These people are watching you every day, whether you’re standing in traffic or ran a road in the wrong place. That they control every traffic light in town and read your comments on Yandex. RR is suck up to the employee of the Center of traffic organization and find out how they arranged everything.Elena Starikova

Says a leading specialist, the duty shifts of the situational center TMS Ilgiz Hasanov:

1. I work at TMS for two years. Before that was a mechanic, repairing trucks. Often had to get to the trucks, the broken middle of the road — mainly on the “Three rubles” (the Third ring of the capital. — Approx. SP), — repaired right on the spot and quickly remove the car from the road because of this, there were large traffic jams. Perhaps that is why I went to the command center to handle such situations.

2. To us it is not so easy to come by. Interviewed in TMS I invited friends. I thought, no harm in trying, and in the end everything turned out. To get to us in the operational Department, you should at least have a driver’s license and good knowledge of the city. The interview will have to tell and show where the main thoroughfare, as in what hours she goes. In addition, all employees undergo a few tests to care. Imagine, before you are six or seven large monitors. They chaotically scattered letters. You are given seven seconds to in this mess to find one whole word in small print — we have it was a coyote, “coyote” in English. Remember, I broke the record and found it in two or three seconds. And we had a group of guys who have not coped with the task, even for two minutes. They to work were not included. They say that now the test task is complicated.

3. TMS never sleeps. We work three 12-hour shifts, schedule 2/2. The room is always present on duty shifts. Thus, the screens of the situation centre, where we can see the traffic situation, are never left unattended. About 50 people, two specialists in each district of Moscow. For me, for example, assigned a plot from Leningrad to the Yaroslavl highway.

4. Our office is like mission control Center. Seriously — even in appearance! Only here follow the situation not in space, but on the roads of the big city. On the wall of the hall, where we all sit, is a huge screen on which the online broadcast recordings from surveillance cameras (all of them in the city more than 100 thousand). In the upper left corner of the screen we can see the General level of the capital’s traffic jams on a scale. The situation becomes tense when displayed the figure “8”. Of course, this happens in morning and evening rush hours.

5. We also use Yandex. Camcorder is the main but not the only source of information about the situation on the roads. We regularly get reports from the MOE, data from Mosgortrans and various operational services of the city. The other assistant — Yandex.Card. It is possible to not only monitor traffic, but also quickly to understand what happened on a particular stretch of reading the comments under “conversations”. For example, eyewitnesses tell how many lanes the accident was blocked and for some of the remaining better to go. Based on the data collected, we build further work.

6. You should know all that is happening in your district. No matter it is an extraordinary situation (like an accident) or hole on the road, to which all slow down and thereby create a deadlock. The main task — as quickly as possible to relieve the stretch of road that all went back. Options to influence the situation much. For example, if an accident happened, we evaluate its magnitude, contact the traffic police to officers arrived on the scene and promptly eliminate the consequences. In the case of a minor accident caused by “Road patrol” — another one of our forces. Guys help to speed up the process of paperwork and, again, to remove the affected vehicles from the roadway.

7. We overclock tube in a single click. Traffic light control is also included in the scope of our responsibilities. The whole of Moscow rides on the principle that morning from the field in the center, in the evening Vice versa. All the lights are in automatic mode. However, sometimes some sites require our intervention. There is a special program. To understand it quite easily: the algorithms of traffic lights are shown in pictures — just click on the desired option with the mouse. And after 5-6 minutes after switching the algorithms can be seen as the situation on the road is beginning to change for the better.

8. Sometimes you have to bluff and “turn detective”. Recently Bolshaya Semenovskaya stood in the early morning, the tube was stretched for four kilometers. All because in the right lane some citizen parked his car. The only free lane, the buses barely go around the obstacle, and, of course, no one really can not drive. What to do? Found on the Internet the nearest open store. The seller has got understanding — was not too lazy to go out and hand the phone to the driver. Had hard to say that if he did not immediately drive away the car, talking to him wouldn’t be me, and the traffic police. The long man looked around and tried to figure out who and where watching him, but the car from the roadway removed. After that all the traffic normally went to the center.

9. Watching us high officials. Everything that happens on the road events we recorded in a special database — “Duty shifts”. It also reflects all of our actions, for example: the traffic light is switched into a mode, an accident there-and there, said the GBU “highways” about the repair work on this site. Anything that creates discomfort the movement in Moscow be inserted here. This information is transferred to the analytical Department and allows us to understand what is stopping the traffic in the city, what areas are problematic and why.

10. I am often asked to speak on the work of the word. The reviews about this company are positive, and the salary is competitive. However, I always deny even a good friend: employment is through the main door, please. Take the exam, pass the test. The responsibility is big — we are trusted by all the traffic in the city, so.

Photo: Vedomosti/TASS, Mikhail Pochuev/TASS, AGN “Moscow”

I push the tube in just one click: the monologue of the employee ZODDA dispersed tubes in one click: the monologue of the employee TMS

Survivors of inspectors of traffic police are gradually replacing the camera fixing violations, operating in automatic mode. And every day they learn to catch new offenders for traffic violations. That’s what it is important to know every driver…Pole Matthew Specialist

Initially, the systems of automatic fixing of violations of traffic regulations are planned to be installed in places of high accident rates for “calm” traffic, but the regions very quickly realized that this method of replenishment is quite effective, because fixed cameras began to be installed according to the principle “here the driver can break.” Gradually, the complexes are learning to fix new violations by disciplining drivers.

You need to remember that when you commit violations of the automatic camera has a “presumption of guilt”, that is, the driver has to prove his innocence or that the system operates correctly.


The first camera able to capture only the excess by drivers of speed, they were established on the boundaries of settlements, today they put in the city and on country roads. The most controversial are complex, which record the average speed at a particular site. In the SDA there is no concept of “average speed”, but the use of complexes “Avtodoriya” “Border-Tempo” and other recognized legitimate as fines from them.

According to article 12.9 of the administrative code of Russia exceeding the speed limit by 20-40 km/h, fixed automatic complexes commit violations, shall be punishable by a fine of 500 rubles., at 40-60 km/h — in the amount of 1000 rubles., at 60-80 km/h — in the amount of 2500 rubles., when exceeding the speed limit over 80 km/h — a fine of 5,000 rubles.

