different stations are asked from a couple hundred to 500 hryvnia. Savings on replacement cause serious trouble – the gentle wear of gears. Gear changes only in Assembly with electric motor: without works a new node will cost around 40-45 thousand hryvnias, removed from the car-donor – 15-20 thousand cheaper. The motor, incidentally, is one of the few literally eternal knots.

Remember the piece of paper on the windshields of buses: “Bathed in antifreeze”? So the electric car antifreeze is also needed! Liquid cooling is used for temperature-control of the Converter the charging current and of the traction controller of the inverter. Antifreeze (suitable for any class G11) preferably be replaced every 30 thousand km, and brake fluid.

In Ukraine now there is no incentive to get involved in the adventure with an electric car: in addition to problems with autonomy and the climate, it is economically disadvantageous

Some face replacement charging block, forced by circumstances. By themselves, these nodes are reliable and durable, but the fact that the Band put three kinds of blocks, differing by the presence or absence of support for high-speed charging. The most affordable option (usually on the machines in the base configuration) draws only slow charging at 3.3 kW. Want to 6,6 kW, and even better with support for the CHAdeMO standard – control unit. The question price – 20-26 thousand UAH for the “beushnye” unit.

Games with electricity

A fundamental postulate that you want to commit before the purchase of electric cars is in any case markedly overpaid for him, even at the time of purchase. No matter whether it’s a new car or the cheapest one of those that you can trust.
The Nissan Leaf, and indeed almost any loved ones size electric car consumes 15 kWh/100 km. Charge the machine from the home network is long and tedious, but for every 100 km you will spend 25.2 UAH (or even 12.6 V when charged, if you have dual counter). More high-speed charging station, naturally, much more: these 15 kWh will cost you from 88 to 120 hryvnias. Fuel costs for diesel passenger cars of the same class of approximately 135 UAH/100 km, petrol machine will “eat” about 220 USD. Victory? Pyrrhic, alas.

When charging the electric vehicle on a high-speed charging stations are its benefits compared to a diesel car is negligible: even at the minimum rate Leaf will beat the difference in initial cost 170 000 km! This is the first thing to consider for those planning to use electric taxi. Don’t forget that for this run you will inevitably have to replace the battery, and as it is not once – and so will remain in respectable losses.

In the West, buyers are lured to electric vehicles are really great offers: tax breaks, free Parking and even charging. We have the same electric car is not able to recoup the investment of its owner.

With night charging at home, Leaf will be the same price with Megan the cost of acquisition over 65 000 km. But now, let’s remember that the original fora in price Renault has provided him with fuel at almost the same mileage! And yet – during those 60 thousand miles on the Bodice will clearly have to change the battery…

In comparison with a gasoline car picture is brighter: Leaf will justify its higher cost of about 40 000 km And would then be in the pros, if again the notorious replacement of degraded battery, which will erase in the sand all looming Mirage of winning.

In the end, anyway, but the electric car today in Ukraine strongly disadvantageous and is not justified. In the West, the picture is different: there is the original price difference as significant, compensate very tempting preferences from a full exemption from all kinds of taxes for long term free Parking and charging. And worries about changing the battery often assumes the manufacturer or the seller. In our country right now there’s no incentive to get involved in the adventure with an electric car – because otherwise, as a gamble, it is difficult to call voluntary overpayment, the eternal game of “make it to the outlets”, as well as the torment of finding charging stations and to create a comfortable climate in the cabin.

BEHIND THE WHEEL OF THE NO. 07 2018

Balance the advantages and disadvantages of chip-tuning.Author Stas Panin

HFe-tuning – steroids for the motor. And like any drug can have side effects. Changed the program of the engine control increases the dynamic performance, but the increased load or otherwise reduces the life of the motor. And not one of his.

Specialized companies and garage experts offering to cheer up the engine – mass. Their services are in steady demand.

Tuning all the brethren working under the General laws are identical and the consequences of intervention in workflows engines. Positive and negative aspects of chip-tuning, we consider the example of cars of concern Volkswagen – their most frequently subjected to reconfiguration.

Not to be sprayed, focus on the most popular variant of chip-tuning – only when you interfere with electronics and do not affect the hardware. The emphasis will do on a turbo engine, as their flashing allows you to raise the power and torque of 30-50%. For atmospheric growth most often does not exceed 10%.

Cream power

The petrol engine 2.0 TSI of the third generation (220 HP) are easily “blown” up to 315 forces. A large company specializing in chip tuning, car Volkswagen, for example, APR and Revo – a comprehensive approach to change management programme, spending a lot of time and resources. The output is a good balance between a significant increase in the efficiency of the engine, maintaining its reliability and the level of riding comfort.

Chip tuning allows you to enjoy the behavior encouraged car on track days, but in the daily bustle of big cities. Among the bonuses – reduction of “thoughtfulness” and sedentarianism reactions to the throttle, which now suffer from almost all of the mass model, and improved adaptation to the quality of fuel of a specific type: some companies offer firmware two types – for example, under the 95‑th and 98‑th gasoline.

Quality chip tuning increases fuel consumption. Moreover, in some modes of driving, especially if the engine is diesel, its possible savings: 5-10%. Fiction? I had a chance to measure fuel consumption on a chipped diesel Tiguan the new generation. The actual decline in the combined cycle amounted to 300 ml (measured by the method of topping using measuring cups). This is understandable. The highest instantaneous flow rate falls on the transition and the boost modes. When accelerating chipped the engine at the same rpm has more torque, and the box maximizes the lower level. The car accelerates faster, but it consumes fuel more than the stock firmware.

Such benefits are difficult to obtain when installing cheap programs garage firms or lovers “desktop chip”. Usually they add motor power and torque in the “on/off” (pressing the gas pedal). Calibrators vary a limited number of parameters, not puzzling the test programs in real traffic conditions. In the end the car more suitable for track racing – it becomes uncomfortable to ride in the city because of the abundance of kicks, jerks and gargoti in various modes.

Side effects

There is no free lunch. Even the quality of the firmware adversely affect the life of the engine and transmission, to say nothing of cheaper programs. Official dealers get the hand to reveal the chip-tuning at the address of the owners are complaints on operation of the power unit, even if the lessee has made a “rollback” to the original program.

Catalytic Converter, diesel particulate filter, EGR

Many “tuners” clean diesels EGR –EGR system. At first glance, is a harmless operation, which partly even beneficial to the motor because the exhaust gases do not contaminate the inlet. But the increase in the efficiency of the engine such relief can be extremely dangerous. In modern diesel engines the recirculation system is responsible, inter alia, for preheating the intake air.

In many cases, Nintendo and jamming of the EGR lead to at least rough work of the engine.

A dubious idea – the removal of the particulate filters. A little like when modern diesel passenger car begins to smell of ancient KAMAZ. In addition, this operation requires great experience: you need to properly “fool” a control program, so that she is not bothered by reports of all sorts of errors. On the other hand, left a diesel particulate filter will quickly become clogged (even with good software, the intervals of regeneration are reduced). Which means that it builds up faster, a critical mass of sediments remaining after the burning of soot.

