Spring this year was long in coming, but to delay the tyre change not recommended — wear winter tyres in the warm season is greatly increased, and their usage in the summer increases the car’s braking and increases the risk of aquaplaning.

Øinny giant Nokian recommends replacing winter tires in the summer when the night temperature settled at a level not less than 5 degrees, and the average at +7. Well, that’s settled. What advise tire manufacturers in terms of longer life?

Spend 1 rotation of the tire

With FWD cars the tires on the front wheels are subjected to higher loads than the rear tires, which leads to their intensive deterioration. Therefore, it is recommended every 8 – 10 thousand miles to rotate tires. This will ensure uniform tire wear, which in turn will increase the safety and comfort control.

2 Pressure is important

For each car manufacturer recommends a certain tire pressure. The discrepancy of these standards will lead to increased tyre wear and increased fuel consumption. In addition, insufficient tyre pressure can make it harder to control the car. So don’t forget to regularly check the tire pressure.

3 Proper care

In the care of the car do not forget to check the tire condition. First and foremost, when is the planned replacement of tires. Upon discovery of any defect, you must immediately contact the service, where the bus will be able to test and evaluate the possibility of its further operation.

4 the Calmness, only calmness!

Quiet ride, smooth acceleration and braking – all this will allow you to avoid the stress of driving and minimizes the risk of accidents. At sharp maneuvers, braking and acceleration with wheel slippage is increased and uneven tire wear.

5 Proper storage

An important factor in tyre longevity is proper storage. The tire Assembly with the wheel discs should be stored in limbo or folded stack in a horizontal position. Tyres without disks should be stored upright, but not necessarily every 3 months to change the fulcrum. Store tires in a dry, dark place away from heaters, solvents and other active substances.

Pay attention to your tires and they will last you longer!

A big test of summer tires 195/65 R15

Experience seven new vehicles which are able to brake without the driver’s help.Author Maxim Sachkov,
photo: Konstantin Yakubov

You also hooked advertisement in which the cars themselves stop in front of the unexpected obstacle, if the driver overslept dangerous moment? Some manufacturers even arrange demonstration tests in which the car self-brakes in front of an inflatable dummy or a poster with a picture of the machine.


Such advertising will more as a buyer not to lure “old values,” the power of the motor, the handling, the results of crash tests… all the cars Have the basic options are similar. Buyers now react to a number of displays and the availability of latest electronic systems, including auto brake. Because, as the advertising on-the-go “stick” in the smartphone and the car in which case she will stop and save us from disgrace, repair and treatment. But where is the guarantee that the electronics will work just as well in a critical situation on a real road?

Target for the test participants was again our mobile test facility. We upgraded: changed the appearance, changed the filling and made more visible to radar

To us this test has not been undertaken, and because there are no techniques or instrumentation. And the magazine “driving” this technique is – after the first full test of the system auto brake, we spent two and a half years ago (RA, № 6, 2015). And then learned that even with similar hardware
part of these systems cars meeting an obstacle, act differently: some inhibit insecure, and other times and did not notice the impending danger. If not for our unique soft trailer, in which you can bury the front bumper even at high speed – would have smashed everything to pieces.
Has anything changed since our first test? How smarter control electronics? Not treading water whether on-site engineers?


Not only cars and their systems became more perfect – our test unit has gone through extensive upgrades. It is based on the same platform is an aluminium frame placed on four wheels. In order to test the dynamics, we set the installation on the rails, which drags the tractor. If the auto brake system does not work, the install goes on these rails from budnowska her car. Because of this intact (or relatively intact) and remain a target, and flew into her car.

Installation soft. First under an awning hiding box foam. This time at the suggestion of the expert mechanic “driving” Valeria Zharinova we used as additional dampers air springs. They are more efficient than layers of foam dampen the impact energy, so the extra padding as unnecessary were removed, thereby reducing the mass of installation.
Some cars feel the space in front of him with the help of radar radar. These sensors “see” only those items which reflected radio waves. Frame, our metal, but thick sheets of foam absorb electromagnetic radiation. So on the back of the box we glued two strips of aluminum foil below the radar are guaranteed to pinpoint installation.

An upgraded filling is covered with more durable PVC case. Now “the body” will not “flap your wings” and thereby mislead automotive electronics. More modern was the appearance of installation is rare “Volkswagen Transporter” became “the universal of Logan MCV”.

This time we gathered at training ground seven cars – different brands and classes, the most affordable three times cheaper than the most expensive. But fresh, more than half of them do newcomers 2017. Each will undergo a full testing cycle: stop before a stationary object deceleration when braking the vehicle ahead and other.

Target for the test participants will once again be our mobile test facility that simulates a rear portion of a passenger car. After analyzing last year’s test, we upgraded a little changed the appearance, changed the filling and made the machine more visible to radar.

The ring is called

Among the brands who have already held the exam for the auto brake in 2015, includes Land Rover, Volvo and Volkswagen. This time they present a new Discovery, V90 Cross Country and Tiguan.

Stands for Mazda crossover CX‑5 new generation with the upgraded system auto brake.

Have Skoda two years ago, there was no cars able to brake independently, and now the honor of the mark protects a large crossover Kodiaq.
Only a few months ago, the firm Subaru began to supply Ukraine with the vehicles equipped with complex safety EyeSight, and we took to test the crossover XV.

Mercedes-Benz gave at the mercy of universal E‑class version All-Terrain – all-wheel drive and a raised. It is equipped with the most sophisticated and expensive system of auto brake. So check whether there is a sense to overpay, if you care about your security.

How are we going to beat?

Our unique testing methodology applied on the previous test, we have not changed. It consists of several exercises – static and dynamic. More precisely, the subject is always in motion, and that pseudo-first Logan stands motionless in the hope that the approaching car will stop at a safe distance, and then moves, overtakes the test car.
The test always starts at low speeds – from a sin far away. Depending on the first results make a decision whether to run the test throughout the program or is it better to stop testing, in order not to smash into splinters and “Logan”, and the car.

“Stand-up” – stop before a stationary object.
Start with a “static” tests. Our installation simulating the rear part of the Renault Logan MCV, stands on the site (e.g. at a stoplight), and the subject is coming at her with a certain velocity (Fig. 1). The first race takes place at a speed of only 15 km/h In the boost phase driver withstand a given rate and not take the foot off the gas pedal. The car slowed in front of the obstacle? If Yes, then each new attempt to increase the speed by 5 km/h until groped limit. 50 km/h tests stop, as in contact at higher speeds there is a risk of damage and install, and the car.
Due to the unstable operation of the electronics is sometimes necessary to duplicate attempts to clearly establish when it is the limit of the control electronics.

