Experts “driving” checked as well clean off stubborn dirt from the body of specialized car detailing products and handy tools.Alexey Revin “driving”ExpertMichael Kolodochkin “driving”Expert

Spray bitumen or tar dig under the surface paint, and water treatments do not get rid of: I need something more serious. So we took a dozen specialized cleaners cost from 125 to 625 rubles a bottle and looked to see what they can do.

As usual, we remind that our results are specific to sample products and cannot serve as a basis for judgments about the whole range of products of a particular brand.

Methods of testing

The main test for drugs — removal of a uniform layer of asphalt mastic, pre-deposited on a metal test surface with a lacquer coating. Every part had to clean the same surface. We put all the funds strictly according to instructions.

In addition to the quality of cleaning was evaluated the odor of the drugs and the convenience of using them. When summarizing the results take into account the cost of chemicals.

DoctorWax DW5643, USA. Cleaner body from insects and битумаDoctorWax DW5643, USA. Cleaner body from insects and bitumen

Price ~560 ₽Volume of 475 ml

The trigger pack. The thick fluid is pumped through the atomizer with difficulty, but well kept on a vertical surface. The smell is barely noticeable. But with bitumen cope very reluctantly. Yes the price is high.

Not recommended: the rating “Bad”.

Fenom FN 408, Russia. Cleaner кузоваFenom FN 408, Russia. Cleaner body

Price ~150 ₽Volume 190 g

Aerosol. Repulsive smell, volatile. The consistency of the liquid.

Contamination removes good. Overall rating “Satisfactory”.

G-power GP-753, Russia. Remover bitumen and смолG-power GP-753, Russia. Remover bitumen and resins

Price ~470 ₽Volume 750 ml

The trigger pack. The drug liquid, the smell is strong, but volatility is low.

Cleans well. Overall rating “Satisfactory”.

Hi-Gear HG 5625, USA. Cleaner body professionalnyy-Gear HG 5625, USA. Purifier bodywork professional

Price ~400 ₽the Volume of 340 g

Aerosol. Gives foam that clings to vertical surfaces. Smell unpleasant, bitumen washes pretty bad.

Not recommended: the rating “Bad”.

Lecar TG-505, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains and marks насекомыхLecar TG-505, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains and insects

The price is ~130 ₽Volume 310 g

The aerosol product has a liquid consistency. The smell of the chemical, the volatility is quite high. The tar spots dealt smartly.

Recommend: the rating “Excellent”.

Liqui Moly 7603, Germany. Means for removing bitumen пятенLiqui Moly 7603, Germany. Means for removal of bitumen stains

Price ~625 ₽Volume 400 ml

German spray has quite a strong smell of volatile. The consistency is liquid, but the bitumen removes perfectly.

Recommend: the rating “Excellent”.

Nanox NX5629, USA. Cleaner кузоваNanox NX5629, USA. Cleaner body

Price ~350 ₽Volume 450 ml

The trigger pack. The smell of the chemical, not the most pleasant. The consistency of the liquid. Bitumen removes good.

Overall rating “Satisfactory”.

Turtle Wax TW520, USA. Cleaner from bitumen and Wax насекомыхTurtle TW520, USA. Cleaner from bitumen and insects

Price ~770 ₽Volume 473 ml

The trigger pack. The smell is slightly chemical. On the vertical holding up well, but the bitumen removes sluggish. The price is high.

Not recommended: the rating “Bad”.

3ton TC-505, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains and marks насекомых3ton TC-505, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains and insects

Price ~150 ₽Volume of 520 ml

Liquid aerosol with a chemical, not a very pleasant smell. Cleans well.

Overall rating “Satisfactory”.

Astrohim as-395, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen пятенAstrohim as-395, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains

Price is ~160 ₽Volume 500 ml

The trigger pack. The smell is weak. The consistency of the preparation is liquid on a vertical surface will not last long. But the bitumen removes up to “Excellent”. The price is quite reasonable. Recommend.

Kerry KR-930, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains and marks nasekomykh KR-930, Russia. Cleaner of bitumen stains and insects

Price ~125 ₽Volume 228 g

Spray with a strong chemical smell gives a good lather, therefore particularly suitable for work on vertical surfaces. Rubbed excellent. Recommend: the rating “Excellent”.

Results

Better than others with the removal of bituminous stains managed funds Astrohim as‑395, Kerry KR‑930, Lecar TG‑505 (all manufactured), and the German Liqui Moly 7603 — we recommend first pay attention to them. While Kerry KR‑930 I would like to praise for the foam structure, which is better than the other clings to vertical surfaces. If we compare the cost of drugs in terms of unit volume, then this option is best Astrohim as‑395. These two Russian funds and was awarded the “SP Selection”.

Tips for use

Noticed spots of bitumen? Do not pull with their removal: the longer they stay in the body, the more “stuck” and the harder it is to remove them! Rinse with water the treated area of the body, so as not to RUB abrasive particles (to put it simply — dirt) to the paint. Apply the product according to the instructions on the package and give him time to act: let them work without mechanical rubbing. Then with a clean cloth, preferably microfiber, and then remove the stain without excessive pressure. If necessary, repeat the treatment.

And what else is possible?

Will means? Sometimes kitchen chemistry is no worse than specialized tools. At hand was a generic drug WD‑40, as well as motor and vegetable oil, gasoline and diesel fuel.

Why use such means? It is not saving or not just her. Practice shows that to remove bitumen contamination better “without delay”, and brand drugs is not always at hand.

What happened? All listed “folk” remedies can be used with bituminous spot they cope. However, doing this not so famously, as tested by us specialized chemistry: every speck need quite a long time to scrub. And this increases the probability of scratching the paint. But as an emergency solution to the problem of these tools is fine.

Good luck to everyone on the roads. And Yes, we bypassed the spray bitumen!

  • Examination of penetrating fluid (WD-40 and not only) here.