Because of the increased exhaust flow before and clogged catalytic Converter gasoline engine. And it’s a competently written program. But cheap software can and does lead to rapid melting of the honeycomb catalyst. Therefore, large foreign firms did not touch the ecological system of the engine. Because they make software for the global market, and norms of emissions of harmful substances in many countries is quite severe.

Engine

Any engine due to the increased load before, comes the moment of General fatigue. Growing wear of piston, liners, timing chains and other elements that suffer on a stock motor. Cheap firmware significantly increase the risk of detonation because of the incomplete adjustment of the fuel supply. The greatest damage is usually associated with excessive lean air-fuel mixture.

Turbocharger

Increasing boost pressure strongly affects the health of the turbocharger. Any turbine is designed for the maximum permissible shaft revolutions. If you exceed this threshold or will start characteristic and irreparable wear of the impeller or check the lubrication system, causing excessive rotation of the main shaft may experience oil starvation that has devastating consequences. In some cases, overheat jammed the shaft, and others have destroyed the oil seal. And the turbine dies.

Transmission

No matter what type of transmission installed on a chipped vehicle – all structures suffer greatly from the increased load, since it relies on a certain level of torque.

At the mechanics first thing a dwindling resource of the clutch. And if the driver loves to participate in traffic light races, giving up and stuffing – synchronizers, gears, bearings.

Robotic transmission, structurally similar to conventional mechanics, suffer about the same. Resource dual-clutch (dry or wet) is reduced by an average of one and a half times. Due to aggressive starts from the place die not just the gears and bearings but also the housings of the differentials. Tuning software is not only injurious to health of mechatronics.

Have machines in excess of the permissible moment there is not enough pressure in the clutch packs to survive. They increasingly stalled, and debris quickly kill the remaining elements of the box.

Private consultations

It is difficult to give even approximately how much less resource components and assemblies after the chip-tuning, – much depends on the specific pair of motor/box. Lack of examples from real life, when good units “on steroids” live happily ever after – however, with adequate operation and proper care. Events that are desirable for the conventional car, is critical to surviving the chip-tuning: the replacement of technical fluids with a reduced interval, seasonal check condition of radiators, using high quality parts and oils.

Among folksvagenovskih motors that the chip tuning is useful, say, for example, the above mentioned petrol 2.0 TSI (220 HP) and diesel 3.0 TDI. Not tolerate reconfiguring a couple of motors dual supercharged: 1.4 TSI of the previous generation (150 HP) and 2.0 TDI (224 HP). These motors are already in the normal version squeezed all the juice.

With regard to resource manual transmissions, a lot depends on driving style of the driver. Good shift motor “doping” machine Aisin. And the DSG was split into three camps. The weakest box – DQ200 (seven-speed, dry clutch). Resources torque is almost exhausted. Much better proved DQ250 (six-speed, wet clutch). Best of all DQ500 (seven-speed, wet clutch): manufacturer laid a solid margin of safety allows you to remove the motors with the highest rates.

If you have decided on the chip tuning, I advise you to give preference to eminent companies. Each has its own special approach, expertise and software. Do not hesitate to show meticulousness, asking experts, study reviews of car owners. Some companies offer really versatile firmware that allows you to move comfortably in any environment, while others focus on maximum return on the track – and that means added discomfort when moving around the town.
Quality programs cost is usually not cheap. Fair office immediately warn you about all the risks and asked to sign a paper to confirm that the client is aware of them. Competent service technicians always perform the input diagnostics of the car, checking the condition of the engine and transmission. In addition, they provide the customer the option for 30 days to opt out of the program and get their money back.

BEHIND THE WHEEL OF THE NO. 06 2018

Tire plant “ROSAVA” from the White Church met 45-year anniversary. Enterprise does not stop at recent significant achievements – success stories and new plans says General Director Alexander Duliba.

– When to plant it is the era of change?

The first steps to change “ROSAVA”, and literally revolutionary, we did back in 2005, having built a long-term concept of modernization of the enterprise and dramatically change the image of its products in the eyes of consumers. The plant was stable and profitable, but very conservative, and all its automobile production are addressed solely to the owners of Soviet, Russian and domestic vehicles. We assembled VAZ and ZAZ, more tires ROSAVA the market was even in short supply. But already then it became clear that the market requires to change the philosophy of the company.

– What have you changed first?

– We started modernization of the plant with gaining energy independence: own boiler with advanced German machinery and Korean compressor station allowed us not to think about industrial electricity tariffs. And after that, we proceeded to a complete change in production technology.

In 2006, the plant for the first time in its history received excellent imported equipment – protective unit of the German company Berstorff, and after a couple of years –new unit with a combination of 1st and 2nd stages of the Assembly of the tires of the company Harburg Freudenberger, Germany. This equipment allowed to move away from Soviet principles of the Assembly of the tire closer to world standards. Thanks to new German curing and presses the same company Harburg Freudenberger we laid the Foundation of the prosperous development of our products, including completely eliminating of the most important stages of the birth of tyres the human factor. “ROSAVA” was released on never before wide range of over 100 sizes of a few models of tires, and for the first time produced a 16-inch tire. It was an amazing breakthrough!

The newest shaper-vulcanizer Uze Makina are received by the company this year: they make a 19 inch tire.

But you do not have to do on the new hardware only the old models have a long development?

– Of course! Its unique closed cycle from design and testing of the products prior to production, we have strengthened the full-fledged tools for our engineers, which allowed them to reach the level of significant global competitors. Along with the upgrading of the plant is its second birth, and received his engineering center: we have equipped it with powerful computers with relevant software and soon developed a completely new tyre models, which are fundamentally all characteristics differed from all the usual ROSAVA.

– This, of course, you didn’t stop?

– That we immediately began the second stage of modernization. In 2010, we have grown to 150 tire sizes (now, by the way, 250!) and began to dream about the large-scale access to the EU market. But this is only possible with European quality, range and importantly – European approach to all aspects of the business: from production to promote their products.

To ensure quality, we have purchased the most advanced equipment, which can be found in the world – the same used by the leaders of the world tire industry. This plant continues to this day, from year to year, getting better and more sophisticated snap-in, for example, the Dutch assemblies VMI. We deliberately did not splurge on the most expensive machines as the best producer in this area: of course, you could buy counterparts, and good, but here it is in philosophy. Especially in the success of the enterprise needs to believe his team! And I agree that if you buy premium instead of the original machine its counterpart, albeit excellent quality, the one starting with a worker, standing at this machine, to Director of the company, is confident of success, as it should, 100%.

And the people believed?

– The most vivid indicator of this is that today all workers “ROSAVA” happy to buy our products.

These are new tires just came out of the shaper-vulcanizers production company Harburg Freudenberger (Germany).

– It is obvious that to raw components you had to change the approach.