“Give me a sign” – the rating system warning of a possible collision (Fig. 2).
The driver steers the machine to an installation on a small (20 km/h), medium (50 km/h) and high (90km/h) speeds – and closely follows the clues of electronics. At the first warning he presses on the brakes and assess (subjectively, of course), in a timely manner if the electronics gave the signal. It happened that the assistants are treacherously silent, and the driver had to Dodge a trailer in the last moment to avoid being hit at high speed. Not to Dodge – smash test unit will damage the car and he himself can suffer, because at speeds over 50 km/h with enough hard contact to fire an airbag.

“Catch-up” – a car overtakes a moving installation (Fig. 3).
It is an imitation of the most common traffic situations. The first reproduces in the city the situation: “Logan” goes with a speed of 20 km/h and the subject catches it with speed 50 km/h Then play catch-up in the trace pace: setting holds a 50 km/h and the speed of overtaking her car – 90 km/h.

“Slow down” – braking before the tail tube.
Installation and machine moving with a speed of 60 km/h. “Logan” starts to slow down, and the car overtakes him, because the driver overslept dangerous moment (Fig. 4).
The task of the system of automatic braking in all exercises is obvious – to prevent contact.

Objective assessment received by the cars on the results of the races, we bring to the table. But, as often happens in such complex trials, the dry points can not give a full picture of how the behavior of the heroes of our test. On different machines – systems of different levels that react differently in certain situations. Therefore, without a detailed account of each vehicle is not necessary. Share your impressions we are not in chronological order, and go on increasing – from less successful participants of the test to its leaders.

The system of Autonomous emergency braking Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is an option for Discovery.

Last time we had a Land Rover Discovery Sport, which
scored no points, the same as calmly drove both in stationary and moving target. The AEB system first appeared on the Sport, and the new “disco” was released in people with already upgraded electronics, the “brains” of which we laid, in particular, the function of recognition of pedestrians. Ensure the revised soft safe braking?


The speed of 15 km/h Kaboom! Discovery arrived at the “car”. Try again and after hitting our installation leaves again on rails. The third time, “disco still slowed down, but then it again failed. Out of ten attempts, only three were valid.

According to the manufacturer’s speed range, in which the Discovery system will recognize the car from 5 to 80 km/h But to prevent collision it is bound at speeds up to 50 km/h. Alas, in “disco” showed more modest results.

After a short rest and regular reboots of electronic components, Discovery made a series of unmistakable attempts at speeds up to 35 km/h inclusive. The value we entered in the Protocol: double-mercilessly kicking the installation of 40 km/h, Land Rover went to dynamic tests.


System AEB auto brake debuted on the crossover Discovery Sport and the larger Discovery set upgraded AEB – similar hardware but with new software. The objects and distance to them AEB determines with the help of a stereo camera located behind the windscreen in the area of cleaning wipers.

Catch-up Discovery too play not wanted, and at a low speed and a high braking before decelerating in front of a car refused, – however, at the last moment signaled the driver of the danger. Already losing hope, I decided to bring the tests to the end. And – about a miracle! – disco braked for slowing installation. His potential has been exhausted: subsequent attempts were unsuccessful.

“Give me a sign”

And the system auto brake and collision warning can be disabled by placing a check mark in the menu next to the appropriate item.

Warning system, in fact, not working. At low speed it gave the signal already in the process of braking, and at higher decided not to remain silent.


Compared to other test takers range Rover looks pale. But this is the most expensive car in our team. But the progress of Discovery compared to the previous test visible. So look forward to the next time machine that will have opponents worthy of resistance.

System Smart City Brake Support (SCBS) is standard on the top configuration Supreme. The machine configuration is Active (average) it is offered as an option. Mazda CX‑5 previous-generation system was simpler – it was based on lidar (laser radar) and worked in the speed range from 4 to 30 km/h. that we were able to test the CX‑5 is equipped with an upgraded Smart City Brake Support (SCBS, smart assistance when braking in the city). Lidar has changed the front camera, which was to identify not only cars, but pedestrians, and the maximum response speed increased to 80 km/h.


The test results have been modest in the manufacturer information. In a duel with a fixed installation Mazda almost without fail, it has reached 45 km/h. “Almost” – because at 40 km/h once it is slightly kicked “Largus”. But then worked flawlessly, including at higher speeds. However, doing it too sharply – apparently, every time play safe.


System auto brake Mazda developed jointly with Magna, based on the information from the front camera, and it works better than the machine of the previous generation with a laser radar.

Dynamic test Mazda has worked pretty well, except that in a catch-up at high speed in an attempt slightly touched the installation.
Perhaps the later notices the object. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the car slows down abruptly and nervously – as if the driver noticed the danger at the last moment.

“Give me a sign”

System Smart City Brake Support can be disabled by opening the corresponding item in the settings. There you can set the time of alarm actuation.

At relatively low speeds warned of the danger perfectly – giving the driver just enough time to braking without the intervention of ABS. At medium to high speed indication and audible alarm treacherously silent. The result is a quite low marks for this exercise.


When it detects danger SCBS issues a warning signal, and the windscreen projects a guide to action.

Mazda as a whole did very well, but the engineers have some work to do. Causes of failures are rooted, rather, in the raw software system SCBS. For new hardware it had to update, and the polishing time was obviously not enough.

System Front Assist with emergency braking City Emergency Braking is standard on all Tiganov.

Last time we took the test Volkswagen Golf due to a technical malfunction of the auto brake system. In this test system, Front Assist, warning about dangerous rapprochement and performing the auto brake, worked on the Tiguan without a glitch. Her only seeing eye – new Doppler radar developed by Continental controls near (40 m) and long (up to 170 m) area in front of the car. Many of the features that the previous systems require multifunctional camera (including braking from low speeds) are now only on the radar.


System auto brake works in conjunction with active cruise control. When driving on autopilot distance from a moving car can also be adjusted, but these settings do not affect the activation of hitchhiking.

Static Tiguan worked without hesitation – clearly recognize the object and stayed in front of “Largus” calmly and confidently. But at the speed of 39-40 km/h self-braking stopped.


The Tiguan space probes radar hidden under the logo. It operates at a frequency of 78 GHz and “sees” objects at a distance up to 170 meters. However, only those that have sufficient reflectivity: the car was spotted as it has a lot of metal and plastic road fence – no.