Remove bitumen and tar: test 11 drugs

Experts “driving” checked as well clean off stubborn dirt from the body of specialized car detailing products and handy tools.

Remove bitumen and tar: test 11 preparatively bitumen and tar: test 11 drugs

Experts “driving” checked as well clean off stubborn dirt from the body of specialized car detailing products and handy tools.

Remove bitumen and tar: test 11 preparationto: George Cages

Hope the driver in this case, the interested reader on the forum “Behind the wheel”.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

In any case, on new tires will not have the locking wheel when braking: at high coefficient of tire adhesion and a low coefficient of friction pads or Vice versa?

— Regardless of new or old tyres, braking pads on any modern car with a vacuum booster enough to lock the wheels even on dry pavement.

To prevent this you can either icy brake discs and pads, either (and often!) system ABS.

  • Do I need to balance the wheels every season? The answer to this question here.

Do you have questions? Write on info@zr.ru. And join the discussion on the forum “Behind the wheel”!

Photo: Depositphotos

Where are the steps from the variator, what is the lifespan of these boxes and whether you need to change the oil? To these and other questions answered the expert “Behind the wheel”.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

Truly a massive variable speed transmissions have become in the last decade. Therefore, even experienced drivers are not always well aware of what a CVT. And ignorance, as usual, generates a lot of misconceptions, misinterpretations and, as a result, bad advice.

Misconception 1. In the variator filled with oil for lifetime

In the same sentence contains two inaccuracies. First, the liquid is poured into the CVT should not be called butter. As well as in classical automatic gearbox uses ATF and CVT fluid is used with its own set of characteristics. Yes, the grease in this list is present, but it is not the main purpose of such liquid. For example, the working fluid to the variator pressure increases the friction coefficient in the contact area of a cone with a belt variator. Is conventional oil can do that? Of course not.

Classic slots are worn more non-metallic linings of the friction. And the CVT is a steel cones and a belt. Steel dust interferes with the operation of the valves, it can leave the system without fluid pressure, which is necessary for the operation of the entire automation box. Therefore, changing the fluid every 60 000 km are necessary. At the same time clean from debris trapping magnets and change the filter.

Misconception 2. The CVT includes a belt

In the majority of designs do you apply the strap drawn from a large number of steel plates held in by tape. But some manufacturers prefer to use chain. It looks almost the same as the timing chain of the engine. Only contacts with cones. Torque is transmitted to the ends of the rods connecting the plates. This variable is called a chain. Chain variators are used, for example, Subaru and Audi.

In zubrowska the applied CVT chain drive. Such a structure can withstand more torque than capable of convey belt.In zubrowska the applied CVT chain drive. Such a structure can withstand more torque than capable of convey belt.

Misconception 3. The CVT may not be the Converter. He’s the CVT!

On all cars with a CVT, which are sold in Russia, is also provided with a torque Converter. Always the first torque from the motor perceives it is the torque Converter on a classical machine. It slips when we are in traffic and the gear selector is in position D. the world has several models of variable-speed drives, where the torque Converter used a “wet” clutch. They had previously set on Japanese cars for the domestic market.

Misconception 4. If you go “on a cruise”, the CVT will operate with a constant gear ratio

This is incorrect. When driving on cruise control with a constant speed CVT even on a small lift will change the gear ratio, increasing the engine speed. Cruise control with hydromechanical automatic would add to the gas, i.e., opened throttle, and engine rpm in this case would remain unchanged.

Misconception 5. Cars with a CVT slow acceleration

The CVT delivers the fastest acceleration, which can give the engine. Only to obtain such a result we must not forget prozhat the gas pedal completely. In this mode (kick down) the engine quickly goes to the speed corresponding to maximum power, and further acceleration is due to the variable gear ratio in the CVT. This is the most efficient acceleration. Any other transmission paired with the same motor will be less efficient during acceleration.

Another thing is that the engine does howling almost on a single note. Monotonicity gives the impression too long acceleration, hence the confusion.

Misconception 6. With a CVT is not out of the mud or snow “vraskachku”

The CVT makes it relatively faster to switch from the drive range to the rear and back. And new models of CVTs, such as the Toyota RAV4, have a first mechanical transmission, which further facilitates the institutionalization, because switching back and forward occurs without the participation of the continuously variable transmission.

Misconception 7. Of the CVT there are no steps

Yes and no at the same time. This postulate is deny transmission including belt CVT, and two-stage reducer. Our motorists first saw it on the Nissan Juke, and now he got to Lada Vesta. It produces firm Jatco (Japan), index — JF015E. The point is that the CVT provides about half of the speed range for first gear, and then when you go to the second, again, implements a range. Thus, the transmission, in the classic sense, this CVT two. But most of these transmissions are trained to mimic a five or six-speed electronically. These programs are definitely not “real” and virtual.

On the latest tojtovska the variable-speed Direct Shift-CVT uses the first transmission gear engagement, and then connects the belt with the cones.On the latest tojtovska the variable-speed Direct Shift-CVT uses the first transmission gear engagement, and then connects the belt with the cones.

Misconception 8. The CVT is unreliable and not repairable

There is no more terrible and widespread myth of the variator. But in fact the years of operation and machines with large and very large runs proves otherwise. Most CVTs goes for 150 000 km or more. Problems arise or the lovers “to poggipolini”, or street racing. The CVT lives longer in the calm manner of driving, without extreme accelerations. And it is necessary to regularly change the fluid. Only under these conditions, the CVT can be put on a par with a hydromechanical machines in terms of reliability. Also don’t forget to monitor the cleanliness of the radiators, cooling the working fluid of the CVT. In the cold CVT, as the engine itself, it is desirable to warm up. In a place where touching the cones and the belt, the fluid starts to work properly only at temperatures close to working. When cold the liquid will be slippage, which will cause burrs on the surface of the cones and the belt.