– Before upgrading, we bought the most affordable raw materials, mainly from Russia. But the bus is high quality you can’t make the semis at least at the average level. So we switched to rubber, metallocene, textiles, the world’s leading suppliers. Our tires are made from the same materials as the first known European and Japanese brands!

– How do you control the quality of the product?

– We need in all circumstances to guarantee the buyer the safety of our tires. Therefore, besides the testing grounds of our European partners, we conduct 100% quality control of the output characteristics of the tires – and not only our developments but also tyres which are mass-produced. To put this another automated line quality inspection of the tyres of the German company Hoffmann. Bus does not go to the customer without going through a thorough, multi-stage control in this perfect equipment. In addition, we have several years maintain a detailed production history of each – think about it, each tire. If happens any defect we for a moment open the entire technological history up to specify the batches of raw material, machine, name, responsible for the Assembly worker. And we will take all measures to not repeat in the future.

So, you are provided a European quality. What about the range?

– New technologies have allowed us to produce two series of tires, radically different from anything we’ve done in the past: summer Existing winter Solazo and premiorri. They were not step – a leap businesses ahead and for the first time allowed us to go beyond the familiar CIS market. Now these tires with great success sold all over the EU and especially in UK, Belgium, Germany, France, Italy. We appreciated both buyers and dealers – they are with us now, as with all producers on a world scale: pre-fill their warehouses large parties of our tires. In the spring we shipped for Europe party winter tires!

– Where else, in addition to the EU, you esparteria their products?

In the United States and Canada, some countries of South America, the Middle East and Africa – a total of six dozen countries. However, the Ukrainian consumer is and will be fundamental for us: in his native country, we sell 45% of the tire and occupy 40% of the market in the group of car tires. Although in 2013 our market share was meager: only 15%!

– Do foreign markets competitors are sitting idly by, looking at your success?

– Not at all! For example, in Brazil and Turkey we are faced with the adopted against economic obstacles, initiated by local producers. We reduce selling prices in order to stay on the market of Tunisia with their defensive duties. And in Europe, renowned company looking to increase our sales, released a budget sub-brand. I think that all this – the recognition level of our products: with bad tires no one would fight, the customer will refuse them.

The machine Assembly of the tires of the Dutch company VMI: the same equipment used by premium European tire manufacturers!

– What new products are you going to surprise the domestic and world consumers?

– At the end of last year we first released the 18-inch tire. In may came the mold for the production of tyres in 19-inch size, which we plan to release by mid-summer. This is not the limit: already ordered the Assembly machines and vulcanizers for the production of tires 20, 21, 22 inches. Their launch in the series is just a matter of time.

Under these two sizes designed our newest line. This Existing Solazo’s Plus is the first summer tyre “TIRES” with an asymmetric tread pattern and a winter Existing Via Maggiore Z Plus, which also has an asymmetric tread pattern. These tires are planned primarily for the European market, we make them in dimensions for the top models in the Executive car class and crossovers. And we prepare them to domestic buyers: after all, he will get the best bus European level according to our Ukrainian price. Guarantee: the ratio of quality and price fantastic will surprise even the most demanding consumers!

We are so confident in these tires that provided them for testing European automotive journalists who test their products on par with well-known competitors.

– Ukrainian client changes the attitude to your brand?

Yes, and we see it very often in recent issues, when we will release 20-inch and 22-inch tire. Think about it: the owners of expensive cars in the premium segment seriously interested in our tires!

What helped not just to convince people who are used to think that imports are always better, but to conquer the hearts of very demanding owners of more expensive cars? Of course the recognition of our quality coupled with the best value.

A solid rubber layer with grooves and channels or the working path of the wheel the tread.

Ddata elements differ in seasonal and operational characteristics, they determine the stability of the vehicle on the highway with a direct drive or during manoeuvres and the effectiveness of the drainage system and other features. Over time, exploitation of the rubber layer wears out, which reduces the effectiveness of the tires. We offer to get acquainted with the peculiarities of the working paths, its functions and types, to the choice of tyres to know what to look for.

Depth and variety

World famous kinoproizvoditeley offer models with different design rubber layer. The depth of this element is formed by the type of modification and purpose tyres. The average accepted value is 1.6–1.4 millimeter. The use of tires with shallower depth can cause accidents on the road.

By type of picture a treadmill or working the track protectors are divided into these types:

  • symmetrical non-directional. Such models are characterized by a low level of noise, provide comfortable driving, have a soft sidewall, great for a relaxing drive. With this pattern prevalent sets or budget of the middle class. Tyres are often mounted on the basic configuration of the cars as they are universal and suitable for use in different conditions;
  • asymmetrical non-directional. Tires have inside and outside. This kind of working track excels with maneuverable, high-speed driving, as it improves the stability of the vehicle. It is often used for sports cars and provides perfect handling;
  • symmetric directed. Rubber is characterized by an effective drainage system. It perfectly resists aquaplaning, eliminating the probability of loss of control. These tires are often used for rear-wheel drive vehicles or high performance vehicles, they provide excellent directional stability, improve the reaction of the car on the driver’s command;
  • asymmetric directional pattern. Such a tread is seldom found on the market. It is characterized by rapid drainage of water from the contact patch, low noise and excellent maneuverability.

The different tread and rubber compound depending on the seasonal modifications. For summer models, use more “hard” formula. Tread pattern for the sultry season has longitudinal channels for rain water drainage, it is quiet and simple, compared to the winter design.

Tyres for frosty time of year soft and supple. Units are mostly equipped with fins to enhance stability when driving on slippery track. The depth of winter tread more, as it wears faster. And change tires you need when you figure height 4 mm.

Identical options in different price categories

Kinoproizvoditeley regularly update their products, releasing new models of tires for different seasons. But some modification has almost the same tread pattern. One of the most famous and popular representatives of such categories are:

  • modification of the Kumho and Marshal brands;
  • products budget lines of the company Michelin (Strial, Riken, Orium);
  • Hakka Hakkapeliitta and Nokian from the manufacturer.

The companies regularly work to improve their products, but sometimes the changes relate to the rubber composition, or implemented technology aimed at durability and longevity profile.

Originals from the best brands

Knowing the characteristics of tire tread, you can determine what rubber you need depending on the season and your preferred driving style. And to buy the original tires from the best brands, we recommend you to visit the online store Lester that implements a large selection of products with delivery in the country. On the website you can buy tyre R17, 18, 19 and model of a different diameter, summer, winter, all-season type, to choose the sets by size or manufacturer, get guarantee of quality and the possibility of a phased payment.

Source: Internet-shop of tires lester.ua

In the framework of the XXX International agricultural exhibition “agro-2018”, the presentation on the Ukrainian market leading Turkish manufacturer lubricants company OPET Lubricants.

“OPET offers its customers in all sectors of the automotive industry services and products, backed by huge experience and expertise. We are moving forward, building on the principle of continuous development and innovation, and satisfying the expectations of the Turkish market due to the wide range of high-quality products, — said General Director of the company Murat Seyhan, — we are steadily working on the Ukrainian market, where investing in accordance with development strategy abroad.”