At low speed, the Tiguan was perfect stop in front of the “tube”, and fast “catch-up” stayed very close to the installation and once I even lightly touched it.

“Give me a sign”

The function of the proximity warning can be configured by setting one of three levels of sensitivity. Or just disable.

20 km/h Tiguan does not warn the driver about dangerous rapprochement, until the distance becomes critical, and then… very slow! On medium speed it sends a signal, but guaranteed you can manage to slow down, only when the distance set in the mode “before.” 90 km/h the system does not see the danger, and therefore did not submit distress.


The Tiguan is a bit disappointing. From so advanced in the technical plan of the company I am expecting a result, but it is not. With increasing speed automatics starts to fall behind in work are experiencing. When the system has enough time to assess the situation, electronics does everything in German, clearly and effectively.

System Front Assist is a part of optional equipment of Kodiak in picking Style (indicative price 9 800 UAH).

Two years ago, Skoda in our test were not involved: there was nothing to brag about. For the first time the system auto brake appeared on Superbe, and now gradually adapting to other models. Debutant Kodiaq have played well. Something even better than his older companion – Tiguan. And it’s weird, because on the hardware, and even the location of the radar sensor, palpable ahead, systems of these cars look like twins. I suppose that the reason lies in the settings and working


Behind the grille hides the radar also developed by Continental, as the Tiguan. But the whole system works a little better. Maybe the sensor is seeing a little further or “brains” move a little faster.

In front of a stationary target Kodiaq stops confidently. Speed limit system response is 50 km/h 15 km/h higher than the Tiguan.


Doppler radar mounted behind the grille, probes the situation in front of the machine at a distance of about one hundred and fifty meters. He can spot a car at speeds up to 65 km/h, and pedestrian – from 5 to 30 km/h.

Catching a moving installation, Kodiaq inhibited more confident and safer than the Tiguan, and never touched. And earlier signaled a possible collision, allowing the driver more time to maneuver.

“Give me a sign”

The menu offers the same three settings function warning from tiganescu it differs only a few strokes in the design. But the electronics Skoda gives the driver a little more time to maneuver. Glance involuntarily clings to the inscription: “last Selected distance”…

And Tiguan, and the Kodiak system warn of it at low to medium speeds, but for some reason are silent on high. The algorithm of the system of preventive security similar to volkswagenwerk: when auto brake from a speed greater than 25 km/h automation pulls the belts to reduce the risk of injuries for driver and passengers – all on the Tiguan.


Place in the middle – not bad for a beginner. In our test student
has surpassed the teacher. His contribution to the success of the Kodiak made a good electronic base, tested on other cars of the Volkswagen group.

Complex EyeSight involves several systems of active
security (including the auto brake system).

To develop active safety systems firm Subaru began almost three decades ago. In the process of evolution appeared digital assistants,
who received the information from video cameras, of radio and laser radar. Having tried different schemes and accumulated experience, the Japanese have focused on the systems based on stereo cameras. And raised them to such a level that efficiency, they are not inferior radar systems, despite the fact that significantly cheaper. In 2008, the series went to a first safety system called EyeSight. But in Ukraine, it appeared only in 2017: XV crossover put the EyeSight system of the third generation.


In security complex EyeSight in addition to the functions of the auto brake includes active cruise control, pre-control of the accelerator system, the warning about leaving the band and about the beginning of the movement of the vehicle ahead.

All the exercises in statics XV fulfilled as a blueprint: and 15, and at 50 km/h the system warned about the dangers of short braking and, having received no response, completely took the initiative in their own hands. Slowed down not very gently, but smoothly and without interruption.


Eye complex safety EyeSight lenses of a stereo camera. In the obtained images, an electronic brain not only clearly identificeret objects, but also accurately measures the distance to them. The more divergent of the image projected on the camera’s sensor, the closer the real object. And the distance to it quite accurately calculated according to the number of pixels between the two images.

Subaru has successfully passed all tests in dynamics. A small note: when you perform a quick “catch-up” XV stops on the verge. Whether the difference of the velocities a bit more, there would be a contact with the obstacle.

“Give me a sign”

The stereo camera and the human eye similar characteristics. Therefore, in those circumstances, where the bad people see, goes blind and the optical system. For example, in heavy snowfall and fog EyeSight can be switched off – the display will appear a warning.

EyeSight system faithfully warns the driver about dangerous rapprochement, but much earlier than required. Even the sluggishness of the driver enough time to brake. Subsequent tests on public roads showed that the system doesn’t bother positives indicators and buzzers. So, additional lead time is only a plus in the fight for security.


Subaru is not without reason waited with the conclusion of the complex EyeSight in the Ukrainian market. The Japanese have tested and carefully adjusted the electronics so in our case it worked steadily. Test result – the third place. Very well, given that XV is the most affordable in the test machine.

Security system City Safety comes standard on every Volvo.
Honor of the Swedish brand, who are supposed to be a symbol of security, on the previous test, defended the sedan S60. He took second place, but did not meet expectations – due to frequent failures when stopping before a stationary installation. Newest universal V90 Cross Country is equipped with a system of the same name, City Safety, but the hardware and the software algorithms is a completely new complex. It is set on a Volvo, built on a modular platform SPA. According to the manufacturer specifications claim that the new system City Safety works way better, looks more (to 200 meters), focuses faster (up to a speed of 200 km/h), recognizes the car, standing and running pedestrians, cyclists and animals.


The new version of the active safety system City Safety is able not only to monitor the cars following in the same direction, but also helps the driver at intersections.

Indeed, progress is being made! A single failure while braking in front of stationary trailer. However, when braking from a speed of 45 km/h the car almost touched the setup, and we decided that this is the limit of possibilities. But with 50 km/h wagon slowed even more confident.


Behind the glass in the cleaning zone located the eyes and ears of the City Safety – radar and camera combined in a single unit. Priority camera pedestrian detection, and radar to detect primarily cars.

Universal flawlessly passed all the driving tests system City Safety. However, under certain braking automatics are so much tightened the belt that I always catch my breath. How would this concern about security is not turned into a trauma.

“Give me a sign”

City Safety is a complex security Intellisafe. In technical documentation is that it has to slow down for the standing or moving in front of a car, pedestrians (including leaving for another car), cyclists and large animals.

The system timely informs the driver about the danger at any speed. Just do not post the settings later alert: may not be enough time for reaction. In several races I was not able to avoid contact with the installation. Only when early warning, you can safely slow down without the risk of an accident.