Complexes of fixing of violations has long been able to “shoot” and in svinokompleksa commit violations has long been able to “shoot” in the back

For the last two violations introduced the concept of “repeated violation”: in both cases you will have to pay 5000 RUB. Re is considered to be a violation committed within 12 months after the first. The speeding fines there is a 50% discount in the case of a voluntary payment within 20 days from the date of the judgment. For repeated violations of the speed limit it does not apply.

It is worth remembering that when speeding at speeds over 60 km/h recorded by the inspector with a radar gun provided and the loss of driving privileges. In Moscow against speeders are actively implementing a system of “pit Stop”: a violation is complex, giving information on the screen of the inspector of traffic police, which is a Protocol on violation of traffic rules, after which the materials are sent to court, where the decision to fine the driver or to deprive him of his driver’s license for up to 6 months.

Departure on the allocated strip for public transport

The pioneer here was Moscow, whose authorities decided to give priority to public transport, allocating a separate lane. Later, the capital began to join other cities. And the days that you can go to vydelenku (in Moscow this Saturday and Sunday) and the list of transport that is permitted, as well as buses to minibuses, to move forward in these bands (in Moscow by public transport is equal, and taxis), the regional authorities define yourself.

For some time Moscow authorities have installed cameras on public transport, then this idea odasirogahara time Moscow authorities have installed cameras on public transport, then this idea have refused

In Moscow and St. Petersburg for departure on a strip for public transport in a traffic violation, a penalty in the amount of 3000 rubles., the rest of Russia — 1500 rubles (article 12.17 of the administrative code). Offers 50% discount. By the way, a camera registering the departure on vydelenku, you can “fine” and for the following violations.

Violation of the marking (intersection of solid lines)

Initially, these complexes were supposed to wean the fans to turn and drive off the tracks a second (and sometimes third and fourth) next. Except for exits and turns, such systems were put in tunnels and at the entrance to them.

The resolution will be attached photos, and the camera will follow the trajectory of the car before to fix the violation PDV the decision will be made pictures, and the camera will follow the trajectory of the car before you commit traffic violations

The penalty prescribed under the first part of article 12.16 of the administrative code of Russia, it amounts to 500 rubles., while there is a 50 percent discount.

Riding on the roadside

Camera for quite some time, “discharged” fines for driving on the shoulder, and no matter what it is — a dirt or asphalt. So power struggle with the hurry who do not want to stand in traffic jams, and then create even greater congestion, wedging back into the roadway.

The first part of article 12.15 of the administrative code provides for such violation, a fine of 1500 roubles offers 50% discount.

Exit at busy intersection

The most serious traffic congestion in major cities is due to the fact that the drivers in an effort to quickly cross the intersection actually clog it. They don’t have time to drive to the enable signal, then start to move the machine in the perpendicular direction, in the end, the movement stands in all directions.

First, as an experiment, drivers who went on a busy intersection, fined in a couple of places in Moscow. And this year, the concept of “wafer layout” was introduced in the SDA. Enough to be inside it once will illuminate a red light, and the camera immediately detects the violation.

Wafer marking at intersections appeared in the SDA this year and immediately began to massively infiltrate the major gordejuela markings at intersections appeared in the SDA this year and immediately began to massively penetrate in major cities

The fine will come after a violation of paragraph 13.2 of the SDA Russia. Most likely, it will be discharged under part 1 of article 12.13 KoAP Of Russia. He is 1000 RUB. But theoretically, the penalty may be discharged for violation of the requirements of markup (part one of article 12.16 of the administrative code). It is 500 RUB. In both cases offers 50% discount.

Violations at pedestrian crossings

Due to the high mortality of pedestrians penalty for nepropusk a pedestrian in Russia was increased: today it is from 1500 to 2500 rubles (article 12.18 of the Cao RF). Camera “prescribe” penalties for 2500 rubles. If the inspector is almost always interpret the situation in favor of the pedestrian, the automatic complex begins to “conduct” the pedestrian, just as someone sets foot on the crossing. At the same time fixed vehicles. If the trajectory of pedestrians and vehicles do not intersect, then the penalty will not come.

Crossing the stop line

This year began to implement the systems, fixing the travel of the stop line. At intersections enough to cross her two front wheels and fix the violation, then the vehicle owner will receive a penalty under part 2 of article 12.12 of the administrative code of Russia — 800 roubles offers 50% discount. In case, if to set the appropriate sign, then the penalty will be 500 rubles, 50% discount is also valid (paragraph 1 of article 12.16 of the administrative code).

When driving without stopping stop line with the appropriate sign of the camera “leads” vehicle, fixing it scoretype driving without stop brake line with the appropriate sign of the camera “leads” vehicle, fixing its speed

Journey on forbidding signal of a traffic light

The camera began to record this violation recently. And passing is considered and the vehicle behind the stop line. Article 12.12 of the administrative code provides for this violation a fine in the amount of 1,000 rubles, and for repeated — 5000 rubles. it is Worth remembering that banning is the yellow light. In addition, some complexes record and turn on forbidding signal (when repaid in the additional section of the traffic light).

Recently at railway crossings began to appear cameras that also record the journey on forbidding signal (even if the gate is raised, will have to wait until the red lights go out). The penalty here is the same — 1000 RUB 5000 RUB. in case of repeated violation.

Stop in a prohibited place

The Moscow authorities are actively advocating for the development of Cycling transport. No matter that the city has a strong odour and six months winter. For two-wheeled traffic participants paved bike paths even in the center, on the Boulevard ring. Of course, to minimize the possibility of collision of the car and the cyclist, along the tracks hang prohibiting stopping and Parking signs (3.27).

And that the drivers avoid any temptation to break it, the entire center of the cover has smart cameras “Street Falcon”. They have a viewing angle of 360 degrees, distinguished by staying in the car from the one that landed on the curb, lock the bus stops even for 10 seconds, etc. the Penalty prescribed under part 4 of article 12.19 (“Infringement of rules of a stop or Parking of vehicles on the roadway, which caused creation of obstacles for movement of other vehicles, and equally stop or Parking of a vehicle in the tunnel, with the exception of the case stipulated by paragraph 6 of this article”). This violation is a fine of 2000 RUB, with the exception of Moscow and St.-Petersburg — here it is 3000 RUB offers 50% discount.