The OPET brand is well known on the world market – the history of the company began more than half a century ago, in 1966. During this time the company has gained unique technical expertise and has become one of the largest Turkish industrial giants. Engine oil and other products produced in OPET facilities located in Izmir.

Product line OPET includes a wide range of engine and transmission oils, antifreeze, greases and brake fluid for servicing cars and trucks, agricultural machinery, motorcycles and water transport. Have in stock and oil for engines of standard Euro-6. This allows you to fully meet the needs of a wide range of private and corporate consumers. In October, a new venture company, which will allow to double production volumes.

Lubricants YELLING use Fiat, Ford, MAN and Mercedes-Benz, the company also has 1,500 petrol stations in Turkey and is the official supplier of jet fuel for Turkish Airlines.

Choose car trunk bike carriers.
Author Pavel Leonov, photos: George Cages

The wrench in the budget models the only bike locks, and the trunk is not protected from theft.

ToAK’s good to try the bike somewhere in nature, in the Park or even around the garden. The season has begun! But first large need to deliver, and it’s not the most convenient item to transport by car. But if two bikes or three? To the rescue comes a special Bicycle racks.

By way of attaching Bicycle racks are divided into three main types: roof mounted, tow bar and rear door. They have their pros and cons.

Design easier to securely attach can only cross with a rectangular profile. They are less restrictive and the installation takes more time.
Racks top manufacturers made from high quality and lightweight materials. Frame bike fixed in them with a telescopic boom clamp, adjustable comfortable lamb.
Additional area under the license plate with the backup lights will cost a few thousand.The racks on the fifth door (and the cheapest – on the tow bar) fixed bikes just for the frame, so they can communicate with each other and with the body of the vehicle.For mounting the bicycles with the frame without the upper horizontal cross member (as in our case) must purchase a replacement adapter. Price – from 700 to 1200 hryvnias.

ACCORDING TO THE LAW
During transportation of the bicycles behind the vehicle is overlapped by the rear license plate – the police may issue a fine of 170 UAH (part 6 of article 121 of the Cao). And if outweigh the sign with the standard space for an additional platform on the rack!, the act also can qualify under the same article. What to do, not to become an offender, no one knows legislation the situation is not resolved.

Platform-mounted tow bar is rigidly fixed great three points. Sites regulated under the wheels – securely attach even a child’s Bicycle.
Racks with hinged design do not restrict access to the car.
Rubber stops are displaced and damage the paintwork.
Bicycle racks on the fifth door is the most popular, so how to install them don’t need no tow bar or roof rails. But they looked the most uncomfortable.
On modern cars the bodywork gaps are small, the hooks-hooks in them does not stick. If you set the spoiler, tape-clips inevitably will “grate”.

BEHIND THE WHEEL OF THE NO. 05 2018

Spring this year was long in coming, but to delay the tyre change not recommended — wear winter tyres in the warm season is greatly increased, and their usage in the summer increases the car’s braking and increases the risk of aquaplaning.

Øinny giant Nokian recommends replacing winter tires in the summer when the night temperature settled at a level not less than 5 degrees, and the average at +7. Well, that’s settled. What advise tire manufacturers in terms of longer life?

Spend 1 rotation of the tire

With FWD cars the tires on the front wheels are subjected to higher loads than the rear tires, which leads to their intensive deterioration. Therefore, it is recommended every 8 – 10 thousand miles to rotate tires. This will ensure uniform tire wear, which in turn will increase the safety and comfort control.

2 Pressure is important

For each car manufacturer recommends a certain tire pressure. The discrepancy of these standards will lead to increased tyre wear and increased fuel consumption. In addition, insufficient tyre pressure can make it harder to control the car. So don’t forget to regularly check the tire pressure.

3 Proper care

In the care of the car do not forget to check the tire condition. First and foremost, when is the planned replacement of tires. Upon discovery of any defect, you must immediately contact the service, where the bus will be able to test and evaluate the possibility of its further operation.

4 the Calmness, only calmness!

Quiet ride, smooth acceleration and braking – all this will allow you to avoid the stress of driving and minimizes the risk of accidents. At sharp maneuvers, braking and acceleration with wheel slippage is increased and uneven tire wear.

5 Proper storage

An important factor in tyre longevity is proper storage. The tire Assembly with the wheel discs should be stored in limbo or folded stack in a horizontal position. Tyres without disks should be stored upright, but not necessarily every 3 months to change the fulcrum. Store tires in a dry, dark place away from heaters, solvents and other active substances.

Pay attention to your tires and they will last you longer!

A big test of summer tires 195/65 R15

Experience seven new vehicles which are able to brake without the driver’s help.Author Maxim Sachkov,
photo: Konstantin Yakubov

You also hooked advertisement in which the cars themselves stop in front of the unexpected obstacle, if the driver overslept dangerous moment? Some manufacturers even arrange demonstration tests in which the car self-brakes in front of an inflatable dummy or a poster with a picture of the machine.

Impressive!

Such advertising will more as a buyer not to lure “old values,” the power of the motor, the handling, the results of crash tests… all the cars Have the basic options are similar. Buyers now react to a number of displays and the availability of latest electronic systems, including auto brake. Because, as the advertising on-the-go “stick” in the smartphone and the car in which case she will stop and save us from disgrace, repair and treatment. But where is the guarantee that the electronics will work just as well in a critical situation on a real road?

Target for the test participants was again our mobile test facility. We upgraded: changed the appearance, changed the filling and made more visible to radar

To us this test has not been undertaken, and because there are no techniques or instrumentation. And the magazine “driving” this technique is – after the first full test of the system auto brake, we spent two and a half years ago (RA, № 6, 2015). And then learned that even with similar hardware
part of these systems cars meeting an obstacle, act differently: some inhibit insecure, and other times and did not notice the impending danger. If not for our unique soft trailer, in which you can bury the front bumper even at high speed – would have smashed everything to pieces.
Has anything changed since our first test? How smarter control electronics? Not treading water whether on-site engineers?

TARGET NUMBER TWO

Not only cars and their systems became more perfect – our test unit has gone through extensive upgrades. It is based on the same platform is an aluminium frame placed on four wheels. In order to test the dynamics, we set the installation on the rails, which drags the tractor. If the auto brake system does not work, the install goes on these rails from budnowska her car. Because of this intact (or relatively intact) and remain a target, and flew into her car.

Installation soft. First under an awning hiding box foam. This time at the suggestion of the expert mechanic “driving” Valeria Zharinova we used as additional dampers air springs. They are more efficient than layers of foam dampen the impact energy, so the extra padding as unnecessary were removed, thereby reducing the mass of installation.
Some cars feel the space in front of him with the help of radar radar. These sensors “see” only those items which reflected radio waves. Frame, our metal, but thick sheets of foam absorb electromagnetic radiation. So on the back of the box we glued two strips of aluminum foil below the radar are guaranteed to pinpoint installation.