Assume that the CVT started to submit first signs of wear. Came spurts at movement, the rattle at low speed, not very smooth acceleration, and the General behavior of the variator changed. If you start a repair early damage the main parts, then you can do a relatively inexpensive repair. Of course, the repair of the variator is not cheap, but usually turns out to meet the 50 000 — 70 000 rubles. This is the sum involves the replacement of the belt, grinding or replacement of the cones, replace the bearings and check valve of the pump. Simple hydromechanical machines are in most cases cheaper to repair.

***

And here’s the one real drawback

Actually, this is not a disadvantage — this is a normal limitation for a civil rather than a specially prepared racing cars.

If each traffic light to start “the last time”, and even when cold the CVT, then the friction belt members and the working surfaces of the cones encounter a bully. Resource unit enough twenty thousand kilometers or less. And no superticket not save you from this phenomenon. CVT is not for stritrejserzy feats, and for the most comfortable motion. Want to drive — there are special cars and, by the way, special tracks.

Probably in the near future the CVT will be installed for at least half of the produced cars. So treat it gently, change the working fluid, and then the CVT will last a long time.

  • The whole truth about the (non)reliability of variators in this publication.

Photos: manufacturers

To eliminate the unpleasant rattling of the parts in the cabin will help a trifle from the store for the fishermen — the elastic band-“Hungarian”.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

Unpleasant rattling in the car often makes the interior mirror. On the crossover Hyundai Tucson 2008, I eliminated this sound without removing the mirror with a rubber band of circular cross section (“Hungarian”) ø 3 mm sold in a fishing shop.

I strongly stretched, and opened into the gap between the base and the “leg”. Then he let go of the ends and flush cut the excess.

The sounds stopped for a few years, “Hungarian” acts as a shock absorber. I also eliminated the creaking frame of the gear lever and inside handles of the rear doors.

S. Tsechansky, Vologda

Prize to the author of the Council —the PowerBank battery 5400 mAh company Heyner.

Dear experts car! Sending tips, don’t forget to inform your postal address with six digit postal code, surname, name and patronymic (in full) and phone number for communication. This will significantly simplify and speed up the delivery of well-deserved prizes.

Their advice you can send an e-mail exp@zr.ru. Possible illustrate their own know-how photographs and/or diagrams.

  • How to get rid of extraneous sumpul in the car, we told here.

Photo: S. Tsechansky

“Behind the wheel” lists factors that can reduce or increase the mileage, but a lot depends on your driving style and handling of the car.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

Experience shows that some of VAZ engines are not nursed, even the warranty age and mileage. That is 3 years and 100,000 km. there is a lot of owners Fret that tell about mileage in excess of 250 000 km without major repairs. And then, and more true. Why such a big difference?

Resource most import engines with proper maintenance, is in the range of +/- 20%. And the owners a modern Way, as thirty years ago, I can tell you about their car that they engine was lucky (or unlucky). The initial resources of VAZ motor can differ by several times from another resource, similar. But even well-assembled engine is not always the key to its long life. The resource can be reduced significantly using low-quality fluids, consumables and spare parts.

To decide on a engine overhaul, the owner can in two cases:

  • Emergency exit motor failure. This is when the engine stalls, will not start and may not be rotated.
  • Deteriorated performance of the engine. The engine starts, but there are huge oil consumption, smoke and reduced power, poor start due to overgrown Nagar candles.

The spark plug threads in the oil. So a lot of it in the combustion chamber. And this is the result of bad seal of pistons in cylinders — kapitalka not far off.The spark plug threads in the oil. So a lot of it in the combustion chamber. And this is the result of bad seal of pistons in cylinders — kapitalka not far off.

If you do not follow the timing

Emergency failure often happens when you break a timing belt, and then maybe the case would cost to repair the cylinder head. All this assuming that the motor “tikovoi”. This can happen at 70,000 km.

Have used in our version of the Lada Grants and Datsun mi-DO with vosmiklapanny motors straps were broken before he came according to the manufacturer’s replacement string. In the service book of the car replacement at prescribed mileage 75 000 km In the end — kapitalka! The same effect can give the failing rollers on the timing belt and coolant pump.

To avoid problems, I advise to check the belt when mileage 30 000 km and then at each IT. Forcibly change it every 60,000 km.

Here’s a kit of parts and assemblies, we had to set the motor mi-DO after breakage of the timing belt. The parts spent 35 000. We have made repairs ourselves, and the Moscow car service would take us 15 000-35 000 for the same job.Here’s a kit of parts and assemblies, we had to set the motor mi-DO after breakage of the timing belt. The parts spent 35 000. We have made repairs ourselves, and the Moscow car service would take us 15 000-35 000 for the same job.

With careful operation and proper maintenance of the engine, front-wheel drive Lada can travel up to 300 000 km, the owner will begin to notice the obvious performance loss. However, some problems no one is immune. For example…

If you got defective parts

At any mileage possible occurrence of scuffing of the cylinder, caused by the destruction of the piston rings or damage to the spark plug (broke off the electrode or piece of insulator). The scratches on the surface of the cylinder cause a loss of compression, it reduces the power and you receive Maclear.

It looks like the combustion chambers of the engine with a strong makarora.It looks like the combustion chambers of the engine with a strong makarora.

If you got a fake filter or oil, the lifespan of a motor can be very short. Filter at high speed and rpm is able to burst in rolling, leaving the engine without oil. Just as bad filtration will reduce the bearing life all shaft. Substandard oil can cause scuffing, and it can burn so intensively that the driver can easily miss the moment when the engine will be without oil.

Suggest to buy filters in large chain parts stores. The probability to buy a fake in this case is much lower. Oils are better to buy in eminent network of filling stations.

Unskilled maintenance

Inadequate quality of air purification, or worse, break the curtains of the air filter will shorten the life of the motor significantly. Very clogged filter dirt do not miss, but the air too. The motor will operate in off-design mode, and it does not extend its lifetime.

Piston skirt and rings covered with deep scratches — the engine apparently worked on pescopagano mixture.Piston skirt and rings covered with deep scratches — the engine apparently worked on pescopagano mixture.