“Street Falcon” can be confused with a street lamp”Street Falcon” can be confused with a street lamp

With complexes “Street Falcon” linked to the scandal: it turned out that they are not certified accordingly. Deputy Lysakov even demanded to check the legality of the decrees from these cameras. But, remembering a similar situation with complexes “Avtodoriya” think work “Street Falcon” are recognized as legitimate.

  • According to the plans of the Ministry of transport by 2024 on the Russian roads will work 18 thousand complexes of fixing of violations of traffic rules.
  • From November this year, the camera had to start locking the cars without insurance. But the experiment never started.
  • About how complexes of fixing of violations of traffic regulations turns into gaishnaya traps can be found in this article “Behind the wheel”.

Photo: AGN “Moscow”,, screenshot video of the TV channel “Russia 1”, from the archives of “Behind the wheel”

9 violations for which penalties have already камеры9 violations, which already fined the camera

For all its virtues hydromechanical machines have a lot of disadvantages. Some well-known, and others are for owners of these machines as a complete surprise.Panin Stanislav “Behind the wheel”

Hydromechanical machines are high — tech units that require an appropriate attitude in the operation, maintenance and repair. And this applies even to middle-aged and relatively simple in design 4-speed transmission. What can we say about the more advanced! Most of our recommendations derives from the particular construction of the machines. While a significant portion can be attributed to the failure of those boxes.

1. High fuel consumption

It would seem that an obvious lack of machines in the form of increased fuel consumption sometimes takes on obscene proportions. Here much depends on the specific pair of motor/box that can have a prodigious appetite. For example, this model of Renault, armed with 4-speed automatic DP. Too limited set of gears (gear ratios) causes the motor to be longer at high revs in different driving modes. Besides the high fuel consumption is also considerably limits the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, whether it’s Logan c motor c Duster 1.6 or 2.0 engine.

It’s doubly disappointing when the machine is not only obscenely high appetite, and a very mediocre dynamics.It’s doubly disappointing when the machine is not only obscenely high appetite, and a very mediocre dynamics.

Another example is the new Ford EcoSport. He has under the hood an the 2.0 l gasoline engine and a modern 6-speed automatic 6F35. Apparently, because of the failure of the calibration software, this couple is also famous for obscenely high fuel consumption. But similar characteristics of the aggregate blend, for example, on Crete, has much more modest appetite.

2. Work promptly

The machines are designed to give a high level of ride comfort, but this setup sometimes there are misfires. Manufacturers don’t always successfully get into the settings of the operation of the hydromechanical boxes. In the end, the owner has to put up with rough gear changes with the irritating tremors and sluggishness, and select a transmission, even if the machine is fully functional. The situation is exacerbated when the dynamic drive mode.

3. Oil change

Most automakers do not require changing the oil in automatic gearbox. In this issue motorists to better navigate the recommendations of the manufacturers of the boxes and the service technicians who are calling to do it on average every 60,000 km Periodic updating of the oil is guaranteed to prolong the service life of the machines and significantly delays the time of occurrence of the first fault. Given the parts and labor operation costs decent money, but it is very important to include in the budget the upkeep of the car.

The lack of oil dipstick at the machine — not the biggest inconvenience. Much more of a hassle delivers a measuring tube built into the drain plug. Top up and monitor oil level with it extremely inconvenient. By the way, many machines enough to reduce normal fluid level only 0.5 litre, to have the jerk when shifting.The lack of oil dipstick at the machine — not the biggest inconvenience. Much more of a hassle delivers a measuring tube built into the drain plug. Top up and monitor oil level with it extremely inconvenient. By the way, many machines enough to reduce normal fluid level only 0.5 litre, to have the jerk when shifting.

4. Overheating and high loads

On the machine with the machine should not be put on the roads. Long wheel slip can cause significant overheating of the oil, which leads to mass serious damage: burn packages of friction clutches, for example, deformation of the housing of the hydraulic unit.

Some cartons per pallet fully integrated control unit solenoids (Megatron). Is it, for example, 7-speed automatic Mercedes-Benz 722.9 series or 6-speed fellow GM 6T30/6T40. Such mechatronic extremely sensitive to overheating the box.Some cartons per pallet fully integrated control unit solenoids (Megatron). Is it, for example, 7-speed automatic Mercedes-Benz 722.9 series or 6-speed fellow GM 6T30/6T40. Such mechatronic extremely sensitive to overheating the box.

It is important to monitor the condition of the radiator cooling system of the engine. On most vehicles built in the main exchanger of the machine. If clogged radiator and prolonged traffic jam due to overheating of the oil can even be jerks when gear changes. In the worst cases, at high loads, the potential for serious damage to the unit.

Also, many boxes can not tolerate high load in cold state. Some of them can even clearly kicking when switching in this mode of operation. It is therefore very important in the first minutes of movement after a cold start, smoother to press the gas pedal until the machine finally wakes up.

5. Diagnosis

Sooner or later any machine malfunctions occur. The quality of diagnosis can be carried out only diagnostician is a professional, who still needs to find. The machine is the Executive of the unit, so his illness can be caused by many reasons, which are not connected with the automatic gearbox. It is very important to eliminate other suspects in incorrect operation before you remove and disassemble the box, otherwise on level ground you can get a lot of money. So do not be surprised to high prices for diagnostics, is completely justified. For example, the jerk when the gear changes can be caused by a failure of one of sensors of the engine or its control unit, and it does not necessarily light up any error.

There are many examples where the pinkie of the machine occur due to faults which do not relate to transmission. For example, on the Ford Mondeo second generation real culprit uncomfortable drive can be sub-standard EGR valve EGR. At the time, the diagnosticians of the service club spent a lot of effort to calculate that relationship.There are many examples where the pinkie of the machine occur due to faults which do not relate to transmission. For example, on the Ford Mondeo second generation real culprit uncomfortable drive can be sub-standard EGR valve EGR. At the time, the diagnosticians of the service club spent a lot of effort to calculate that relationship.