Again second place! Stability – a sign of mastery. It is the stable job is the main advantage of the new system compared to the predecessor. Minor blots did not allow the car to rise to the highest level; to outdo the leader, have yet to try.

Automatic braking system Collision Prevention Assist is included in the basic equipment.

Mercedes-Benz decided not to skimp on the design and equipment of vehicles with active security. Some members of our test events ahead of the tracking cameras, others with radar and a E‑class there is a stereo camera and radar near and far action. You can bet that “tails” with such a rich Arsenal will be the winner, but we did not assume that the clarity of operation of the system so we will strike.


From under the windscreen of the Mercedes-Benz looks ahead through the eyes of a stereo camera. It can detect objects at distances up to a mile, and the viewing angle is 50°.

When performing static exercises Mercedes-Benz first showed a fairly sharp deceleration c small velocities. At 35 mph he began to stretch the belt, and the braking process took place in the following scenario: a warning signal, and then smooth braking and if the driver does not intervene, the automatic “booster pedal”. With increasing speed, the picture does not change. And, crucially, remains confident that the machine will slow down. In my excitement I even passed the critical mark of “50 km/h” (in contact at higher speeds there is a risk of damage and install and car) and Mercedes obediently stopped from sixty.

“Give me a sign”

The auto brake system cannot be turned off, which is perfectly justified and logical. It does not intervene in the management, until there is an emergency. Using menu to adjust and disable only the function of the proximity warning.

Testing the proximity warning at low and medium speeds, I found that the system measures exactly as much time as is necessary for the driver to have time to react and slow down on the verge of triggering the ABS. At a time when there was alarm at 90 km/h, we automation at the same time pressed on the brake. I was afraid that bump, and at the last moment took over. As it turned out, in vain: the next time a Mercedes stopped a meter away from the unit. And in the end, the car just put the squeeze on the brakes, demonstrating that fully controls the situation.


The primary task radioradara hidden in a three-beam star, – to identify the cars on the near and far approaches. Up to 70 meters it scans a sector with an angle of 90°, hereinafter the “look” is narrowed to 20°, and beats for 250 meters.

After such a triumph checking in dynamics looked boring formality – the E‑class in all three exercises performed with precision, not giving them a reason to doubt its infinite possibilities.


Mercedes-Benz confidently performed all the exercises, never allowing a miss. The system installed on it auto brake is the most complex and expensive. This is the case when the benefits justify the investment.

Our tests showed that the progress in the development of auto-brake systems is noticeable, automation really started to work adequately. However, still some better, others worse. And the conclusion is clear: the presence of auto brake system on the car is not a guarantee of security.
By and large, among the tested cars only one Mercedes-Benz worthy of the highest rating only him I would trust with my life. In dozens of races he has not made a single mistake. And that so clearly and perfectly – should work all without an exception of the security system. They are designed to save, and that work should be.


The roads become narrower, and the sidewalks wider. But you pay for all car owners. Unfair? Let’s deal…

Silly, it would seem that the question POPs up on the forums not for the first time. And in 2017, the media even reported that GDP had signed a decree that extended the action of the “Plato” for pedestrians and cyclists driving on Federal highways and routes of regional significance. Rate of not less than 10 rubles per kilometer. However, it was April 1, but the experienced Russians long ago learned that to relax in this situation is not worth it. Today was joking, but what will happen tomorrow — it is dark…

For those who have forgotten what a tax is, to quote a funny wording, this Swiss economist named Jean Simond de Sismondi in the early nineteenth century. They say, “tax is the price paid by the citizen for the pleasure received from public order, fairness, justice, protection of freedom and property rights.”

Sounds like the price for the enjoyment!

Well, without taxes — anywhere. At all times had to chip in the world to maintain certain processes at the appropriate level. However, each convinced that the other pays more, and uses the aforementioned “pleasures” to a much lesser extent. And if the tax goes nowhere, involuntarily maturing dull irritation — how long, they say? In such situations you want to blame anyone — including pedestrians and cyclists moving in space and time for free.

It is clear that the coverage of highways and byways neither one nor the other does not spoil. But if the man with the machine paid was almost everything, it is only one kind of pedestrian, careless and free (!) crossing the road in front of him, involuntarily perceived it as a slap in the face. Say, with me stripped in the way of money, but this is Walker doing here? Let him pay!

In my opinion, with pedestrians today really has some kind of bias. If in Soviet times they were what is called pre-scared, knowing the consequences of an unequal fight with the car now, having got used to his advantage on the Zebra crossing, they do not even try to turn my head, descending from the sidewalk into the roadway. The hood, the smartphone, headphones — why all this does not equate roughly to ppm driver who in drunk condition not adequately assess the situation? And than chatting on the phone the driver worse creatures, walking in a brighter future across the road with the same device near your ear?

As for cyclists, they were now openly flirting, saying, spin the pedals and nothing to think! Although dedicated bike paths going in the same Moscow from nowhere to nowhere — it is an outright show-off, especially in winter. And the massive Bicycle races on the garden ring, put on the ears of all traffic and completely paralyzing normal life of the city. Public transport in those days, just doesn’t work, you can believe it. However, the global goal hangs in the air, but because “velosipedisty” will continue. And pay for it in the near future, will motorists — there is paid Parking and paid entrance somewhere, and the increase in fuel prices…

However, we digress.

Of course, talk about the vehicle tax for pedestrians is not serious. As for cyclists — at least, until then while they won’t actually take over our streets. But come up with excuse for the introduction of such a tax is a snap. After all, the transport tax — the conditional name. Once it is really called a road, but essentially it does not change. Everyone understands that this is, in essence, a stable source of income money in the regional budget. And get out of there if anything the road, unknown to us. And if so, then such a tax is very akin to income. And to tear off it from anyone!

Indeed, the system of calculation of vehicle tax today looks silly. Well, why is he even tied to some horsepower? If we were talking about living herds, regularly vtaptyvaetsya some fields, this would make sense. More trampled — more pay… But if, for example, a luxury car with a capacity of a million mares rests oligarch in the greenhouse, going to the sun is that day of birth of the owner, for what to tear off from the owner of the money? One of the nameplate parameters of the motor? Or just because a rich owner we don’t like? It is quite obvious that the owner of any dead “six”, all day taxi between the supermarket and the train station, poisoning the atmosphere and ruining the asphalt is much stronger. But its capacity is quite symbolic, but because of the money it did not earn.

A just solution has long been known — it was suggested at the highest levels. The tax must… to cancel! Because there is a more honest solution to the problem.

