Saw him either — regardless of relationship to the armed forces of our country. Born for the army, the truck penetrated the peaceful life and regularly works everywhere, where the required payload, and maneuverability.Timur Sherzad Specialist
The truck is an indispensable part of the army of the cold war era, is no less important than the tank hordes who were waiting for the famous breakthrough to the English channel. After all, any tank need fuel, ammunition, and spare parts — and in terms of regiments, divisions and armies of hundreds of thousands of tons of cargo.
In the Soviet army 50 years there was enough lifting tool — car ZIS-151, is able to carry 4.5 tons. But he had the serious disadvantage of low permeability. For army truck operating in conditions of enemy attacks on communications centers, were required to go through the road. This problem has been overcome in the modification of ZIL-157 (the name of the plant changed in connection with the death of Stalin), but over all it was required to pay — load capacity has fallen to 2.5 tons.
“Grad” on the basis of Ural-375Д (dic.academic.ru) “Grad” on the basis of Ural-375Д (dic.academic.ru)
To put up with it in the army didn’t want. One solution was the development of scientific automotive Institute — US-20. New truck showed impressive off-road performance. He was not afraid of the meter of snow, wet arable land, he confidently climbed with cargo on the 32-degree ascent and overcome a Ford of the river depth of 1.2 meters. And with no issues raised 5 tons of cargo. And the system changes the air pressure in the tires were allowed to continue even after 6 bullet hits in one wheel.
After a series of testing and many design changes to raise the reliability, the truck was adopted and put into production under the name of Ural-375. The first car rolled off the Assembly line on the last day of 1960 — 31 Dec.
Ural-4320 (inforeactor.ru)Ural-4320 (inforeactor.ru)
The military were pleased with everything except fuel consumption — Ural-375 easily used 68 litres of gasoline per hundred kilometers. If in the 60s this was still possible to reconcile, then followed the 70s oil crises were forced to look at the question another way — gluttony threatened to bury the export prospects of the Urals.
The problem was solved relatively easily — fortunately, the USSR was economical diesel KAMAZ-740. It is the main feature mods truck Ural-4320. Now the truck “ate” is less than 30 liters per hundred. The problem was solved.
Model Ural-4320 anti-aircraft installation ZU, author Paul Cherepanov (ost-front.ru)Model Ural-4320 anti-aircraft installation ZU, author Paul Cherepanov (ost-front.ru)
At the forefront
Military Urals not only carried loads. Almost immediately a new truck has become a platform for reactive systems of volley fire “Grad”, the successor of the famous “Katyusha”. Its first combat use occurred in 1969 on the Sino-Soviet against the Chinese. And very soon, “Grady” became participants of almost any more or less serious military conflict. They are widely used to this day — the war in Syria and the Donbass is clearly confirmed. Actively used the trucks as gun trucks-vehicles — in Afghanistan, their loved special forces, going after a mujaheddin convoys. Bait for the enemy were captured Toyota pickup trucks, and armor covered with the “Ural” machine guns turned out to be a trump card in open battle, when the identity of the “Toyotas” has been revealed. No less effective, especially in the mountainous areas of Afghanistan and Chechnya, was setup in the body is semi-coupled memory-aircraft guns caliber 23 mm. Combination of comfortable gun depression and firepower could quickly get rid of the convoys even a powerful ambush. To calculate the flak was not an easy target, front welded steel sheets. Sometimes it was even padded armor or broken armor.
Armored Ural interior troops, Chechnya, 2002 (topwar.ru)Armored Ural interior troops, Chechnya, 2002 (topwar.ru)
But the Ural could be used extensively on the “front end” not only as a platform for fire installation — radically booked the truck did just fine with the transportation corps. Particularly effective in counterinsurgency struggle that was especially true for the Chechen wars, and numerous counter-terrorist operations in the Caucasus.
If in the first Chechen Ural booked, mostly homemade and messy, then the second war the matter came to be centralized and created a number of armored vehicles based on it. The armor plates protect you from machinegun fire and shrapnel, forcing the enemy to use more explosives. This complicates the ambush and increased chances of getting caught — because the more you have to get/to produce/to bring explosives to, the more opportunities something to consider or something to give yourself.
Interestingly, most “evil” armored trucks — the brainchild not of the army and the interior Ministry. All of the specifics of work — even in the Caucasus, most of the tasks of the Ministry of interior was strikingly different from combat. To drive in these conditions, Armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles are simply expensive. But the chance to get into a gunfight is still high. Here and found out — to develop a very serious and protected machines on the basis of relatively cheap to operate trucks.
Experience armored Ural-4320 included in the new domestic cars class MRAP. One of them is the Ural — 63095, it is a Typhoon-Have that protects the passengers from even large-caliber armor-piercing bullets and a serious undermining explosive devices equivalent to 8 kg of TNT.
Ural Next — the future of the brand (all-auto.org)Ural Next — the future of the brand (all-auto.org)
Developed under the requirements of the military, the trucks were in great demand in civilian life. Construction cranes, tankers, shift buses, snow plows — modifications to their base and not listed.
In 2005, the Mexican trucks were used extensively for humanitarian missions in New Orleans after the famous hurricane Katrina — the abundance of flooded areas has made an indispensable off-road capabilities of these trucks.
Today the history of the Urals has not been completed — miasci actively promote the platform of Ural-Next.
The harsh Russian “rogue”: the history of the truck Urlsurvey Russian “rogue”: the history of the truck Uralmoto: “Behind the wheel”