An upgraded filling is covered with more durable PVC case. Now “the body” will not “flap your wings” and thereby mislead automotive electronics. More modern was the appearance of installation is rare “Volkswagen Transporter” became “the universal of Logan MCV”.

This time we gathered at training ground seven cars – different brands and classes, the most affordable three times cheaper than the most expensive. But fresh, more than half of them do newcomers 2017. Each will undergo a full testing cycle: stop before a stationary object deceleration when braking the vehicle ahead and other.

Target for the test participants will once again be our mobile test facility that simulates a rear portion of a passenger car. After analyzing last year’s test, we upgraded a little changed the appearance, changed the filling and made the machine more visible to radar.

The ring is called

Among the brands who have already held the exam for the auto brake in 2015, includes Land Rover, Volvo and Volkswagen. This time they present a new Discovery, V90 Cross Country and Tiguan.

Stands for Mazda crossover CX‑5 new generation with the upgraded system auto brake.

Have Skoda two years ago, there was no cars able to brake independently, and now the honor of the mark protects a large crossover Kodiaq.
Only a few months ago, the firm Subaru began to supply Ukraine with the vehicles equipped with complex safety EyeSight, and we took to test the crossover XV.

Mercedes-Benz gave at the mercy of universal E‑class version All-Terrain – all-wheel drive and a raised. It is equipped with the most sophisticated and expensive system of auto brake. So check whether there is a sense to overpay, if you care about your security.

How are we going to beat?

Our unique testing methodology applied on the previous test, we have not changed. It consists of several exercises – static and dynamic. More precisely, the subject is always in motion, and that pseudo-first Logan stands motionless in the hope that the approaching car will stop at a safe distance, and then moves, overtakes the test car.
The test always starts at low speeds – from a sin far away. Depending on the first results make a decision whether to run the test throughout the program or is it better to stop testing, in order not to smash into splinters and “Logan”, and the car.

“Stand-up” – stop before a stationary object.
Start with a “static” tests. Our installation simulating the rear part of the Renault Logan MCV, stands on the site (e.g. at a stoplight), and the subject is coming at her with a certain velocity (Fig. 1). The first race takes place at a speed of only 15 km/h In the boost phase driver withstand a given rate and not take the foot off the gas pedal. The car slowed in front of the obstacle? If Yes, then each new attempt to increase the speed by 5 km/h until groped limit. 50 km/h tests stop, as in contact at higher speeds there is a risk of damage and install, and the car.
Due to the unstable operation of the electronics is sometimes necessary to duplicate attempts to clearly establish when it is the limit of the control electronics.

“Give me a sign” – the rating system warning of a possible collision (Fig. 2).
The driver steers the machine to an installation on a small (20 km/h), medium (50 km/h) and high (90km/h) speeds – and closely follows the clues of electronics. At the first warning he presses on the brakes and assess (subjectively, of course), in a timely manner if the electronics gave the signal. It happened that the assistants are treacherously silent, and the driver had to Dodge a trailer in the last moment to avoid being hit at high speed. Not to Dodge – smash test unit will damage the car and he himself can suffer, because at speeds over 50 km/h with enough hard contact to fire an airbag.

“Catch-up” – a car overtakes a moving installation (Fig. 3).
It is an imitation of the most common traffic situations. The first reproduces in the city the situation: “Logan” goes with a speed of 20 km/h and the subject catches it with speed 50 km/h Then play catch-up in the trace pace: setting holds a 50 km/h and the speed of overtaking her car – 90 km/h.

“Slow down” – braking before the tail tube.
Installation and machine moving with a speed of 60 km/h. “Logan” starts to slow down, and the car overtakes him, because the driver overslept dangerous moment (Fig. 4).
The task of the system of automatic braking in all exercises is obvious – to prevent contact.

Objective assessment received by the cars on the results of the races, we bring to the table. But, as often happens in such complex trials, the dry points can not give a full picture of how the behavior of the heroes of our test. On different machines – systems of different levels that react differently in certain situations. Therefore, without a detailed account of each vehicle is not necessary. Share your impressions we are not in chronological order, and go on increasing – from less successful participants of the test to its leaders.

The system of Autonomous emergency braking Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is an option for Discovery.

Last time we had a Land Rover Discovery Sport, which
scored no points, the same as calmly drove both in stationary and moving target. The AEB system first appeared on the Sport, and the new “disco” was released in people with already upgraded electronics, the “brains” of which we laid, in particular, the function of recognition of pedestrians. Ensure the revised soft safe braking?

“Standing”

The speed of 15 km/h Kaboom! Discovery arrived at the “car”. Try again and after hitting our installation leaves again on rails. The third time, “disco still slowed down, but then it again failed. Out of ten attempts, only three were valid.

According to the manufacturer’s speed range, in which the Discovery system will recognize the car from 5 to 80 km/h But to prevent collision it is bound at speeds up to 50 km/h. Alas, in “disco” showed more modest results.

After a short rest and regular reboots of electronic components, Discovery made a series of unmistakable attempts at speeds up to 35 km/h inclusive. The value we entered in the Protocol: double-mercilessly kicking the installation of 40 km/h, Land Rover went to dynamic tests.

“Catch-up”

System AEB auto brake debuted on the crossover Discovery Sport and the larger Discovery set upgraded AEB – similar hardware but with new software. The objects and distance to them AEB determines with the help of a stereo camera located behind the windscreen in the area of cleaning wipers.

Catch-up Discovery too play not wanted, and at a low speed and a high braking before decelerating in front of a car refused, – however, at the last moment signaled the driver of the danger. Already losing hope, I decided to bring the tests to the end. And – about a miracle! – disco braked for slowing installation. His potential has been exhausted: subsequent attempts were unsuccessful.

“Give me a sign”

And the system auto brake and collision warning can be disabled by placing a check mark in the menu next to the appropriate item.

Warning system, in fact, not working. At low speed it gave the signal already in the process of braking, and at higher decided not to remain silent.

Conclusion

Compared to other test takers range Rover looks pale. But this is the most expensive car in our team. But the progress of Discovery compared to the previous test visible. So look forward to the next time machine that will have opponents worthy of resistance.

System Smart City Brake Support (SCBS) is standard on the top configuration Supreme. The machine configuration is Active (average) it is offered as an option. Mazda CX‑5 previous-generation system was simpler – it was based on lidar (laser radar) and worked in the speed range from 4 to 30 km/h. that we were able to test the CX‑5 is equipped with an upgraded Smart City Brake Support (SCBS, smart assistance when braking in the city). Lidar has changed the front camera, which was to identify not only cars, but pedestrians, and the maximum response speed increased to 80 km/h.

“Standing”

The test results have been modest in the manufacturer information. In a duel with a fixed installation Mazda almost without fail, it has reached 45 km/h. “Almost” – because at 40 km/h once it is slightly kicked “Largus”. But then worked flawlessly, including at higher speeds. However, doing it too sharply – apparently, every time play safe.

“Catch-up”

System auto brake Mazda developed jointly with Magna, based on the information from the front camera, and it works better than the machine of the previous generation with a laser radar.