The more personally you are ruining the roads and poison the atmosphere, the more you have to pay for it. And the best measure of damages — you burned the fuel. It remains to raise the price of fuel and to abolish the vehicle tax — that’s all… If, for example, you taxwise all day, or, say, drive a heavy truck, and the fuel you’ll need more, and therefore contributions to the budget from your visits to the gas station will be more. And if your supercar is generally never goes anywhere, any way, nor does not spoil the air — from such a tax could not take it.

As far as I know, the idea has not worked because “the mechanism of deductions from proceeds of the gas station” someone seemed to be too difficult. The current system, of course, easier: here they are, the mandatory arrivals! And to share profits with oil companies is a thankless task.

In General, it is hoped that before the introduction of the ridiculous tax no one “upstairs” still will not fall. And if you want to get money from pedestrians, it is much easier from time to time to penalize them for their carelessness.

By the way, in the old days, “uncle Stepan” is constantly engaged…

Photo: “Behind the wheel.Of the Russian Federation”

For the answer to the task № 120 “Torsion — a delicate matter” (RR, No. 1, 2018) Dennis gentry, a resident of Zelenograd, receives from the company Autorolla combostyle “3 in 1” ParkCity CMB 800. And now a new job. Answers will be accepted until may 1, 2018.


Floppy Manager

Came a successful Manager Edward to the office of the businessman Plato. We stopped at the Mercedes in the narrow courtyard parked a Mercedes — master. Talked over, the Treaty has been signed, went deal to celebrate. Plato in his Mercedes famously the steering wheel twisted and once unfolded. Edward tried to do the same, but it was not just nose to the wall is not moved. Had shame back to pass. As Plato grins, saying, not able to ride! Edward tried again — no, there is no way to turn around. Seems to be the same “Eldorado”, even the colors match. And only at offended Edward finally realized what it is… So what?

The answer marked as “Contest” send before may 1, 2018 at the address: 107045, Moscow, Seliverstov per., 10—, or e‑mail: exp@zr.ru. Enter your phone number or other method of rapid communication.

We pledge to read all your posts on the topic. The prize will be marked not only correct, but also the most complete solution to the competition problems with detailed answers.

And now to sum up the results of the “Contest of experts” from the January issue of the magazine “Behind the wheel”.

Once our task garazhniki asked non-trivial question about the number of torsions in front of the Chinese “rogue” Great Wall Hover. Many who read the task attentively, and decided that we are talking exclusively about the suspension. And some are answered: “Zero torsion”. For the future we ask readers to take our word for it. If the two pictures is written: “Find ten differences”, it should look exactly ten and not stop at seven or eight.

It is encouraging that the majority managed to find the torsion bars in the front suspension of the car. That’s flawless reply: “Torsion is a fairly straight and long rod working in torsion. The front suspension of the SUV Great Wall Hover has two longitudinal torsion bar, one on each side of the vehicle, and a stabilizer bar. Thus, the front suspension Hover used three torsion: two longitudinal and one transverse”.

Front suspension podoscirtinae

Some mentioned about the rear stabilizer bar and be considered a problem is solved. But the question was about the front part! If going over in his mind (or the Internet, as many now do) are all located in her components and assemblies, it would appear that neither in the engine nor in the gearbox, no transmission, no brake does not include the device. The authors of the letters were to consider all possible design — up to microlepton cabin handles, which passengers have to stay on the broken roads, and torsion bars under the front seats Samar. Only here at Hover they are arranged differently.

Our winner thought of the torsion bar in the steering. On the Great Wall SUVs set steering gear with hydraulic booster. It uses the hydraulic control valve device which monitors the position of the steering wheel (more precisely, the upper part of the steering shaft) and directs the working fluid “to help” at the slightest turn of the steering wheel. For the operation of the valve, just need the torsion: one end is connected with a rotary spool and the other with the control sleeve and the pinion gear. Until the driver turns the wheel, the rotary spool and control sleeve are retained by the torsion bar in the neutral position. Grooves for fluid passage in the valve and in the distribution sleeve are in such a mutual position in which the fluid is supplied to both cavities of the working cylinder and flows out through the drain grooves in the control sleeve.

Power steering: 1 — the flow of fluid from the pump; 2 — drain; 3 — torsion; 4 — rotary valve; 5 — camshaft sleeve; 6 — to the right side of the cylinder; 7 — the left part of the cylinder; 8 — the piston.Power steering: 1 — the flow of fluid from the pump; 2 — drain; 3 — torsion; 4 — rotary valve; 5 — camshaft sleeve; 6 — to the right side of the cylinder; 7 — the left part of the cylinder; 8 — the piston.

As soon as the driver starts to rotate the steering wheel, the torsion bar is twisted and rotates the spool relative to the sleeve. At the same time the channels of the valve, fluid flows in a certain part of the working cylinder. When the steering angle increases, the torsion bar is twisted is stronger, which leads to increase fluid flow through the channels of the valve and, accordingly, to increase the efforts acting on the working piston of the steering mechanism. Upon termination of the rotation of the steering wheel system comes into equilibrium with the already-turned wheels.

By the way, and steering with electric power steering that is mounted on many cars and even commercial cars, arranged almost identically. The steering shaft has a built-torsion. The sensor elements (optical or magnetic) torque is installed on its ends. When you turn the steering wheel the torsion bar is twisted. The higher the force, the greater the angle of twist. The degree of change of the relative position of parts of the sensor, calculate the value of the effort and issued the command to the power actuator.

Apparently, in the near future the torsion bars are not going to surrender their positions.

All the participants thank you. Denis Panov congratulations! He receives from the company Autorolla combostyle “3 in 1” ParkCity CMB 800.

Why is Mercedes not “fit”? Competition znatkova Mercedes is not “fit”? Competition of experts

The famous, legendary Soviet car that many dream of and today, GAZ — 14 Chaika — going to re-release!

To own GAZ-14? The dream of many collectors now perhaps come true.To own GAZ-14? The dream of many collectors now perhaps come true.

As you know, the limo fell victim to the suppression of privilege three decades ago. It was believed, forever: because documentation and tools for production, like, destroyed. But recently it turned out that it is not so! In an abandoned barn not far from Nizhny Novgorod have found almost everything necessary for the resumption of production of the Seagull.

Salon cars will retain the style of the legendary cars of the 1980s. the Interior of the car will retain the style of the legendary cars of the 1980s.