6. Repair

Even the simplest repair of the machine is expensive. For example, when replacing pairs faulty solenoids in the hydraulic unit hydromechanical most boxes will have to fork out and quite expensive to upgrade the oil because it must be drained because of the removal of the pan.

In the repair of machines of the components subject to replacement by new, and other elements, you can successfully restore or use/used the options. Both is not cheap (the particular article or work).In the repair of machines of the components subject to replacement by new, and other elements, you can successfully restore or use/used the options. Both is not cheap (the particular article or work).

And if it came to the overhaul, even age-4-speed machines will deal a severe blow to the family budget. For example, the resuscitation of the French series box DP/AL will cost 80 000 — 100 000 rubles. And overhaul more modern 5 – and 6-speed Aisin automatic machines is about 130 000 — 150 000 rubles!

Also it is important to find a competent master. High-quality repair of machines requires high professionalism and appropriate technical bases. Alas, in our time qualified service technicians in the field of aggregate repair — a rarity.

* * *

At first glance it seems that the hydro-mechanical machine — a real monster, constantly terrorizing the owner. But thoughtful selection of the car (couple motor/transmission) and adequate operation even overtly problematic model boxes can serve faithfully for quite a long time. The main thing is to understand that any hydro-mechanical machine requires special treatment.

6 the main problems with automatic transmission, overt and covert

Photo: the manufacturers and from the author’s archive

6 the main problems with automatic transmission, overt and covert

Oil change, if the motor of your car is covered with a steel protection — it is labor – and time-consuming, because protection will have to be removed and then be put in place. The experienced reader “Behind the wheel” figured out how to simplify and speed up the process, and received a well-deserved prize.Revin Alex “driving”the Expert


A. Nagowski, Chelyabinsk

The car Skoda Octavia RS small clearance, so no steel protection engine compartment is not enough. But every time when changing the oil in the engine you have to remove and then put back, which is very time consuming — keep protect more than a dozen of fasteners of different sizes.

Because the oil filter can be unscrewed from the top, and the bottom is only necessary to Unscrew the drain plug, I found a simple solution. Cut out protection square bore 70×70 mm under the drain plug and covered it with a lid 90×90 mm, securing a couple of screws. Now to drain the oil, it is sufficient to Unscrew one screw and rotate cover to the side.

My Board can take note and owners of other cars. (Screws must not touch the pan of the engine. Shorten them to the limit. – Approx. ed.)

Prize to the author of the Council — a set of cosmetics ASTROhim.

Dear experts car! Sending tips, don’t forget to inform your postal address with six digit postal code, surname, name and patronymic (in full) and phone number for communication. This will significantly simplify and speed up the delivery of well-deserved prizes.

Their advice you can send an e-mail Possible illustrate their own know-how photographs and/or diagrams.

  • A good tool kit should always be at hand, and you can buy it in our online store.

Photo: A. Nagowski

This year the popular crossover under the French brand name has received the special version, which is very different from conventional machines. “Behind the wheel” says that the same variant Play interesting and why it is worth to look closely.Pole Matthew Specialist


Crossover Renault Kaptur became the first model of the French company, which was developed at the initiative and with active participation of the Russian branch. The car looks like a European Captur, but not built on the basis of Clio: technical donor was the Duster, which means the machine can be all-wheel drive. Russian-French crossover has become very popular in the first nine months of 2018 only in our market has sold more than 22 thousand cars of this model. And since the advent (June 2016) sales exceeded 65 million units!

In addition to the regular versions of the Russian branch of the is and special. Most striking was the option which received the name of the Play.

1. He “connected”

Play Kaptur became the first Renault, which got integrated platform Yandex.Cars. This means that well-known services, such as Yandex.Navigator, Yandex.Music or Yandex.Weather, can be used with the standard 8-inch screen multimedia system. This is available the voice assistant and maps are updated online. The Internet provides a built-in 4G-modem.

A pleasant surprise for buyers of the Renault Kaptur Play will be pre-paid for a year of mobile data traffic at the rate of 3 GB per month, which is more than should be enough to use Navigator, and to stream music from Yandex.

By the way, buy Kaptur can Play not only in dealerships, but in online showroom of Renault in its official website.

2. It is bright

Specially for Play in the range Kaptur has a new body color which contrasts with black or beige roof. So flow this machine will not get lost. However, for those who prefer quieter options, Renault has provided 11 exterior colors. The crossover also received 17-inch alloy wheels Maldives to the red caps, well, to anybody did not doubt, on the wings of located signboards with the name sparsely.

The interior is also different from the usual versions: there are red decorative inlays, aluminum pedals and special seat trim, stitched, and the covers for the steering wheel and gear stick, red contrast thread.

3. Rich equipment

As befits a special version, Renault Kaptur Play a fairly rich equipment. There is climate control, rain sensors and light, key-card that allows you to get to the salon without having to take it out of his pocket, led daytime running lights, fog lights (with function of illumination of turns) and the rear lights, cruise control and even a system of remote start of the engine of Renault Start. It allows you to run the engine at a distance of, for example, to warm it and the interior of the car before driving in winter.

For version Play can be enjoyed and other equipment. For example, the package “Visibility”, which includes electric heating of the windshield and tinted the rear hemisphere, will be 10 990 rubles. Rear Parking sensors and rear view camera are only available together for 4990 rubles. And the most expensive option — two-tone paint of the bodywork, will cost 16,000 rubles.

Kaptur is available for Play and accessories, including floor mats, body covers, reducer, and baby blankets in the trunk and more.

4. A wide variety of options

Often the manufacturers to special versions of their models make no alternative combination of engine and gearbox, the car gets more expensive. But Renault decided that the version of Play should be available in the same trim levels as the normal version.

Renault Kaptur is equipped with a 1.6 – and 2-litre petrol engine capacity of 114 and 143 HP Basic power unit is offered exclusively for monoprivodnom version and is combined with a CVT X-Tronic. But a more powerful engine available for all-wheel drive option and can be supplied both with manual and automatic transmission.

Prices, at first glance, not the budget and start with the level 1 114 900 rubles. The top-end variant will cost altogether 1 244 900 rubles. But the Play equipment Renault Kaptur can not be called poor.