It is important to observe periodicity of replacement prescribed by the regulations. More frequent replacement is necessary only in the steppes and semi-deserts with their eternal dust. I advise you not to buy cheap filters — they can pass large particles. A good thing cannot be too cheap. Best place to buy filters in the chain stores of spare parts.

Improper operation

Gasoline may also seriously reduce the life of the engine. Low octane causes detonation, which can compensate the control unit. Resin lead to coking of the engine parts. The high content of sulfur forms in the cylinders sulfuric acid, which corrodes the parts from non-ferrous alloys.

Advised to fill up at known gas stations and fuel to use with an octane rating of not less than permitted in the instructions to the car.

How can I prolong the life of the engine?

It is obvious that the Lada can be treated very differently. For some, this is the wheelbarrow for a couple of years — to survive until the end hard times. Someone their brand new West cherishes and nurtures. But over time, the relation to the car becoming less reverent.

Those who want to maximize the resources of their vehicles, should:

  • Change the oil more often than specified by the regulations, about two times.
  • Use high-quality consumables and accessories.
  • Not to overload the engine. Harmful as frequent promotion “to the max” and drive with the pedal down at low speed — vnatyag.
  • The operation of the machine with the trailer reduces the engine.
  • To monitor the thermal conditions of the engine. Do not give large load to a cold motor and prevent overheating in the summer.

Two trump cards of VAZ engines

1. Cheapness of repair. It is due to several factors:

  • The engine design is familiar to almost any master.
  • Always available for the necessary repair tools and accessories.
  • Relatively inexpensive parts.

2. You can buy a new engine VAZ for a relatively small amount. Vosmiklapanny engine will cost 40,000 to 50,000 rubles, and shestnadtsatiletnij — up to 70 000 rubles. Thus, for example, the most affordable Renault K4M engine, which is put on Logan, and earlier, and the Lada Largus, will cost at least 104 000.

The comment of the expert

Victor Lelikov, an employee of the company “ATD, OOO — wholesale trade of motor vehicle parts and accessories”:

Spare parts for engines Vase are in high demand. That is why sell such a high proportion of non-conforming parts. Such details come from three sources. The first is the cooperative parts: their use is particularly dangerous. For example, the resource timing belts can be only a few tens of hours. The second source is still occurring from the official supplier. This is the part that has not passed technical control Vase, but went on sale. Such parts and assemblies demolish the faith of buyers to the reliability of VAZ cars. Finally, the third source is restored spare parts for the engines. But these are increasingly rare.

How much my Lada runs without major repairs — expert opinion

“Behind the wheel” lists factors that can reduce or increase the mileage, but a lot depends on your driving style and handling of the car.

How much my Lada runs without major repairs — expert opinion

  • Decided to buy a contract engine? Here’s what to look out for.

Photo: “Behind the wheel” and manufacturersHow much my Lada runs without major repairs — expert opinion

“Behind the wheel” lists factors that can reduce or increase the mileage, but a lot depends on your driving style and handling of the car.

How much my Lada runs without major repairs — expert opinion

Top settings — not the case, the best are those that are suitable for you. Often, oddly enough, is a completely different tire.Alexey Revin “driving”Expert

All new vehicles are sold with summer tires, and very few immediately after buying the car changes them for others. Therefore, most likely, your car’s tires have worn out — if you are thinking about buying a new one. And, most likely, you’ll be able to compare new tires with their old. But this is a very important point, although it a few people think.

Tip 1. Size

Valid for your car tire sizes indicated in the operating instructions. But it’s easier to look at the sign taped in the doorway the driver’s door or on the lid of the fuel tank flap, where indicated and sizes of tyres and pressure in them under different load.

Photo information plate Lada Largus.Photo information plate Lada Largus.

Most of the cars on some of the plates are multiple permissible diameters of the tires. The choice is yours, but are you ready to change along with tires and wheels? If the disks remain the same, then most cars can be a bit of +/- 5%, change the height or profile of +/- 10 mm width. This is a modification to the design of the vehicle and, on-good, should be legalized, accompanied by the entry in the PTS and STS. But, as a rule, so small changes no one pays any attention. It’s always safer to stick to approved by the manufacturer of the vehicle dimensions.

Tip 2. Wide and narrow, low, and high, SUV and no

Wider tires provide a larger contact area, better stability, acceleration and braking. Narrow tires behave more stable in the asphalt track. The higher profile tires, so it is stronger. The less height, the greater the risk of damage to the sidewall.

In one dimension sometimes can be found as a regular passenger bus, and is suitable for crossovers. Often the marking of these tyres is part of the acronym SUV. There are also tires with an increased load capacity — XL. These tires are stronger, harder and more wear resistant.

If you have a regular sedan or hatchback, the SUV’s tires or XL will provide a sufficient margin of safety when driving on bad roads. Conversely, having a crossover that goes solely on good roads, you can save money by installing automobile tires. When choosing, it is important that the sum of the permitted loads on a pair of tires exceeds the mass attributable to a more loaded axle. The load axis provided in the plate with the VIN-number and is located under the hood or in the doorway.

More loaded on the rear axle of the Renault Duster is not more than 1020 kg. Respectively, you can choose bus, each of which can withstand 510 kg. will Receive, according to the table, the load index is not less than 85. Better take some margin. I think the best would be the 90-93 range.More loaded on the rear axle of the Renault Duster is not more than 1020 kg. Respectively, you can choose bus, each of which can withstand 510 kg. will Receive, according to the table, the load index is not less than 85. Better take some margin. I think the best would be the 90-93 range.