The production undertook to prepare a certain company, which wished to remain unknown. About the power unit do not say anything, but assure that its parameters will be sufficient. Buyers for a car like this, sure those who revive. Who knows, maybe Chaika will eventually compete with and the cars of the project “Motorcade”? The official start of production is scheduled for April 1, 2019. We will wait with impatience!

Chaika is back!

In the spring I want to do something nice for my car which is all winter protecting you from the cold, snow and mud. Many people want to bring not only the gloss but also the order in the engine compartment. Tell how to do it, not to cause more harm than good.

To each his own

Let’s just divide all vehicles operated mainly on asphalt and those that do a lot of Biking on the road. Our advice concerns first. For the second tips are not necessary — the owners know the drill. Obviously, these professionals or passionate Amateurs — that category of owners who just have to periodically clean the parts and components in the engine compartment.

After these rides do not wash motor — sin.After these rides do not wash motor — sin.

Washing mandatory for them to debris build-up does not interfere with the movement of controls, and also did not interfere with the cooling of the engine and transmission. Because the clay layers with thickness up to several centimeters can form a kind of ceramic cocoon on the details. Here you can advise only one thing: wash the car, if possible, shortly after the dirt, until the dirt has had time to petrify.

Where to go?

Now let’s talk about another category of cars. The engine compartments of these cars, though dirty, but still not as intense. Motorists living in private houses with garden plots, most often wash their cars themselves. Cleaning the machine the majority of owners, especially in large cities, carry out paid car washes. To wash the body outside, to clean rugs and upholstery — excellent, but whether to let these Moidodyr of the XXI century under the hood?

Let’s first determine what purpose do you wash the engine and engine compartment.

Are you sure all this maze of wires, tubes, hoses, and appliances will not harm foam chemicals?Are you sure all this maze of wires, tubes, hoses, and appliances will not harm foam chemicals?

Sink for sale

Trying to wash the engine before selling — occupation very doubtful. Many buyers are aware that wash motors often in order to conceal the traces of recent repair of the engine after intense oil leakage. Much more credibility do they have powdered dust with a dry motor, which “is not touched by the hand of man.” And I fully agree with this opinion. Summary: before selling the car engine if it is really dry, do not wash.

Sink before the Grand renovation

To wash the power unit before disassembling — the idea is attractive: it is not so messy when working. But I would advise if to wash the unit, then it will not start. And during the repair of any moisture will dry.

Sink for the love of clean

This kind of washing can be considered the most useless. Especially disappointing is when, after such washing will be denied any of the many electrical appliances located under the hood of a modern car. These sites are now so numerous that the old Board to close their polyethylene film is now unusable. Previously, it was necessary to close the distributor, ignition coil and generator. Today sensors and actuators are so many, I just have to wrap in foil the entire engine, transmission, battery, fuses and everything else… And I’m sorry, I’ll have to wash it?

Another argument against washing of the power unit. All seen in most of the sinks hanging a sign with the warning: “For the performance of the engine after washing responsibility, the firm shall not be”. I think it’s a good reminder of the nineties, when “improperly” washed “Boomer” could be deprived of washes, flats, and even the most valuable…

Recently there was a service “sink the ferry”. But steam is the same water!

In General, remember: on the street — capitalism. Everyone wants to be of service. For the money, of course. To change to sort out, diagnose, wash, etc.

I recommend to clean the engine compartment

The idea of the first — water and the engine compartment is incompatible. Accordingly, we will work with a vacuum cleaner and rags. First, it is necessary to thoroughly vacuum the engine compartment. Last year’s leaves, and deposits of sand on the spars do not decorate the “house” for the engine. Next, suggest to remove all easily removable parts. Engine cover and fuse block. If you can, it is very advisable to remove the plastic trim under the wipers leashes. Difficult is removing most of these leashes, and then a few caps and/or screws — and opens a rather large compartment, which together with the mechanism of the wiper live kilograms of rotten leaves. And after all this is for the air intake to the heater, and these miasma you breathe. Deposits of humus is removed with a vacuum cleaner and wipe the compartment with a rag, you can wet her pharmacy chlorhexidine. But all the removed plastic shields can already be washed at least “Karcher”, though with a sponge and shampoo in the basin. All other visible body surface, the hoses, wires, electronic components in the engine compartment can be cleaned with a rag, where it turns dry, and where the contamination is more persistent — moistened with a liquid of type WD-40.

Cloth to clean the engine safely.Cloth to clean the engine safely.

Want to vividly played against a black-and-gray engine bright items of type oil fill tube, dipstick, brake reservoir caps, the expansion tank of the cooling system and windshield washer fluid reservoir — please remove them and Namaste though to Shine, just wipe before installing. The surface of the engine, inspect for leaks of oil and coolant. Do you believe that at the sink “boy with a water gun” I assure you “on the traces of a leak of antifreeze from the pipe return hose of heating of throttle knot”? After inspection of the surface of the engine wipe it with a rag moistened with WD-40. The same applies to the surfaces of the gearbox.

In the engine compartment should be washed necessarily?

The safest and most thorough method of flushing the radiator.The safest and most thorough method of flushing the radiator.

Have in the front of the engine compartment a number of items that really need to be washed. This radiator. Their number in the most complex cars can be a bit jarring. Radiator engine cooling, the engine oil cooler, transmission cooler, radiator, steering, intercooler and condenser — they all suffer from contamination, but usually before all the air flow is the heat exchanger of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the washing of radiators companies serving the air conditioning, ate the big dog. Suggest to them and ask. Just need to make sure that they are closed against water jets the front of the motor and the fan motor is not flooded.

Well, if the machine is operated for a long time and it is time to change the coolant in the system, remove the radiator and wash it inside and out, and along the entire cooling system.

In the comments share your opinions about whether washing the motor and how to carry it out.

When it is necessary to wash the engine, and when bad! Tips expertcad have to wash the engine, and when bad! Tips, expertphoto: “Behind the wheel.Of the Russian Federation”

In anticipation of the warm season look at the new summer tires, which were prepared by Russian buyers, global manufacturers.

To select tyres for your car recently in a special section on our website.

The best tires that you have to buy this season

Photo: manufacturersBest tyres that you have to buy this season

Most modern cars even the last model years equipped a regular cassette recorder or their variants with CDs. However, this method of storing sound is outdated, the music library stored in digital form on a removable media. The best and affordable way of playing audio from them are car FM transmitters.