Dynamic test Mazda has worked pretty well, except that in a catch-up at high speed in an attempt slightly touched the installation.
Perhaps the later notices the object. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the car slows down abruptly and nervously – as if the driver noticed the danger at the last moment.

“Give me a sign”

System Smart City Brake Support can be disabled by opening the corresponding item in the settings. There you can set the time of alarm actuation.

At relatively low speeds warned of the danger perfectly – giving the driver just enough time to braking without the intervention of ABS. At medium to high speed indication and audible alarm treacherously silent. The result is a quite low marks for this exercise.

Conclusion

When it detects danger SCBS issues a warning signal, and the windscreen projects a guide to action.

Mazda as a whole did very well, but the engineers have some work to do. Causes of failures are rooted, rather, in the raw software system SCBS. For new hardware it had to update, and the polishing time was obviously not enough.

System Front Assist with emergency braking City Emergency Braking is standard on all Tiganov.

Last time we took the test Volkswagen Golf due to a technical malfunction of the auto brake system. In this test system, Front Assist, warning about dangerous rapprochement and performing the auto brake, worked on the Tiguan without a glitch. Her only seeing eye – new Doppler radar developed by Continental controls near (40 m) and long (up to 170 m) area in front of the car. Many of the features that the previous systems require multifunctional camera (including braking from low speeds) are now only on the radar.

“Standing”

System auto brake works in conjunction with active cruise control. When driving on autopilot distance from a moving car can also be adjusted, but these settings do not affect the activation of hitchhiking.

Static Tiguan worked without hesitation – clearly recognize the object and stayed in front of “Largus” calmly and confidently. But at the speed of 39-40 km/h self-braking stopped.

“Catch-up”

The Tiguan space probes radar hidden under the logo. It operates at a frequency of 78 GHz and “sees” objects at a distance up to 170 meters. However, only those that have sufficient reflectivity: the car was spotted as it has a lot of metal and plastic road fence – no.

At low speed, the Tiguan was perfect stop in front of the “tube”, and fast “catch-up” stayed very close to the installation and once I even lightly touched it.

“Give me a sign”

The function of the proximity warning can be configured by setting one of three levels of sensitivity. Or just disable.

20 km/h Tiguan does not warn the driver about dangerous rapprochement, until the distance becomes critical, and then… very slow! On medium speed it sends a signal, but guaranteed you can manage to slow down, only when the distance set in the mode “before.” 90 km/h the system does not see the danger, and therefore did not submit distress.

Conclusion

The Tiguan is a bit disappointing. From so advanced in the technical plan of the company I am expecting a result, but it is not. With increasing speed automatics starts to fall behind in work are experiencing. When the system has enough time to assess the situation, electronics does everything in German, clearly and effectively.

System Front Assist is a part of optional equipment of Kodiak in picking Style (indicative price 9 800 UAH).

Two years ago, Skoda in our test were not involved: there was nothing to brag about. For the first time the system auto brake appeared on Superbe, and now gradually adapting to other models. Debutant Kodiaq have played well. Something even better than his older companion – Tiguan. And it’s weird, because on the hardware, and even the location of the radar sensor, palpable ahead, systems of these cars look like twins. I suppose that the reason lies in the settings and working
algorithms.

“Standing”

Behind the grille hides the radar also developed by Continental, as the Tiguan. But the whole system works a little better. Maybe the sensor is seeing a little further or “brains” move a little faster.

In front of a stationary target Kodiaq stops confidently. Speed limit system response is 50 km/h 15 km/h higher than the Tiguan.

“Catch-up”

Doppler radar mounted behind the grille, probes the situation in front of the machine at a distance of about one hundred and fifty meters. He can spot a car at speeds up to 65 km/h, and pedestrian – from 5 to 30 km/h.

Catching a moving installation, Kodiaq inhibited more confident and safer than the Tiguan, and never touched. And earlier signaled a possible collision, allowing the driver more time to maneuver.

“Give me a sign”

The menu offers the same three settings function warning from tiganescu it differs only a few strokes in the design. But the electronics Skoda gives the driver a little more time to maneuver. Glance involuntarily clings to the inscription: “last Selected distance”…

And Tiguan, and the Kodiak system warn of it at low to medium speeds, but for some reason are silent on high. The algorithm of the system of preventive security similar to volkswagenwerk: when auto brake from a speed greater than 25 km/h automation pulls the belts to reduce the risk of injuries for driver and passengers – all on the Tiguan.

Conclusion

Place in the middle – not bad for a beginner. In our test student
has surpassed the teacher. His contribution to the success of the Kodiak made a good electronic base, tested on other cars of the Volkswagen group.

Complex EyeSight involves several systems of active
security (including the auto brake system).

To develop active safety systems firm Subaru began almost three decades ago. In the process of evolution appeared digital assistants,
who received the information from video cameras, of radio and laser radar. Having tried different schemes and accumulated experience, the Japanese have focused on the systems based on stereo cameras. And raised them to such a level that efficiency, they are not inferior radar systems, despite the fact that significantly cheaper. In 2008, the series went to a first safety system called EyeSight. But in Ukraine, it appeared only in 2017: XV crossover put the EyeSight system of the third generation.

“Standing”

In security complex EyeSight in addition to the functions of the auto brake includes active cruise control, pre-control of the accelerator system, the warning about leaving the band and about the beginning of the movement of the vehicle ahead.

All the exercises in statics XV fulfilled as a blueprint: and 15, and at 50 km/h the system warned about the dangers of short braking and, having received no response, completely took the initiative in their own hands. Slowed down not very gently, but smoothly and without interruption.

“Catch-up”

Eye complex safety EyeSight lenses of a stereo camera. In the obtained images, an electronic brain not only clearly identificeret objects, but also accurately measures the distance to them. The more divergent of the image projected on the camera’s sensor, the closer the real object. And the distance to it quite accurately calculated according to the number of pixels between the two images.

Subaru has successfully passed all tests in dynamics. A small note: when you perform a quick “catch-up” XV stops on the verge. Whether the difference of the velocities a bit more, there would be a contact with the obstacle.

“Give me a sign”

The stereo camera and the human eye similar characteristics. Therefore, in those circumstances, where the bad people see, goes blind and the optical system. For example, in heavy snowfall and fog EyeSight can be switched off – the display will appear a warning.

EyeSight system faithfully warns the driver about dangerous rapprochement, but much earlier than required. Even the sluggishness of the driver enough time to brake. Subsequent tests on public roads showed that the system doesn’t bother positives indicators and buzzers. So, additional lead time is only a plus in the fight for security.

Conclusion

Subaru is not without reason waited with the conclusion of the complex EyeSight in the Ukrainian market. The Japanese have tested and carefully adjusted the electronics so in our case it worked steadily. Test result – the third place. Very well, given that XV is the most affordable in the test machine.