Capacity indices (IG) of tires for passenger cars

Tip 3. The price and quality

In terms of price and quality of all tires can be divided into three groups: the branded and the second group often belong to the leading companies, but a little simpler and cheaper, and finally, the production plants, only trying to conquer the market. The first unconditionally includes bus classic, well-known manufacturers. For example, are well known worldwide Continental. The second is often sub-brands, once separate brands that fall under the wing of tire giants. For example, Gislaved, now owned by the same company Continental. Third can be attributed to the Chinese and of the domestic producers of tyres which are more and more catching up in quality to the second group. If the budget purchases defined, and to navigate among these three groups easier. I recommend a “middle ground” — the sub-brands of the top tire manufacturers, their products are not inferior in characteristics to the tires of famous brands and is thus relatively inexpensive.

Tip 4. The tread pattern

Only for passenger cars there are three types of tread patterns: symmetric, asymmetric and directed. The first is more common at the most affordable tire small size. For this type characterized by a relatively high noise level and average grip. But these tires can be arbitrarily rearranged the car so that all four tires wear evenly. They can also be rearranged on the disk by the other party.

Directional tread pattern better drains water from the contact patch and in most cases a little quieter when driving than tyres with a symmetrical pattern. But most are quiet and provide superb handling — a tire with asymmetric tread pattern. These tires all the tread area are operating at peak efficiency in different driving modes.

I always recommend to avoid tyres with a directional tread pattern. The reason is simple: the roads in our country is not always a good is to damage one or two wheels very easily. The repaired tyre is better to install on the rear axle — it’s safer. Non-directional or asymmetric tires you can swap on the car randomly, regardless of the side, but to bound to one side of the machine.

Tip 5. Load and speed

The load indices and speed exceed the capabilities of your car. But excessive margin on these parameters will make the tire hard and heavy, which is bad for comfort and fuel consumption.

The lighter the tire the better. Energy Saver in some expensive tires and do provide fuel savings. But when you select normal tyres give preference easier, they will also reduce fuel consumption.

Load index and speed. Too large a margin in these parameters and don’t need roads.Load index and speed. Too large a margin in these parameters and don’t need roads.

Tip 6. Advice neighbor

Ignore the advertising claims of manufacturers. Every Sandpiper praises its swamp. It makes no sense to listen to advisers of the door or colleagues at work. You will hear one person’s opinion about the advantages and disadvantages of tire size on his car. You can’t judge entirely on the brand if you or someone else didn’t like a specific model of tires. Because the firm produces a line of tires, which can be a different model. Each model of tyre is strong in some subjects and worse in others.

Listen only to stories about the need and strength of the interested models of tires. These reviews more or less objective.

Remember that the more expensive the tire, the higher expectations required of them. If expensive tire though, just did not meet expectations — just “sucks”. A cheap tyre people often call acceptable. For every car owner in the tire world has its own point of reference: who traveled on the tires of a famous brand, is unlikely to approve a little-known Chinese brand.

And: reviews of tires on the Internet does not always give the correct picture, but the rankings of our publications that we published after the comprehensive tests, can be trusted. The first thing to see in the final table the option that interests you most.

Tip 7. The place of purchase

On the market in a specialty store, supermarket or online store with delivery — great choice. But all the nuances. The market is likely to buy a defective tire that was stored improperly. Supermarkets sometimes offer tyres at very competitive prices, and if the tires are not lain in a warehouse for many years, you can take. But the range of manufacturers and sizes is very limited. The chances are that you will find the right model and size, not so much.

On the bus there is always date of manufacture. The first two numbers are the week ordinal of the year, and the second two the year.On the bus there is always date of manufacture. The first two numbers are the week ordinal of the year, and the second two the year.

Online shopping is convenient, but will bring you a “pig in a poke.” The date of manufacture and country where manufactured tires, you will see only at the time of delivery. Not like you can refuse. The only pity is time lost waiting for delivery. In addition, many online tire shops work only on a prepaid basis.

Specialty stores are good because before buying the product can be inspected, and in the case of purchases and even free or discounted shoed his car. This is probably the most safe and convenient way to purchase.

Universal Board

Do not go on old and worn tires. On time installed new tires can save you from major troubles, saving in the end a lot more than the cost of a set of new tires.

7 main principles of selection of summer tires

Top settings — not the case, the best are those that are suitable for you. Often, oddly enough, is a completely different tire.

7 main principles of selection of summer tires

  • Answers to frequently asked questions about pereobuvku here.
  • Useful when changing rubber covers for wheels storage.

Photo: “Behind the wheel” and manufacturers7 main principles of selection of summer tires

Top settings — not the case, the best are those that are suitable for you. Often, oddly enough, is a completely different tire.

7 main principles of selection of summer tires

This company was founded by three brothers: one was killed during a rally, the other was seriously ill, and the third died in prison are grateful to the native state.Ilya Pimenov “Behind the wheel”

1. This year French brand, founded by brothers Louis, Fernand and Marcel Renault, marks 122 years. The first name of the company — the Societe Renault Freres (“the Society of brothers Reno”). In 1903, Marcel died during the rally Paris-Madrid, in 5 years, seriously ill Ferdinand, and the company began to belong to the youngest of the brothers — Louis. He renamed the company Automobiles Renault.

2. The headquarters of Renault is still located in the same place where in 1898 in Boulogne-Billancourt.

Venture brothers Renault in Boulogne-Billancourt.Venture brothers Renault in Boulogne-Billancourt.

3. The first 12 cars brothers Renault sold in one fell swoop — after Louis Renault at dinner on Christmas eve argued with friends that his car, the Voiturette Type A, easily climb the steep slope of the Rue LePic in Montmartre. And, of course, won the argument. The first of dozens of cars he traded with the money immediately, on the highest point of Paris.

Louis Renault at the wheel Voiturette Type A. Louis Renault at the wheel Voiturette Type A.

4. In 10 years after the appearance of the Renault company became the country’s largest automaker, having made 3575 cars.

5. The Renault was among the first to hit the pre-revolutionary Russia. The first show took place in may and June of 1907 at the First international exhibition of automobiles, engines, bicycles and sports. Visited the exhibition of Emperor Nicholas II liked the model of Renault 40 CV, and he ordered two such machines. All in all, the Imperial garage had five Renault cars.