It is compact device powered by a cigarette lighter. They convert the files saved on memory cards or flash media, the radio, which then plays the regular receiver in the vehicle. Obviously, the biggest plus of this system is that you can finally listen to music through your existing stereo MP3 speaker and you don’t have to carry all their audibility CDs. You don’t have to worry about replacing an existing system, because all stereos include FM radio. So, one of the companies that won your devices all music lovers, the company Ritmix. She has won a large sector of the market of transmitters and recognition of consumers. The principles of the brand — the availability of gadgets for everyone and the broad user support and versatility.

What to choose?

According to the drivers and rankings in online markets, leading positions are occupied by the following devices:

  • Ritmix FMT-A740 is a classic car FM transmitter with LED display and USB charging 5V, 2100 mA. It also supports USB drives and has a line-in AUX-in, 3.5 mm. Music to run MP3 or HD player, smartphone, tablet, or laptop (comes with line-in cable AUX-in).

  • Ritmix FMT-A745 — this device is 2 in 1 that combines Bluetooth FM transmitter with car USB charger 5V 1A. Suitable for any device that has the possibility of charging from USB player, smartphone, tablet or browser. FM transmitter is for transferring songs to car FM receiver through a Bluetooth connection, a MicroSD card, via USB or connected via the line input of the external device.
  • FM transmitter Ritmix FMT-A775 is a multifunctional device, which will be a great choice for owners of any vehicle. Wide compatibility the transmitter provides support for the supply of 12-volt and 24-volt onboard networks. Model in addition to the main functions capable of performing the role of the charger. High output current (it is equal to 2.1 A) offers fast and efficient charging of any portable equipment powered from a USB port. There are two USB ports.

  • Ritmix FMT-A780 — this car FM transmitter with LED display and USB charging 5V, 2100 mA. The model supports SD cards and USB drives; has a line-in AUX-in, 3.5 mm. Music to run MP3 or HD player, smartphone, tablet or laptop.

Feature is convenient rotary knob playback controls, allowing you to easily set the desired volume level. There are four playback modes: sequence within a folder sequentially on the media, repeat track, shuffle. Thanks to the combination of price/performance data model FM transmitter is the best choice for today.

How effective are drugs to protect the body? Justify whether the costs for such treatment?

The protective coating of the body, except standing alone wax polishes, divided into two types — the so-called liquid ceramics and glass. Based on the experience of detailing services (they are engaged in the restoration of damaged parts of the interior and exterior) compare several common medicines on the key parameters — protective properties, the appearance of the car, the life cover and the cost of the work (for car C‑class). For reference, take the capital prices for these services (in the regions they are slightly lower).

Before applying any protective coating is required to prepare the body. It is slightly polished, even if the car is new, using a soft paste. Then the whole body is treated with preparatory composition, which removes everything that interferes with a new cover: dirt and remnants of previous Polish. This phase will require from 2000 to 4000 rubles. On machines with a run of doing a full restoration polishing abrasive pastes. On average, this training costs approximately 10 000 roubles.

Liquid glass and ceramics is only a variety of liquid formulations which, after application to the body form a film of a certain stiffness. Besides protection against mechanical impact, they often give the effect of hydrophobic — repel moisture and dirt.

The real life of the coatings in our harsh conditions is much less than stated by the manufacturers. Do not expect outstanding protection against mechanical damage the thickness of the applied layers is only a few microns. All these covers only protect from light scratches or mild “sandblasting”, but yield to stones and chips.

Work with liquid coatings requires skills and experience. If the gape and miss the start of the polymerization composition, very cheap, Polish it will not succeed, will have to be removed with abrasive polishing. In addition, the technology of applying many coatings require the use of special lamps for the finishing or intermediate baking of the layers.Work with liquid coatings requires skills and experience. If the gape and miss the start of the polymerization composition, very cheap, Polish it will not succeed, will have to be removed with abrasive polishing. In addition, the technology of applying many coatings require the use of special lamps for the finishing or intermediate baking of the layers.

Ceramic shell

Ceramic coatings have a stiffness index of 9 N scale Kohinoor (Koh-i‑Noor). It is still applied to the pencils for sketching and characterizes the stiffness of the stylus. “Nine” is the highest.

The most popular ceramic coating Ceramic Pro. Without taking into account the preparation of the body application of it on the car the C‑class will cost about 30 000 rubles. Service life — up to three years.

Applied at least four layers. First, the so — called backing, then two layers of ceramics. The first of them due to the adhesive impregnates the substrate of the factory varnish, increasing its durability, and the second forms a surface film. The final, finishing layer provides a hydrophobic effect and good sheen. You can put eight layers of ceramic, significantly increasing the total thickness of the protective film, but the price will increase to 90 000 rubles. And does it make sense? First, impregnating the ceramic layer will reside in LACs three years, and around this time are worn down and the protective film, no matter what thickness it was.

Other ceramic representative — the Sensha (Japan). The manufacturer claims a life cover right up to eight years. There is not a sufficient statistics to confirm or to refute these promises. Such coverage will cost 24 000 rubles. Technology stack — like coating Ceramic Pro, except that the basic design Sensha does not have a separate finishing layer. However, this pottery itself provides an excellent hydrophobic effect and gloss. At the same time craftsmen still prefer to apply a finishing layer, like Ceramic Pro. The protective properties of these two ceramics of the same.

Among the main mass of liquid glass stands product Hi-Mohs. Its name refers to the hardness scale of the natural materials Mohs. The hardness of diamond on this scale — 10, the hardness Hi-Mohs — 7. While this is the highest figure for such coatings. To achieve the same from ceramic, it is necessary to apply eight layers. In this Hi-Mohs much cheaper: 45 000 or 65 000. The price depends on the thickness of the two layers of liquid glass — base and additional. A thinner coating is cheaper and will last up to two years, and thick — up to three. The main drawback of this cover is the complete lack of Shine. Body panels blend together and resemble their uniformity egg.Among the main mass of liquid glass stands product Hi-Mohs. Its name refers to the hardness scale of the natural materials Mohs. The hardness of diamond on this scale — 10, the hardness Hi-Mohs — 7. While this is the highest figure for such coatings. To achieve the same from ceramic, it is necessary to apply eight layers. In this Hi-Mohs much cheaper: 45 000 or 65 000. The price depends on the thickness of the two layers of liquid glass — base and additional. A thinner coating is cheaper and will last up to two years, and thick — up to three. The main drawback of this cover is the complete lack of Shine. Body panels blend together and resemble their uniformity egg.

Petrified tear

Liquid glass — a more budget option. The stiffness index below (7N), life less. And, unlike ceramics, liquid glass creates a protective film — without impregnation varnish.