5. It is reliable

The Global Access platform, which gave life and Duster, and Capture, is renowned for its indestructibility. The machine is completely immune to one of the eternal Russian troubles, that is, the quality of the roads. Of course, stylish Kaptur loses a bit of the Duster, for example for ground clearance. But he can do almost any roads and directions. The machine is equipped with time-tested petrol atmospheric engines, i.e. units pretty smooth and digesting Russian fuel, sometimes not of the highest quality.

  • What are the advantages of the conventional Renault Kaptur, you can learn this material “Behind the wheel”.

5 reasons to love Renault Kaptur Play and forget about the other crossovers

Photo: Renault

5 reasons to love Renault Kaptur Play and forget about the other crossovers

A young reader of the magazine “Behind the wheel” wants to become a tram driver. Like her realize their dream, says the head of the Department of traffic safety Mikhail Chernikov.“Behind the wheel.Of the Russian Federation”


Now I’m 15 years old, my dream is to work as a tram driver. How and when will I realize my dream?

Sofia, Nizhny Novgorod oblast

The question the reader meets the head of the Main Department on security of traffic of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia the General-the Lieutenant of police Mikhail Chernikov.

The answers to these questions can be found in article 26 of the Federal law “On road safety”. Thus, to obtain the right to manage (tram category vehicles Tm) is required to undergo a medical examination (to confirm absence of medical contraindications to the profession), appropriate professional training and pass the exams.

To do this, contact the transport company engaged in tramway transportation. In the state traffic Inspectorate only theoretical exam. However, to implement the planned You have to wait another six years, as the right to drive a tram is granted to persons who have attained the age of 21 years.

  • The procedure of conducting examination for a driver’s license and everything that goes with it, you will find in our “Park documents”.
  • Tram winter snow and ice is not a hindrance. But motorists should think about buying snow chains, bracelets wheel or special tracks under the wheels.

Photo: AGN “Moscow”

New goods an online store is our highly experienced consultant Sergeyevich. Today we will talk about parcopa.“Behind the wheel.Of the Russian Federation”

I have a UAZ with a tow bar. The season of sleet, and me twice already “caught up”. The son wrote on the towbar marker: “Pier people”.

From the posts on the forum

As you know, my friends and I lead a very active lifestyle. Go to the yacht, sinking in the ears during gitarskih ride, rush on the jet ski, just ride bicycles. And every avid tourist prefer to be somewhere far away, taking with him a rowing or motor boat. However, some people prefer to carry a trailer the country. But we all need one helper — his name is hitch.

Where did the name the tow bar — it is dark. But the roots are clearly German. A familiar diper says that in tsarist times was called a fixture on the horse-drawn hanging Luggage. It may very well be. But today the so-called trailer hitch (trailer hitch) for towing a variety of oversized cargo. It may be a conventional trailer, and “caravan”, and also different kind of trailers for transportation of boats, boats, snowmobiles, watercraft and their immediate families. From personal experience I would like to mention another useful feature of the tow bar during gitarskih competitions have had to pull out with his help buddies stuck in the mud “above the waterline”. I myself was pulled, it was… Standard lugs in such situations usually do not save.

Everyone who wants to join our healthy team, resemble the following. The basic type used at the moment, trailer hitch for cars in Russia is the connection of the ball type in accordance with GOST 28248. Ball diameter is 50 mm. tow bars are Distinguished mainly by the type of ball and passport to loads on the trailer hitch — vertical and horizontal. It is clear that vertical load imposed restrictions on the maximum pressure on the hook of the tow bar in the vertical plane of the drawbar of the trailer or, for example, cycle carriers. The horizontal load is, roughly speaking, the maximum weight of the towed trailer. From my own experience you will notice that the main difficulty when choosing a tow bar is connected with the correct load rating. I had a case when a neighbor to testify, who has come for consultation, stubbornly refused to understand that the tow bar to its ancient “tico”, designed for towing a trailer is 3.5 tons, not in nature…

For those who like technical details, I propose to study the following classification of balls for the trailer hitch.

  • The type of ball “A” with two bolts (conditionally removable). Hook the tow bar is attached to two bolts. If necessary, you can remove the hook by unscrewing the bolts. Towbar with ball type “A” are the most common option.
  • Bowl type “F” (“FC”) — flanged forged or cast two bolts. In the presence of the tow bar on a beam four holes can be adjusted in height relative to the beam tow bar.
  • Ball type “G” — flanged forged or cast on the four bolts.
  • The type of ball “N” welded ball. Fully folding design. Ball (hook) is welded to the beam tow bar.
  • The type of ball “N” — universal (combo) with four holes. Is available in three versions, which differ in center-to-center distance and a diameter of the mounting holes. Manufactured in the embodiments and hook+ball.
  • The type of ball “In” — removable hook, fixed by Central nut and detachable from the beam of the tow bar manually. This design was an interim solution to removable parcopa and almost not possible at the present time.
  • The type of ball (“BMA”, “BMC”) — werealready or gorizontalnoy. Flick of the wrist a removable hook at the right time to be installed and just as easily removed as unnecessary. Common in Europe, as in Western countries, to ride with a tow bar, no trailer either banned or not recommended. Finger lateral fixation is performed off-center (eccentric) or in the form of a truncated cone. Removable hook secured with a padlock to prevent theft.
  • The type of ball the “E” — detachable hook. Typical of all American cars. Used as an insert for bracket adapter adapter for square mesh of 30×30 mm or 50×50 mm to American tow bar.

Is it difficult to install a tow bar? No, not really. As a rule, all trailer hitch installed in the regular places, provided by the vehicle manufacturer. However, sometimes require a little work when assembling, but it is negotiated every trailer manufacturer in the installation instructions. And that’s what will be sure to remember is about lighting! After all, anyone tow unwittingly occludes the staff car lights, and therefore when you install a trailer hitch necessarily lead to additional quick connect electrical socket for connecting a redundant light equipment trailer, or platform. Furthermore, on many modern machines you may need to install additional electronic matching blocks for the correct operation of additional lighting equipment.