Renault from the Imperial garage of Nicholas II.Renault from the Imperial garage of Nicholas II.

6. In 1916 was created the joint stock company “Russian Renault”. At the same time opened and the first dealership of the French brand in Russia. In Saint-Petersburg (August 1914 — Petrograd) was a factory built truck chassis, in Rybinsk — aircraft engines Renault. The nationalization in 1917, the company employs about 1,000 people — a lot of the time.

The car companies “Russian Renault” was shown in St. Petersburg, on Nevsky prospect.The car companies “Russian Renault” was shown in St. Petersburg, on Nevsky prospect.

7. The former chief of the Imperial garage, Adolf Kegress suggested main rival Louis Renault, Andre Citroen, the idea of half-track vehicles, which in 1923 passed the “Black RAID” the entire African continent. Renault has decided to respond, sending in a run across the Sahara desert three-axle light trucks MH with twin (dual) wheels on all axles. Machine under the command of captain Delingette launched 13 November 1924 from Bechara and finished on 3 July 1925 in Cape town.

8. In April 1929, academician Alexander Fersman went with the expedition to the Karakum desert on two “trichoscan” Renault MH and one Ford T. Soon because of the broken American car had to be sent back to Ashgabat, and “French” have reached the final point of the journey, although they have twice cut differential gears, often had to storm the dunes with steepness up to 30 degrees and use a winch, part of the equipment of one of the machines.

Fersman expedition with one of the French “trahison” in the desert.Fersman expedition with one of the French “trahison” in the desert.

9. Louis Renault is the author of many important inventions in car construction. It’s a shaft drive, a removable spark plug, hydraulic shock absorber, steering column, tiltable, folding seats and other…

10. Renault has created the world’s first tank classic layout (with a tower circular rotation, combat compartment in the center of the body and the engine compartment in the rear). Light tank FT-17 was one of the most successful tanks of the First world war, produced under license in the United States called the M1917, Italy (FIAT 3000), Soviet Russia (the”Russian Reno”). Was used in local conflicts until the end of 1940-ies.

Light tank Renault FT-17 was progressive for its time, and a very successful design.Light tank Renault FT-17 was progressive for its time, and a very successful design.

11. Taxi Renault has played an important role in the defence of Paris in the autumn of 1914. To strengthen the front, it was necessary to shift 6,000 troops of General Joseph Gallieni and the Paris police mobilized for this about 1300 Renault Paris taxis, mostly model AG-1. The taxi drivers worked at the rate equal to 27% of the readings of the taximeter, and got a trip average of 130 francs. Some went to the front twice. The Kaiser’s troops was stopped, and the transfer of the French army in such an unusual way passed into folklore under the name “taksi” Marne; (the Marne river, on the banks of which stood the French and German army). The French called Louis Renault Savior and was awarded the highest award — the Legion of honor.

12. During the Second world war, the Renault company made cars for the Germans, received the order in exchange for a promise by Hitler not to destroy the plants. In 1942 part of the factories were bombed and Louis Renault was so nervous that survived the attack and lost the ability to speak normally.

13. After the liberation of France in 1944, the 67-year-old Reno was thrown in jail for collaborating with the occupiers. The trial of the former “Savior of France” and a knight of the Legion of honour was not: Louis died under mysterious circumstances two months after the arrest. In the hospital he was taken in a coma after a routine examination. The company was nationalized. However, according to the will of the Renault factories were to be transferred to the workers in the event of his death, and his wife and son paid compensation. Jean-Louis Renault received a small monetary compensation from the government only in 1967.

The shape of diamond, reminiscent of the diamond, the emblem of the company acquired in 1925.The shape of diamond, reminiscent of the diamond, the emblem of the company acquired in 1925.

14. The company logo was changed 16 times. First, in 1900, was made in a heraldic style: oval — woven initials of the Renault brothers. Second, 1906, portrayed racing car in gear. Third, the 1919 tank F-17 in the circle. Third, 1923 — round grille. And only in 1925, the emblem took the form of a rhombus, which represented (and represents still) diamond. In 1972, the artist Victor Vasarely was created on this basis, a new logo, making it shorter and giving three-dimensionality. Today, the company uses a more modern version.

15. In 1954-1955, the company has created a turbine Renault Étoile Filante, which in 1956 on the salt lake of Bonneville set a world speed record, equal 307,4 km/h. the Car was sent to the factory Museum. More French gas turbine machines do not create.

Renault Etoile Filante gas turbine set a world speed record on land in 1956.Renault Etoile Filante gas turbine set a world speed record on land in 1956.

16. Renault Marche is the author of several records from the Guinness book. For example, the high mileage in an electric car: electric car Zoe overcame 363 laps on a racetrack in Normandy with a total length of 1618 km

To set the record mileage in an electric car, the Renault Zoe was charging 18 times, driving alternately sat 15 drivers.To set the record mileage in an electric car, the Renault Zoe was charging 18 times, driving alternately sat 15 drivers.

17. But even more interesting is the longest jump in a truck with trailer. American stuntman Mike Ryan flew 25 meters behind the wheel of a Renault Magnum. After landing, the truck came off the lower part of the bumper, but he continued moving. During the flight under the truck and even drove the Lotus F1 car. Watch this video.

Record jump Mike Ryan on Renault Magnum.Record jump Mike Ryan on Renault Magnum.

18. Renault was created in 1965, the world’s first hatchback — Renault 16, and in 1985 the first European minivan, the Renault Espace.

The world’s first hatchback called the Renault 16 1965.The world’s first hatchback called the Renault 16 1965.

19. In 1995 at the Paris motor show was presented to the audience crazy Espace F1 concept created by Renault, Williams and Matra — Espace with a V-shaped 10-cylinder engine from the formula race car with a power of 800 HP, can accelerate to a hundred in 2.8 seconds and to 200 km/h in 6.9 seconds.