Security system City Safety comes standard on every Volvo.
Honor of the Swedish brand, who are supposed to be a symbol of security, on the previous test, defended the sedan S60. He took second place, but did not meet expectations – due to frequent failures when stopping before a stationary installation. Newest universal V90 Cross Country is equipped with a system of the same name, City Safety, but the hardware and the software algorithms is a completely new complex. It is set on a Volvo, built on a modular platform SPA. According to the manufacturer specifications claim that the new system City Safety works way better, looks more (to 200 meters), focuses faster (up to a speed of 200 km/h), recognizes the car, standing and running pedestrians, cyclists and animals.

“Standing”

The new version of the active safety system City Safety is able not only to monitor the cars following in the same direction, but also helps the driver at intersections.

Indeed, progress is being made! A single failure while braking in front of stationary trailer. However, when braking from a speed of 45 km/h the car almost touched the setup, and we decided that this is the limit of possibilities. But with 50 km/h wagon slowed even more confident.

“Catch-up”

Behind the glass in the cleaning zone located the eyes and ears of the City Safety – radar and camera combined in a single unit. Priority camera pedestrian detection, and radar to detect primarily cars.

Universal flawlessly passed all the driving tests system City Safety. However, under certain braking automatics are so much tightened the belt that I always catch my breath. How would this concern about security is not turned into a trauma.

“Give me a sign”

City Safety is a complex security Intellisafe. In technical documentation is that it has to slow down for the standing or moving in front of a car, pedestrians (including leaving for another car), cyclists and large animals.

The system timely informs the driver about the danger at any speed. Just do not post the settings later alert: may not be enough time for reaction. In several races I was not able to avoid contact with the installation. Only when early warning, you can safely slow down without the risk of an accident.

Conclusion

Again second place! Stability – a sign of mastery. It is the stable job is the main advantage of the new system compared to the predecessor. Minor blots did not allow the car to rise to the highest level; to outdo the leader, have yet to try.

Automatic braking system Collision Prevention Assist is included in the basic equipment.

Mercedes-Benz decided not to skimp on the design and equipment of vehicles with active security. Some members of our test events ahead of the tracking cameras, others with radar and a E‑class there is a stereo camera and radar near and far action. You can bet that “tails” with such a rich Arsenal will be the winner, but we did not assume that the clarity of operation of the system so we will strike.

“Standing”

From under the windscreen of the Mercedes-Benz looks ahead through the eyes of a stereo camera. It can detect objects at distances up to a mile, and the viewing angle is 50°.

When performing static exercises Mercedes-Benz first showed a fairly sharp deceleration c small velocities. At 35 mph he began to stretch the belt, and the braking process took place in the following scenario: a warning signal, and then smooth braking and if the driver does not intervene, the automatic “booster pedal”. With increasing speed, the picture does not change. And, crucially, remains confident that the machine will slow down. In my excitement I even passed the critical mark of “50 km/h” (in contact at higher speeds there is a risk of damage and install and car) and Mercedes obediently stopped from sixty.

“Give me a sign”

The auto brake system cannot be turned off, which is perfectly justified and logical. It does not intervene in the management, until there is an emergency. Using menu to adjust and disable only the function of the proximity warning.

Testing the proximity warning at low and medium speeds, I found that the system measures exactly as much time as is necessary for the driver to have time to react and slow down on the verge of triggering the ABS. At a time when there was alarm at 90 km/h, we automation at the same time pressed on the brake. I was afraid that bump, and at the last moment took over. As it turned out, in vain: the next time a Mercedes stopped a meter away from the unit. And in the end, the car just put the squeeze on the brakes, demonstrating that fully controls the situation.

“Catch-up”

The primary task radioradara hidden in a three-beam star, – to identify the cars on the near and far approaches. Up to 70 meters it scans a sector with an angle of 90°, hereinafter the “look” is narrowed to 20°, and beats for 250 meters.

After such a triumph checking in dynamics looked boring formality – the E‑class in all three exercises performed with precision, not giving them a reason to doubt its infinite possibilities.

Conclusion

Mercedes-Benz confidently performed all the exercises, never allowing a miss. The system installed on it auto brake is the most complex and expensive. This is the case when the benefits justify the investment.

Our tests showed that the progress in the development of auto-brake systems is noticeable, automation really started to work adequately. However, still some better, others worse. And the conclusion is clear: the presence of auto brake system on the car is not a guarantee of security.
By and large, among the tested cars only one Mercedes-Benz worthy of the highest rating only him I would trust with my life. In dozens of races he has not made a single mistake. And that so clearly and perfectly – should work all without an exception of the security system. They are designed to save, and that work should be.

BEHIND THE WHEEL OF THE NO. 02 2018

The roads become narrower, and the sidewalks wider. But you pay for all car owners. Unfair? Let’s deal…

Silly, it would seem that the question POPs up on the forums not for the first time. And in 2017, the media even reported that GDP had signed a decree that extended the action of the “Plato” for pedestrians and cyclists driving on Federal highways and routes of regional significance. Rate of not less than 10 rubles per kilometer. However, it was April 1, but the experienced Russians long ago learned that to relax in this situation is not worth it. Today was joking, but what will happen tomorrow — it is dark…

For those who have forgotten what a tax is, to quote a funny wording, this Swiss economist named Jean Simond de Sismondi in the early nineteenth century. They say, “tax is the price paid by the citizen for the pleasure received from public order, fairness, justice, protection of freedom and property rights.”

Sounds like the price for the enjoyment!

Well, without taxes — anywhere. At all times had to chip in the world to maintain certain processes at the appropriate level. However, each convinced that the other pays more, and uses the aforementioned “pleasures” to a much lesser extent. And if the tax goes nowhere, involuntarily maturing dull irritation — how long, they say? In such situations you want to blame anyone — including pedestrians and cyclists moving in space and time for free.

It is clear that the coverage of highways and byways neither one nor the other does not spoil. But if the man with the machine paid was almost everything, it is only one kind of pedestrian, careless and free (!) crossing the road in front of him, involuntarily perceived it as a slap in the face. Say, with me stripped in the way of money, but this is Walker doing here? Let him pay!

In my opinion, with pedestrians today really has some kind of bias. If in Soviet times they were what is called pre-scared, knowing the consequences of an unequal fight with the car now, having got used to his advantage on the Zebra crossing, they do not even try to turn my head, descending from the sidewalk into the roadway. The hood, the smartphone, headphones — why all this does not equate roughly to ppm driver who in drunk condition not adequately assess the situation? And than chatting on the phone the driver worse creatures, walking in a brighter future across the road with the same device near your ear?

As for cyclists, they were now openly flirting, saying, spin the pedals and nothing to think! Although dedicated bike paths going in the same Moscow from nowhere to nowhere — it is an outright show-off, especially in winter. And the massive Bicycle races on the garden ring, put on the ears of all traffic and completely paralyzing normal life of the city. Public transport in those days, just doesn’t work, you can believe it. However, the global goal hangs in the air, but because “velosipedisty” will continue. And pay for it in the near future, will motorists — there is paid Parking and paid entrance somewhere, and the increase in fuel prices…

However, we digress.