Which tow bar to choose? I don’t like ads, therefore I will answer so: only factory production, held the required amount of tests with a certificate. It is possible that self-made tow will cost someone cheaper, but such tricks always end the same way: torn trailer, scattered on the road the wreckage of the bicycles or other cargo, and often a hospital ward for other road users. This is unacceptable — even if self-made tow bar you will get for free.

And want extreme come and visit us. Along with any tow bar will pick up!

Sincerely Yours Sergeyevich

Photo: “Behind the wheel”; manufacturers

Not many car owners know how to dismantle the CV joint from the drive wheels. ZR shows a simple way.Zharinov Valery “Behind the wheel”Amelkin Gennady “Behind the wheel”

  • How to recognize a malfunction of the steering tip and the ball bearing without special tools and skills, see here.
  • What to do if your car is damaged stud wheels? The answer is here.

All questions and proposals for the series “Technical environment” send to address.

Other editions of the “technology environment” available in our special projects as well as on our YouTube channel.

Photo: Konstantin Yakubov

The Germans are great: they not only try not to linger, bringing to the Russian market its new products, but also strongly contribute to the establishment of competitive prices, collecting the key model in Kaliningrad on capacities of factory “Avtotor”. And yet not all cars Bavarian origin in Russia.Brevdo, Kirill “Behind the wheel”

It is clear that in most cases the company — and BMW is no exception – not in a hurry to bring to Russia the niche models. Let’s see what we are deprived of: hot top ten models of BMW that do not sell here in the photo gallery below.

10 BMW models, which we can only dream

  • Seven interesting Peugeot that did not sell on the Russian market, is located here.
  • Ford, who drove past us, we gathered in this publication.
  • Eight serial Kia, which is not in Russia, see here.
  • The range of Honda cringed we have up to two crossovers, although still at least a dozen models of this brand could use we have a good demand.
  • Ten models, which Toyota does not sell we have shown here.
  • Which models in other markets, Mazda, read here.
  • Thought about changing mats for BMW? Let’s see what we offer.

Photo: BMW

10 BMW models, which we can only dream

Test ten sets of friction tire size 205/55 R16 presented a lot of unexpected surprises – in the tyre world new time is coming! The authors Sergey Mishin and Dmitry Tests, photo: Konstantin Yakubov

Wins this dimension fit all cars of a Golf class, so the range is enormous – for every taste and budget. The cheapest in our test – Chinese Triangle Snowlink PL01: the average 1495 USD apiece. On the sidewall of the formed the inscription: in Finland Engineered (“Designed in Finland”) – a good marketing ploy with a view to cover up less attractive stamped Made in China.

Surprisingly, only slightly more expensive, less than a hundred hryvnia per share, will cost real Japanese tires Nitto SN2. But two tires in the middle price category but of different origin – Finnish Nordman RS2 and full-blooded “Japanese” Toyo Observe GSi 5.

Of the “top” most affordable – Goodyear UltraGrip Ice 2: almost the same price with the Toyo. And Japanese Dunlop Winter Maxx WM02 and Bridgestone Blizzak VRX fabulously expensive: more than three thousand for each bus. The more interesting quite loyal to the price, 2470 UAH, for the Pirelli Ice Zero FR. By the way, this is actually a new tyre, albeit with the same name. The tread pattern is similar, but the profile width increased, and most importantly – the updated rubber compound (according to the manufacturer, the characteristics of the tires on snow and ice is improved, without prejudice to the “asphalt” properties).

The most expensive tire in our test is traditionally Continental with new VikingContact 7: 3,150 hryvnia! Just think: the price difference with a Triangle more than twice! Other premium new season, Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3, amid Conti looks affordable: 2745 hryvnia.

Elevation of the ice or snow gives the experts additional information for the evaluation of controllability and unforgettable emotions.

On the bottom of the North In the North of Sweden, in the province of Norrbotten (in Swedish – and the Bottom), is the range of the Continental, on which all the conditions for testing of winter tires. In the second half of January stood stable weather without any thaws or severe frosts. The air temperature varied from -14 to -7 °C. Before the tests check the hardness of the rubber mixture of the tread for tire friction is one of the most important indicators. The softer the tread, the better it will work on ice, but worse on the pavement.

Of the total number of all participants with a hardness of 48-53 units shore struggling Pirelli and Triangle. The first, Oh, very soft – only 42 units. Ready to break records on the ice, but on asphalt after a few brake applications the risk to erase the protector to zero. Triangle, on the contrary, are very strict: 58 units. Close to the European frictional.

Winter tyres: myth and reality

Start with ice exercises – until the sky is not receiving snow. Non-studded winter tyres more than “my” sensitive to the purity of the coating: snowflakes on the ice work as microporosity, causing the tires to slip.
Different ice acceleration, braking distance and time of passage of the ice circle we measured on the smooth lake ice, which tire manufacturers call natural. The combined test of the “acceleration-deceleration” begin on a test Course with measuring equipment based on GPS. First test car accelerates to a speed of 25 km/h, and then beats that there are forces on the brake pedal.

The measuring system records the acceleration time from 0 to 20 km/h and then immediately locks the braking distance from a speed of 20 km/h to 5 km/h. For each set of tires have eight to ten measurements to minimize the deviation. Work to begin the base of the tire, referred to as “stove”; the rounds they repeat every three to four test sets. It is necessary to assess how the condition of the coating during the test. Non-studded winter tyres ice usually rolled because the end of the day the braking distance increase.

Supersoft Pirelli protector caused a lot of debate about what will happen to him on the pavement. The tests rejected all doubts: soft compound to the hard surface have shown themselves worthy.

How treacherous the ice! The best in the dispersal of Continental tyres, and the braking – Nordman! And we were waiting for records from Pirelli, with their soft tread. However, both exercises “Italians” showed the second result. The weakest in the longitudinal clutch was “Japanese”: on acceleration – Toyo, braking – Bridgestone.
Ice skate circle on such a scheme: cut 12-15 laps on each set of tyres, taking credit for the best repeatable time.