One of the cheapest options for liquid glass — H7 (Japan). In fact, the name of the drug is the stiffness index of the coating. Service life — up to one year. On the protective indicators means inferior Ceramika, but the price is lower: about 8000 rubles. H7 creates a good Shine, but hydrophobic effect is not provides. Many do not like, so the servicemen on top of the H7 additionally applied hydrophobic layer, in the end, the price rises to 11 000.

Among the liquid glass of the middle class is the most popular product Real Glass Coat. Formally, the coating has a stiffness index 7N, but actually defends a little better than H7, though inferior to ceramics. The lifetime of RGC — to one and a half years, and the cost of application is an average of 13 000. The coating has a hydrophobic layer and gives the car a great Shine. According to these indicators, it outperforms the competition.

Liquid glass Real Glass Coat is a two component. Mixing the main composition and the hardener requires experience and full hands.Liquid glass Real Glass Coat is a two component. Mixing the main composition and the hardener requires experience and full hands.

Ceramic Sensha is up to eight years. In her line there are less long-lasting finish for up to three years and five years. They are cheaper, but statistics on their actual survivability yet.Ceramic Sensha is up to eight years. In her line there are less long-lasting finish for up to three years and five years. They are cheaper, but statistics on their actual survivability yet.

Cquk (C. Quartz) — Korean equivalent of liquid glass Real Glass Coat. This coating is single component and does not require cooking. The characteristics are the same as the RGC, although, according to the manufacturer, Cquk is specially designed for Russian conditions and should last longer.Cquk (C. Quartz) — Korean equivalent of liquid glass Real Glass Coat. This coating is single component and does not require cooking. The characteristics are the same as the RGC, although, according to the manufacturer, Cquk is specially designed for Russian conditions and should last longer.

For and against

All liquid coatings used to as long as possible to maintain freshness of the paint, not protect it from mechanical influences. In addition, sometimes you want ahead of time (sometimes once per year) update the top hydrophobic layer to maintain the Shine. For ceramics such work cost about 10,000 rubles, and for the liquid glass — from 1500 to 2500 rubles. Small service life of coatings, decent costs for their application and maintenance, as well as weak protection in harsh Russian conditions — not a very practical option.

As an alternative offer booking polyurethane film (thickness about 200 microns). The cording across the front of the car will cost an average of 60 000 rubles. So much asking for expensive high quality film, which serve not less than ten years, providing full protection even from the stones and serious scratches, and keep a decent appearance. So, if you are going to operate the machine for a long time, it makes sense to hang that is the “armor” and not to contact the coatings. Initially expensive, but in the end it will be cheaper.

Thank for the help in material preparation detailing center ATDetailing.

That better protects the body — ceramic or liquid glass?

That better protects the body — ceramic or liquid glass?

Mass “crossvalidate” has reached such proportions that many growers are gradually removed from their model lines these SUVs with all wheel drive, locking and carrier frame. One of our readers seriously concerned about this issue. His thoughts he decided to share with a wider audience.

I want to share thoughts and discuss the issue of the absence at the present time in the automotive market of Russia is simple and reliable (no extra features like the air pressure sensor in tires, rain sensor, and sophisticated electronics), universal in application (the city and the roads, heavy rain and snow, ice) a spacious mid-size family SUV (easy to manage for both men and women).


Suzuki Grand Vitara Grand VitaraSuzuki

The last representative of such a vehicle on our market, in my opinion, was Suzuki Grand Vitara 2014, the owner of which at the present time I am. I had to read and hear many opinions about manufacturers lack of demand of such cars in Russia and adequacy of the proposed manufacturers solutions in the form of high clearance and short automatic connection of a full drive. I know that many other owners of Grand VITAR I believe this view is incorrect because the purchase of such a vehicle gives the owner a sense of confidence on any road, in any driving situation and in any weather, suggesting the independence and freedom of movement almost always and everywhere. For these feelings the buyer is willing to pay, and the buyer, this active young family of any age where driving a car all the family members.

It is unfortunate that Suzuki has stopped the production and sale of this vehicle as his only competitors in features and comfort of movement (suspension settings) are the only Toyota Land Cruiser and Mitsubishi Pajero, which has its drawbacks (for example, always dirty thresholds and inconvenience of boarding the car, including the rear row of seats). In this Grand Vitara has its undoubted advantages. This is the best car for comfortable movement around the city, highway and off-road. This combination of qualities not found in other machines. Versatility and price are the main advantages of this car, and these trumps can beat all manufacturers of SUV for the Russian market.

Toyota Land CruiserToyota Land Cruiser

Which even the car has a combination of strong atmospheric engine, automatic transmission, “honest” permanent all-wheel drive, capable of withstanding almost any long-term load (unlike muffs), high and spacious interior, sealed from the mud sills and accessibility? These machines are not! Only Land Cruiser and Mitsubishi Pajero are part of the similar characteristics. But look at their prices that make these cars affordable to many.

The only cons of Grand Vitara are increased fuel consumption, and outdated interior styling. But over these disadvantages, one can argue, as they can be and the main advantages of this machine in terms of price and cost of operation. Revision of Grand Vitara 2014 in accordance with the proposals presented by me below, or the creation of other brands of car that meets these requirements will, in my opinion, to take an interesting and lucrative in terms of sales market niche.

Mitsubishi PajeroMitsubishi Pajero

So, the proposed improvements:

  1. Install 6-speed automatic.
  2. To install the locking rear differential.
  3. To increase the ground clearance by 5 cm, because the installation of protection reduces according to the manufacturer’s setting clearance.
  4. To provide the ability to operate on 92-m gasoline.
  5. To increase the capacity of the fuel tank minimum 75 liters.
  6. To increase the length of the trunk at least 1.5 times, while maintaining the angle of the ramp and increasing the width of the bottom of the tailgate.
  7. To provide for the installation of the 3rd row of seats folding to the side walls of the car.
  8. Spare wheel removed from the tailgate, keeping it full.
  9. Device open the tailgate to save, adding the possibility of separate opening glass similar to the Land Cruiser Prado.
  10. To install a full heated windscreen.

Your suggestions and thoughts I sent to some producers, but, to my regret, the answer I never got. Apparently, there is no interest. So I decided to write to the editor of the RR and to hear the authoritative opinion of experts on the issue outlined in my letter of thoughts.

I will be glad to comments below.

Text: Mikhail Shabanov

Photos: manufacturers

Manufacturers, give us real offroaders! The cry of the soul citalopramonline, give us real offroaders! The cry of the soul of the reader