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ZIS‑101: what did the first Soviet limousine

The history of the ZIS‑101 is one of the most confusing. Usually in connection with the first ZIS to commemorate the brand Buick, but it is not true. Dot the i’s and crosses the RR design.Kanunnikov Sergey “Behind the wheel”

The first two prototypes of the ZIS‑101 was a sedan serial cars — limousines to the inner wall. Sketches of 1934-1935 have created four layout, which differed mainly by the design of the front end. As the finished car, they were made in the American style, a reference in those years for many firms world – but exactly no one overseas the car is not repeated. Drawings for the manufacture of the body and the tooling required for its production, was done by the specialists of the American company Budd.The first two prototypes of the ZIS‑101 was a sedan serial cars — limousines to the inner wall. Sketches of 1934-1935 have created four layout, which differed mainly by the design of the front end. As the finished car, they were made in the American style, a reference in those years for many firms world – but exactly no one overseas the car is not repeated. Drawings for the manufacture of the body and the tooling required for its production, was done by the specialists of the American company Budd.

Buick 1934 model year. In the first publication in the magazine “Behind the wheel” about the imminent appearance of the new Soviet car brought the image of such a machine. But the ZIS‑101, published in 1936, is already very different and much more modern with smoother lines of the body.Buick 1934 model year. In the first publication in the magazine “Behind the wheel” about the imminent appearance of the new Soviet car brought the image of such a machine. But the ZIS‑101, published in 1936, is already very different and much more modern with smoother lines of the body.

Buick Roadmaster 1936. Our ZIS many elements and lines reminiscent of this model. But only to the same extent that many American cars in those years resembled each other.Buick Roadmaster 1936. Our ZIS many elements and lines reminiscent of this model. But only to the same extent that many American cars in those years resembled each other.

The history of the ZIS‑101 seems to be very simple, but at the same time one of the most confusing. It is clear that without the American automobile industry has not done. Usually in connection with the first ZIS to commemorate the brand Buick, but it is not true. Yes, and what exactly the Buick was the inspiration of our limo?

Pendants on long longitudinal leaf springs for the ZIS‑101 borrowed from the L‑1, i.e. Buick, 1932.Pendants on long longitudinal leaf springs for the ZIS‑101 borrowed from the L‑1, i.e. Buick, 1932.

Cars concern GM already since 1934, put front independent spring suspension.Cars concern GM already since 1934, put front independent spring suspension.

The chassis of the ZIS‑101 was a strong frame with X‑shaped middle part. The exhaust path inline eight-cylinder engine situated to the left of the battery right under the front passenger seat.The chassis of the ZIS‑101 was a strong frame with X‑shaped middle part. The exhaust path inline eight-cylinder engine situated to the left of the battery right under the front passenger seat.

Chassis of Buick 32-90 sample 1932 otherwise — without the X‑shaped part of the frame. But the issue and the battery is located as well as the VMS. Exactly this, apparently, was the chassis L‑1, an exact copy of the 1932 Buick.Chassis of Buick 32-90 sample 1932 otherwise — without the X‑shaped part of the frame. But the issue and the battery is located as well as the VMS. Exactly this, apparently, was the chassis L‑1, an exact copy of the 1932 Buick.

Frame ZIS‑101 copies already reinforced the frame of the car Buick 1933 model year. But Buick exhaust line on the right side (since the engine is already upgraded), and the battery on the left.Frame ZIS‑101 copies already reinforced the frame of the car Buick 1933 model year. But Buick exhaust line on the right side (since the engine is already upgraded), and the battery on the left.

It all began in 1932 when a factory “Red Putilovets” (later the Kirov factory) in Leningrad collected six limousines, L‑1. Here they were almost an exact copy of the big Buick 32-90: differed from it only stamped wheels instead spicemania and emblem. Inline eight-cylinder engine working volume of 5.7 liters has developed 105 HP Suspension — dependent, spring, brake — mechanical.

Inline eight-cylinder engine ZIS‑101 had a working volume of 5.76 litres (bore 85 mm, stroke 127 mm) and developed 90 HP (with a compression ratio of 4.8), and later the 100 HP (compression ratio of 5.5). On the version of the ZIS‑101A-compression ratio raised to 6.4, and the power — to 116-HP Inline eight-cylinder engine ZIS‑101 had a working volume of 5.76 litres (bore 85 mm, stroke 127 mm) and developed 90 HP (with a compression ratio of 4.8), and later the 100 HP (compression ratio of 5.5). On the version of the ZIS‑101A, the compression ratio is raised to 6.4 and the power to 116 HP.

Motor ZIS‑101 is copied from car Assembly L‑1, was a copy of the engine of Buick 1932, but with slightly larger cylinders. American unit volume of 5.7 liter (84,1 × 127 mm) developed 105 HP Engine ZIS‑101 is copied from car Assembly L‑1, was a copy of the engine of Buick 1932, but with slightly larger cylinders. American unit volume of 5.7 liter (84,1 × 127 mm) developed 105 HP

Experience in the production of vehicles, especially such complex, the Leningrad plant was not. Moreover, in 1933 there were entirely different problem. But the idea was picked up by the ZIS Director Ivan Likhachev. For the Moscow plant was prestigious to be the first to establish a full-fledged serial production Executive car. Likhachev got support at the highest levels, and in 1934-1935 were created ZIS‑101.

The cabin of ZIS‑101 was solved in the American style, but directly any one model is not copied. In line with the usual appliances, including an ammeter, a clock and even the dial settings of the radio (by the way, the ZIS‑101 — the first Soviet car with such a device). Left and right — small glove compartments.The cabin of ZIS‑101 was solved in the American style, but directly any one model is not copied. In line with the usual appliances, including an ammeter, a clock and even the dial settings of the radio (by the way, the ZIS‑101 — the first Soviet car with such a device). Left and right — small glove compartments.

The Buicks interior of the ZIS has nothing to do. There is a noticeable similarity with the interior of the car Packard cars of this brand are revered in the USSR, especially since they went top leaders of the country.The Buicks interior of the ZIS has nothing to do. There is a noticeable similarity with the interior of the car Packard cars of this brand are revered in the USSR, especially since they went top leaders of the country.

THE

ZIS‑101 was done on the Assembly line — mass-produced, albeit in relatively small amounts. He became the most popular passenger model of the plant in its entire history. All gathered around 9,500 vehicles, including several car ZIS‑102 and modernized ZIS‑101A 1940. Soviet limousine compiled from American design and engineering solutions, but a complete copy of some one model is not.

By the end of 1930‑ies, the dependent front suspension, mechanical brakes and row “eight” looked archaic. At the turn of the 1940s, the factory was preparing a modernized ZIS‑103, but the work was interrupted by the war. But in 1943 began to design a completely different (and, again, with signs of American influence), the vehicle — ZIS‑110. About it we already told (ZR, No. 7, 2018).

ZIS‑101: what did the first Soviet limousine

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ZIS‑101: what did the first Soviet limousine

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