Very good lateral grip – Pirelli: the soft protector has done its job! The worst – the most rigid of Triangle tires. They Golf almost 11% slower. The tread pattern also contributes to the result, but the lateral grip on a smooth lake ice most influences the hardness of the tread. At the same time another Golf with a fully switchable ESP (electronic stability program) is already Ironing the ice track handling. It is situated on a slope that allows to evaluate the behavior of the machine as when unloading the rear axle (movement down the slope), and underloaded at the front wheels (up the hill). This ice tire called artificial, because he poured on the ground. Besides scratched and tyres with highly sticking out sports spikes. At such a coarse coating the tread pattern plays a more important role than smooth.

Without incident has not done. When traveling running “Eski” Golf wearing Nitto tires, the rear wheels abruptly fell into a slide and completely lost traction. The driver managed to stretch in the snow the rear bumper and making a 360 degree rotation to return the car to the original trajectory. It is noteworthy that the failure occurred when driving up a slope, when the rear wheel was the most loaded.

Tighten the wheel bolts according to the diagram and a torque wrench to ensure proper tightening torque.

Tires Nitto earned the lowest score of control on ice – for the tendency to oversteer, abrupt disruption in the significant loss of grip in a slide. And above other (8.5 points), we evaluated the Nokian: clear reaction persists even in the slides, which is rare for the friction tyres. The title of the hooligan testers gave the tyre Nordman: they allow you to control the car even in sweeping slides. The only claim to it – the need to rotate the steering wheel slightly at large angles.

Snow series

The timing of acceleration and braking on snow hold on the vast plateau. The size of his a lot more than the frozen lake, because the upper limit of speed up to 40 km/h On each set of tires, like on ice, doing a dozen measurements, and in three of the test kit back to the base tire by keeping track of how changes of the coupling properties of the coating.

The fastest acceleration Golf shows on the Continental tyres and Pirelli – 6.3 seconds. The slowest – Nitto lag 8% behind the leader. In the inhibition Pirelli holds the lead (16.3 m), however, on a couple of Goodyera. Outsider – Bridgestone, although a weak result will not name – the difference with the leaders is only 5.5%.

The Surprise Of The Triangle

Having dealt with the measurements, the saddle red Golf with a fully switchable ESP and sent to a snow route assessment handling. It’s a great track, full of bends of different curvature, slopes and rises, allowing to check how the tires behave when changing the clamping force.
Two experts, one after another, evaluate the behavior of the Course in two modes. First, low – key, with a neat “lick” turns in the initial phase of slip to evaluate the usability and reliability management. The second kiwerski, sweeping slides and snow spray from the wheels in which get the maximum pleasure from driving.

On the test Course special program allows you to fully disable ESP through a traditional menu.

In the soft mode more than others like Pirelli and Dunlop. Both provide the “classic” front-wheel drive behavior without a hint of drift of a back axis. If slightly to iterate over speed, the car smoothly and gently, the whole “body” straightens the trajectory.

Worse than the others behaved Bridgestone. On these tires the reaction Course strongly depends on the quality of the coating and the profile of the road that create uncertainty even on the straight parts. In cornering, the car picks from the demolition of the skid, forcing the driver to constantly work the wheel. This gives only an approximate direction, not the exact trajectory.

When driverkey driving the situation is different. Maximum enjoyment delivered to the Nokian, which even slides allow you to control the car as the steering and the change of the flow of fuel. And thrust to change trajectory possible faster and more accurate.

Antipodes Finnish tyres are Bridgestone and Nitto, fearful slides as fire. On the “bridge” in the transition to slip, significantly increasing the rotation angles of the wheel, the worse the reaction, the content, significantly decreases the adhesion. Behavior Golf is even less predictable than in normal driving, fight with the machine have more. Tires Nitto strained early and unclear transition slide, reduced grip, and the inability to control the car. Keep him on the arc in the slippage can only be faster, guessing actions.

But most of all, we shocked the Chinese tire, Triangle. We were not waiting for a breakthrough, considering the tires too hard for frictional Scandinavian style. It turned out not so bad! Pleased dense, informative steering and a fairly clear response. Is that sliding is not as smooth as I would like. The more these tyres surprised during active driving. If you do not fall into a deep slide and gently work the wheel, wearing them to Golf well managed. Even changing the thrust reacts adequately. “Asians” is usually not capable of.

Snow is not a barrier

Finally, evaluate directional stability at high speed, the behavior of the machine during a sudden lane change and the ability to overcome the virgin snow.

Every morning before the test tractor clearing all the tracks and access roads of the landfill.

The straightness of the movement and behavior of Golf with soft rebuild estimated at speeds of 100 km/h. the highest score will earn the Nokian, Nordman and Pirelli: the car is pleasing clear, informative “zero” and appropriate responses during the adjustment of the direction of movement. The most difficult to keep straight and to correct the course on the Bridgestone tyres: a wide “zero”, the delay in reacting to the wheel, the car also tends to steer the rear axle.

The lane change maneuver, which motorists perform frequently on all kinds of surfaces and not always successfully. In this exercise, Golf the most confident behaves on the Continental and Nokian tyres: in the limit of occurs soft drift to be corrected. The most dangerous for such a maneuver – tires Bridgestone and Toyo. For the first characteristic of a wide and unstable balance of control – limit Golf breaks in demolition, considerably straightening the trajectory, in a deep skid, badly twisting. And tires Toyo car at top speed maneuver abruptly goes into a progressive drift, requiring the driver of immediate action, otherwise the inevitable reversal.

For a full evaluation of patency is required in the new-fallen loose snow to a depth of approximately 20 cm.

Even in cities with well clean the main streets and roads snow-covered Parking lot – a real test for driver and car. Sometimes 50-100 meters of the road, swept the night’s snowfall, become an insurmountable obstacle. And help here can only be such tires that the snow is not terrible. The winner of the test on the permeability of the steel Nokian – rowed confidently forward even though back in any mode. A little more modest, but still very surely help to overcome the drifts of the Chinese Triangle. Slightly lower score earned Continental, Dunlop, Goodyear and Pirelli. Dislike the snow showed Toyo tires: they are Golf starts reluctantly, burrowing in snow, and hesitantly moves in reverse.