The maximum speed of the Espace F1 concept — 312 km/h. the Maximum speed of the Espace F1 concept — 312 km/h.

20. Mid-size Renault Laguna in June 2001 became the first car to receive 5 stars in crash test EuroNCAP for protection of the driver and passengers in the event of front and side impacts.

Hatchback second-generation Renault Laguna was the first student of Euro NCAP.Hatchback second-generation Renault Laguna was the first student of Euro NCAP.

21. In the 1960-1970-ies the French company has actively cooperated with the Soviet Union, helping in the modernization of the “Moskvich” and the creation of the Kama automobile plant (KAMAZ).

The signing ceremony of the agreement between the Moscow government and Renault on the establishment of “Avtoframos”.The signing ceremony of the agreement between the Moscow government and Renault on the establishment of “Avtoframos”.

22. In 1992-1993, Renault opened its first Russian office in Moscow, and in July 1998 an agreement was signed with the government of Moscow on creation of the joint venture “Avtoframos”. The name was composed from the words “auto”, “France” and “Moscow”. After a year on the basis of AZLK factory was opened the shop of the incomplete Assembly, which produced cars Renault Megane, Renault 19, Clio Symbol. In July 2014, the Russian company has changed its name to CJSC “Renault Russia”, a tribute to history.

22 curious facts about Renault. I bet you half didn’t?

This company was founded by three brothers: one was killed during a rally, the other was seriously ill, and the third died in prison are grateful to the native state.

22 curious facts about Renault. I bet you half didn’t?Photo: archive of author’s22 interesting facts about Renault. I bet you half didn’t?

This company was founded by three brothers: one was killed during a rally, the other was seriously ill, and the third died in prison are grateful to the native state.

22 curious facts about Renault. I bet you half didn’t?

To wear masks healthy people do not. If there’s coughing, the risk is low… is always the right thing to talk to a specialist. And the panic from COVID-19 begins to irritate even the most calm, right?Elena Starikova

Our questions answered Yaroslav Ashikhmin, PhD, therapist, Advisor to the General Director of the Foundation for International Medical Cluster.

1. What is the safest way to travel now is by public transport, taxi or car-share?

— The most dangerous of all, of course, in the subway because of its high workload. In second place is the ground public transport and then taxis and car sharing. But it is important to understand that while the epidemic is not so hard to recommend to refrain from trips on public transport. The only exceptions are people aged over 60 years (especially with severe chronic diseases) and those with a weakened immune system. Because these categories of citizens the risk of developing severe forms of pneumonia is much higher.

2. How long the coronavirus can live in the car? If I’m not driving, say, a week, he will “die out” naturally?

The average lifespan of a virus on any surface is a couple of days. Not so important how long the virus remains on the steering wheel or the gear lever — most importantly, do you observe preventive measures. If you wash your hands after the car, then the chances of getting infected are minimized.

3. The taxi driver coughed forward. Can I get the virus if sitting behind them?

Hypothetically getting sick in this situation it is possible, but the risk is low. If someone near you sneezed or coughed, you should not panic. When it comes to the sink, thoroughly wash face and hands.

Healthy people do not need to wear a medical mask is not a reduces the risk of infection. This measure only makes sense if you are an elderly person with a weakened immune system or work requires you to communicate with a large number of people. For example, you’re the cabbie, cashier or medical professional.

4. Say I’m in the “risk group”. Re-use a medical mask is impossible. So, if I plan to take the bus to the store and get in the mail, I need to take three masks?

In this case, of course, you should stock up on a few masks, because they become useless as soon as wet. But the mask is not a panacea. Therefore, the elderly and people with chronic diseases (diabetes, heart disease, etc.) I would recommend you to stay at home for at least the next couple of weeks. If you need something from the products, take advantage of a delivery service, or ask family to help.

5. With masks in the country napryazhenka. The mask may serve as an alternative? If not, then what can?

Understand the mass panic about the coronavirus causes society and the economy far more harm than the infection itself! What mask, what are you?! No need to bring the situation to the absurd. Again: healthy people do not need to wear medical masks. I’m not talking about gas masks and other dubious remedies. Here’s what really need to do is to accustom yourself to wash your hands and face every time after visiting public places, not to touch your face with your hands and not to shake hands.

The majority of Russians were divided into two categories: some wearing gas masks and going to buy buckwheat in industrial scale; others ignore any preventive measures. There is no need to get up neither to the one nor to the other pole.

6. Employees of many gas stations, cashiers in supermarkets now work in disposable gloves. This reduces the risk of infection? How about if I wear gloves?

To give an analogy. Imagine that you were going to swim in the river. A life jacket reduces the likelihood that you will drown, right? But we must proceed from the specific circumstances: if you climb in the turbulent Terek — vest, clearly, will not be superfluous. But if we are talking about a small Creek you have in the country, will cope without him. Now the situation when healthy people don’t need a “life jacket” in the form of disposable gloves. We have not yet “Terek”.

7. I was stopped the inspector of traffic police checking documents. Can the virus be transmitted through a driver’s license?

— Related to the transfer of driver’s license must be the same as the one that you use common stationery, and the food court with trays. Driver’s license is not a surface that transmits the virus more or less likely than plastic or metal. Just wash your hands regularly — at the moment this is enough.

8. Some taxi companies now put their machines disinfected. It’s efficient, or so “for show”?

— I think this is nothing more than a measure to increase the level of trust in taxi services. Many people literally went wild after reports that in Russia there were cases of infection with coronavirus. If they find out that the taxi has passed the sanitation, they will be psychologically more comfortable to use. From the point of view of medicine, there is no regulation regarding the special dry cleaning or cleaning of the cab.

9. And I have to disinfect the machine or, at least, regularly clean napkins steering wheel, gear lever, handbrake?..

— I would not give universal recommendations wipe all surfaces of the interior with an antiseptic before each trip. An exception can be made only for people with elevated risk of infection. Prevention must be within reasonable limits: do not shake hands, to wash their hands thoroughly enough.