Of course, talk about the vehicle tax for pedestrians is not serious. As for cyclists — at least, until then while they won’t actually take over our streets. But come up with excuse for the introduction of such a tax is a snap. After all, the transport tax — the conditional name. Once it is really called a road, but essentially it does not change. Everyone understands that this is, in essence, a stable source of income money in the regional budget. And get out of there if anything the road, unknown to us. And if so, then such a tax is very akin to income. And to tear off it from anyone!

Indeed, the system of calculation of vehicle tax today looks silly. Well, why is he even tied to some horsepower? If we were talking about living herds, regularly vtaptyvaetsya some fields, this would make sense. More trampled — more pay… But if, for example, a luxury car with a capacity of a million mares rests oligarch in the greenhouse, going to the sun is that day of birth of the owner, for what to tear off from the owner of the money? One of the nameplate parameters of the motor? Or just because a rich owner we don’t like? It is quite obvious that the owner of any dead “six”, all day taxi between the supermarket and the train station, poisoning the atmosphere and ruining the asphalt is much stronger. But its capacity is quite symbolic, but because of the money it did not earn.

A just solution has long been known — it was suggested at the highest levels. The tax must… to cancel! Because there is a more honest solution to the problem.

The more personally you are ruining the roads and poison the atmosphere, the more you have to pay for it. And the best measure of damages — you burned the fuel. It remains to raise the price of fuel and to abolish the vehicle tax — that’s all… If, for example, you taxwise all day, or, say, drive a heavy truck, and the fuel you’ll need more, and therefore contributions to the budget from your visits to the gas station will be more. And if your supercar is generally never goes anywhere, any way, nor does not spoil the air — from such a tax could not take it.

As far as I know, the idea has not worked because “the mechanism of deductions from proceeds of the gas station” someone seemed to be too difficult. The current system, of course, easier: here they are, the mandatory arrivals! And to share profits with oil companies is a thankless task.

In General, it is hoped that before the introduction of the ridiculous tax no one “upstairs” still will not fall. And if you want to get money from pedestrians, it is much easier from time to time to penalize them for their carelessness.

By the way, in the old days, “uncle Stepan” is constantly engaged…

Photo: “Behind the wheel.Of the Russian Federation”

For the answer to the task № 120 “Torsion — a delicate matter” (RR, No. 1, 2018) Dennis gentry, a resident of Zelenograd, receives from the company Autorolla combostyle “3 in 1” ParkCity CMB 800. And now a new job. Answers will be accepted until may 1, 2018.

PROBLEM # 123

Floppy Manager

Came a successful Manager Edward to the office of the businessman Plato. We stopped at the Mercedes in the narrow courtyard parked a Mercedes — master. Talked over, the Treaty has been signed, went deal to celebrate. Plato in his Mercedes famously the steering wheel twisted and once unfolded. Edward tried to do the same, but it was not just nose to the wall is not moved. Had shame back to pass. As Plato grins, saying, not able to ride! Edward tried again — no, there is no way to turn around. Seems to be the same “Eldorado”, even the colors match. And only at offended Edward finally realized what it is… So what?

The answer marked as “Contest” send before may 1, 2018 at the address: 107045, Moscow, Seliverstov per., 10—, or e‑mail: exp@zr.ru. Enter your phone number or other method of rapid communication.

We pledge to read all your posts on the topic. The prize will be marked not only correct, but also the most complete solution to the competition problems with detailed answers.

And now to sum up the results of the “Contest of experts” from the January issue of the magazine “Behind the wheel”.

Once our task garazhniki asked non-trivial question about the number of torsions in front of the Chinese “rogue” Great Wall Hover. Many who read the task attentively, and decided that we are talking exclusively about the suspension. And some are answered: “Zero torsion”. For the future we ask readers to take our word for it. If the two pictures is written: “Find ten differences”, it should look exactly ten and not stop at seven or eight.

It is encouraging that the majority managed to find the torsion bars in the front suspension of the car. That’s flawless reply: “Torsion is a fairly straight and long rod working in torsion. The front suspension of the SUV Great Wall Hover has two longitudinal torsion bar, one on each side of the vehicle, and a stabilizer bar. Thus, the front suspension Hover used three torsion: two longitudinal and one transverse”.

Front suspension podoscirtinae

Some mentioned about the rear stabilizer bar and be considered a problem is solved. But the question was about the front part! If going over in his mind (or the Internet, as many now do) are all located in her components and assemblies, it would appear that neither in the engine nor in the gearbox, no transmission, no brake does not include the device. The authors of the letters were to consider all possible design — up to microlepton cabin handles, which passengers have to stay on the broken roads, and torsion bars under the front seats Samar. Only here at Hover they are arranged differently.

Our winner thought of the torsion bar in the steering. On the Great Wall SUVs set steering gear with hydraulic booster. It uses the hydraulic control valve device which monitors the position of the steering wheel (more precisely, the upper part of the steering shaft) and directs the working fluid “to help” at the slightest turn of the steering wheel. For the operation of the valve, just need the torsion: one end is connected with a rotary spool and the other with the control sleeve and the pinion gear. Until the driver turns the wheel, the rotary spool and control sleeve are retained by the torsion bar in the neutral position. Grooves for fluid passage in the valve and in the distribution sleeve are in such a mutual position in which the fluid is supplied to both cavities of the working cylinder and flows out through the drain grooves in the control sleeve.

Power steering: 1 — the flow of fluid from the pump; 2 — drain; 3 — torsion; 4 — rotary valve; 5 — camshaft sleeve; 6 — to the right side of the cylinder; 7 — the left part of the cylinder; 8 — the piston.Power steering: 1 — the flow of fluid from the pump; 2 — drain; 3 — torsion; 4 — rotary valve; 5 — camshaft sleeve; 6 — to the right side of the cylinder; 7 — the left part of the cylinder; 8 — the piston.

As soon as the driver starts to rotate the steering wheel, the torsion bar is twisted and rotates the spool relative to the sleeve. At the same time the channels of the valve, fluid flows in a certain part of the working cylinder. When the steering angle increases, the torsion bar is twisted is stronger, which leads to increase fluid flow through the channels of the valve and, accordingly, to increase the efforts acting on the working piston of the steering mechanism. Upon termination of the rotation of the steering wheel system comes into equilibrium with the already-turned wheels.

By the way, and steering with electric power steering that is mounted on many cars and even commercial cars, arranged almost identically. The steering shaft has a built-torsion. The sensor elements (optical or magnetic) torque is installed on its ends. When you turn the steering wheel the torsion bar is twisted. The higher the force, the greater the angle of twist. The degree of change of the relative position of parts of the sensor, calculate the value of the effort and issued the command to the power actuator.

Apparently, in the near future the torsion bars are not going to surrender their positions.

All the participants thank you. Denis Panov congratulations! He receives from the company Autorolla combostyle “3 in 1” ParkCity CMB 800.

Why is Mercedes not “fit”? Competition znatkova Mercedes is not “fit”? Competition of experts