The revaluation of values

Interim results literally demolish the long-established hierarchy of winter tires. “White” tests, that is snow and ice, the first place is… Pirelli. Eternal leaders of the Nokian and Continental so enthusiastic about the fight for the win that missed the implicit competitor. Continental made it only to second place. And the Nokian was let just a little bit, but still weaker than its budget brand Nordman!

Almost in the middle of the list are Goodyear and Dunlop. And on the seventh position – Chinese Triangle, ahead of three indigenous Japanese: Toyo, Nitto and Bridgestone. Moreover, the name “bridge” was behind the all. Interestingly, the situation is temporary or is due for a serious redistribution of power?

Check asphalt

On another ground, we got out when the snow melted and roads dried up: the opening series of asphalt tests! The first thing to evaluate directional stability. Speed according to the monitor measuring complex GPS – 130 km/h.
The clear conduct Course provide Bridgestone tires and Triangle: something comparable to drive on summer tires. The “loose” – Goodyear, Nordman and Toyo. Because of the soft tread appears broad “zero” at the helm, delays in reactions, increased angles of rotation of the steering wheel when adjusting the rate, a lack of data. Goodyear and Toyo gives the car a tendency to steer the rear axle, and Nordman creates a feeling that the rod is in the steering rubber. Assessment all the same – six points. Surprisingly, the super soft Pirelli noted only minor delays in responses and slightly increased the rotation angles of the steering wheel.

It is more difficult to assess the handling in the snow, when the sun hides behind the clouds. The road merges with side drifts, and the direction of movement in a white shroud has to identify by touch.

Warmed the car and tires to the assessment of rolling resistance. Conduct measurements in both directions of horizontal two-kilometer stretch of road to eliminate the effect of even a slight breeze. During the measurements the experts estimate noise and smooth running in high speed. Final assessment after you put the driveways on the service road of the ground, imitating the broken highway.

In our tests for many years in this exercise shows the best results Nokian. No change occurred at this time: Nokian and its budget mark Nordman win the title of most fuel-efficient tire. However, the difference with the other participants a minimum of 100 grams of fuel per hundred in both speed modes. About anything.

The final push

We jumped the cracks and pits of the road, jumped at the expanded asphalt seams – and here’s the verdict about ride and noise.
Quieter roll all Continental and Toyo, and the loud – Dunlop, a chirping on smooth asphalt and humming to grainy. Toyo in proud loneliness the leader in ride, earning the title of the most comfortable tires. And the most rigid was tires Triangle, passing in the body of the shocks and vibrations from all the road irregularities.

Braking properties on dry and wet surfaces is evaluated on test areas stripped from road dust tenfold deceleration to “transport” tires. Wet slowing down from 60 to 5 km/h dry – from 80 to 5 km/h, cooling of the brakes carefully before every test braking.

The best result (18.9 m) on a wet road – Pirelli. It is noteworthy that even after a series of braking these unusually soft tyres look like new: no signs of any tread wear! Behind all – Toyo (22,8 m) with Nitto (22,7 m).
But in the dry the shortest stopping distance of the Golf course on the Bridgestone of 29.2 meters. On the Nitto tires braking distance is increased up to 33 feet away!
In the final “black” offset no serious permutations – as in previous years, won Continental. Pirelli tires, despite a very soft tread, took second place, pushing the Nokian on the third line. In the middle is located a dense group: Bridgestone, Goodyear and Triangle. Less confident feel on the pavement Dunlop and Nordman. Trailing – Nitto and Toyo.


So the leader of our test tires Pirelli Ice Zero FR, scored 926 total points. Congratulations!

Just two points behind Continental VikingContact 7, located on the second place. The honorable third place is Nokian Hakkapeliitta R3, with the gap to two points. All runway bus is equally good on “white” roads, and on the pavement. The differences between them are only in the nuances that normal mode you can hardly feel. Any of the three tires will appeal to all drivers, regardless of driving style and skill level.

On the fourth line – I RS2, this “Northern man”, which is snow and ice feels more confident than on the pavement. Fifth position is occupied by the Goodyear UltraGrip Ice 2, scored 900 total points and thereby fit into the category of “great tires.” Conscientiously work on any surface.
In sixth place, having earned 887 points, located Dunlop Winter Maxx WM02 is a very good tire that will fit for any coverage. Will appeal to those who understand a lot about handling in the snow, this will disappoint those who prefer silence.

On the seventh line, to our great surprise, it was Chinese Triangle Snowlink PL01. Respect! According to the total number of earned points (884), we will put these tyres to the category of “very good”. The inscription on the side “Designed in Finland”, according to the results, not empty words. To our knowledge, the development of these tires made hands former employees of the company Nokian. Balance shifted slightly towards the pavement, in the snow Snowlink is also good, but on the ice, these tires will require the driver accuracy.

Eighth position was taken tires Bridgestone Blizzak VRX – 863 points. In the winter disciplines they are only in tenth place, and in asphalt ranking climbed to fourth place. Good for longer trips on the clean asphalt roads, will appreciate the better braking properties on dry pavement. On snow and ice should move with caution, do not disable the electronics in the slip not to move.

Tyre Toyo Observe GSi‑5 was able to score 860 total points – ninth place. Modest performance on snow and ice, weak by modern standards, the braking properties on asphalt. Can boast a high level of comfort tolerable stability and handling on snow.
Completing our rating tires Nitto SN2 earned 853 points. Modesty coupling properties similar to the Toyo. Are slightly better stability on the pavement, but lose in comfort and handling. Not recommend for vehicles without electronic limiters.

Crisis lifehack

For those who have the choice of tyres considers money important the ranking “price/quality”. Great in this respect – tires Triangle Snowlink PL01. Each one thousand hryvnias rates brings a 591 score.

Those who trust Finnish products, I suggest you look to the tires Nordman RS2 is 454 points per thousand hryvnias. Fans of Japanese products – Nitto SN2: 543 points per thousand hryvnias.

In the middle of the list is the Trinity, the most balanced in terms of price and quality: Goodyear UltraGrip Ice 2 Toyo Observe GSi-5 and Pirelli Ice Zero FR.
And for those who prefer only the finest in all the qualities of the tyres is not worth saving – you pay not only for the name.


Where better to store tires in the basement or the fridge?