10. Drove a buddy home, and later he was taken to hospital with suspected coronavirus. Me to go “to surrender” or to wait until the door call the paramedics?

— How do you know a friend coronavirus infection? He’s going to talk to infectious disease doctor who was in contact recently and visited other countries. Then the specialist will develop a program of individual assistance.

To isolate themselves when in contact with patient c infection, coronavirus when its nature is not confirmed, it is not necessary, except in special situations. For example, when you were flying the plane or riding the bus with people who come from countries with unfavourable epidemiological situation.

Another option is you work with people who are at risk for coronavirus, or you live with elderly relatives. In other cases, I would have just watched the health and the detection of symptoms (fever, chills, headache, weakness, nasal congestion, cough, shortness of breath) would go into an ambulance.

Photo: “Behind the wheel”

It would seem that once the SDA there are no special requirements for the carriage of animals, then no problems. However, folk wisdom says: he is a bad inspector, which you will not find what prikopat…Elena Starikova

We’ve compiled several standard situations in which a driver can be punished for four-legged friend.

Animal blocking the driver’s view

Potential risk: a fine of 500 rubles

Surely you’ve seen the touching scene: York jumping around the cabin, barking, trying to lean out of the window. Maybe the cat settled on the torpedo and basking in the sun? All smiles: passers-by, neighbours in the traffic jam, the driver himself… exactly to the moment until you meet with the inspector of traffic police. From his point of view, the pet block your view and thus creates a disturbance while driving. Best case scenario motorist faces a warning. But if a police officer is not in the spirit, can be fined 500 rubles under part 1 of article 12.21 of the administrative code “Violation of rules of transportation of cargoes”.

Sergey Radko, the lawyer of movement of motorists “Freedom of choice”Sergey Radko, the lawyer of movement of motorists “Freedom of choice”

Expert comment:

— Transportation of Pets personal transport is equivalent to transport of goods. Pursuant to paragraph 23.3 SDA load must not restrict the driver the overview and make it difficult to control. These concepts are highly subjective. I wonder why an animal that is in the car, can restrict the view, but, for example, three large passengers in the back seat — no. However, this penalty is lawful

By the way, chaotic movement of the pet in the cabin and yet is fraught with injuries, which the animal can obtain in case of sudden maneuver or even a small accident. Therefore we always recommend to reliably fix transported the animal — it is not in the penalties, and security “tailed passenger.

An animal not wearing

Potential risk: a fine of 500 rubles

Many may be wondering: what’s the strap unless said animal is a burden? The pertinent point. However, a situation where drivers are fined for the safety of the pet, meet quite often. The most famous case occurred in a resident of Surgut, which transported on the front seat of Stafford. The dog’s owner was fined 500 rubles, which she refused to pay. Attempts to appeal the ruling were not successful. In the traffic police the fine is not canceled, but changed the wording: the dog was not a passenger and cargo. Consequently, the driver was in breach of paragraph 23.2 of traffic rules: “during the movement the driver must control the placement, fastening and condition of cargo to prevent its fall, the obstruction to traffic”.

Expert comment:

— Such a resolution is not legal, and may be appealed through the courts. The animal is not passenger, but because the requirement to be fastened is not covered. On the other hand, the animal during the movement should not walk around the salon, and be in special hutches. The reaction of the pet noises or sudden braking can be unpredictable and questioned the safety of the people in the cabin. But again, transportation of unfastened animal is not a violation

Leaving an animal in a parked car

Potential risk: a criminal prosecution

The situations are all sorts of had gone to the supermarket, popped into a cafe, and a pet left in the car. But what you will get? In public places, with animals often impossible. Many owners at this point don’t even think the risk is subjected not only to four-legged friend, and myself. Locked inside the “prisoner” can get cold in the winter or get heatstroke in the summer. It can even be fatal. In this case, the owner of the animal may have a serious problem with the law. Responsibility on p. 1. article 245 of the criminal code “cruelty to animals” is defined depending on the circumstances, but quite seriously:

  • a fine of up to eighty thousand rubles or the salary or other income of the convicted person for a period up to six months
  • compulsory work for up to 360 hours
  • correctional work for up to one year
  • restriction of liberty for a term up to one year
  • arrest for a term up to six months
  • deprivation of liberty for a term up to three years

Easier to think in advance the route you travel with a pet, than to testify in court.

Expert comment:

— The inspector of traffic police has the right to stop the driver and to make a report about the need to verify the information. Then the documents are transferred to the territorial Department of the Ministry of internal Affairs to his staff made the decision on excitation of criminal case. However, such situations are rare — the traffic police do not have much desire to spend time on paper work.

Good or bad, but in the rules of the road really there are no special requirements for the carriage of animals — if only Pets were not closed overview and does not interfere with driving. The responsibility for transportation falls squarely on the driver. The important thing is to follow three simple principles: safety, convenience, control. However, they are effective not only during travel with animals.

3 reason to get: a DPS officer saw a dog in the car

It would seem that once the SDA there are no special requirements for the carriage of animals, then no problems. However, folk wisdom says: he is a bad inspector, which you will not find what prikopat…

3 reason to get: a DPS officer saw a dog in the car

Photo: depositphotos, Unsplash

3 reason to get: a DPS officer saw a dog in the car

It would seem that once the SDA there are no special requirements for the carriage of animals, then no problems. However, folk wisdom says: he is a bad inspector, which you will not find what prikopat…

3 reason to get: a DPS officer saw a dog in the car

Likinsky bus plant started serial production of semi-low floor bus LIAZ-5292.65-03.Nicholas Mordovtsev Specialist

Already there is talk that the bus on certain types of passenger transportation should replace safe specialized high capacity buses. And here in Likino developed and launched a series of semi-low floor buses for intercity transport LIAZ‑5292.65–03 with 42 seats and a total capacity of 83 passengers.

Read more about new models visit the website of the magazine “Flight” (link).

Photo: LiAZ