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Machine for Directors and farmers is a unique story of a Muscovite‑411

All-wheel drive wagon, besides the reduction gear in the transmission is the dream of many modern motorists. Even in those countries where the roads have a vague idea. And so we have — even more so.Sergey Kanunnikov “driving”Expert

Rural hour

In the decade after Stalin’s death in Soviet Union there have been many events that have left a mark not only in domestic but also in world history. From the flight to London, an advanced, sensational and at that time still non-jet airliner Tu‑104 to the world’s first satellite in 1957 and the legendary flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961. During this same decade, the domestic auto industry was marked by unprecedented many of the new products. Serial Moskvich, Volga, Chaika, ZAZ, new trucks and buses. And so many interesting prototypes!

In those same years, the government (and behind it and all the others) closely looked at the poor, and not even very well-fed life of the Soviet village. This interest has resulted in several somewhat naive, but honest to his movies of those years. For example, in the film Stanislav Rostotsky “it was in Penkovo”, which debuted in 1958 — just a year of birth of Moskvich‑411. But first was the phrase “Give a car to a farmer,” delivered, according to the memoirs of contemporaries, at any meeting of the head of the country Nikita Khrushchev and quite consistent with the spirit of the age.

The only passenger sports car, capable to satisfy the needs of farmers, was GAZ‑69. High manoeuvrable it is typical of that time combined with the austere interior and windswept tent. But the lion’s share of these machines was in the army, and the privates, in principle, not sold.

Install the front axle demanded significant changes of the body, steering and other components.Install the front axle demanded significant changes of the body, steering and other components.

Rear — leaf heavy duty leaf springs. Ground clearance — tale!Rear — leaf heavy duty leaf springs. Ground clearance — tale!

The regular 1.4‑liter engine develops 45 HP — at the time not so little.The regular 1.4‑liter engine develops 45 HP — at the time not so little.

The call first answered the Gorky automobile plant, starting in 1955 in a production of GAZ-M72 — all-wheel drive version of the Victory. A comfortable car with a monocoque body based on the parts and components of GAZ‑69. In parallel, the group under the leadership of Gregory Wasserman — chief in those years in Gorky specialist sports cars — has created a cheaper and more economical GAS-M73 35‑strong nineleven engine also custom-made Moskvich‑402 and transmission, the same installed on GAZ-M72. Made two double prototype coupe and pickup. It was assumed that these machines will go the chairmen of collective farms, other agricultural mechanics, and leadership of field teams. But the second four-wheel drive model, but still with the original body, GAS to start production, of course, could not. But the groundwork for it, transferred to Moscow MZMA, formed the basis of all-wheel drive Moskvich‑410, made of sedan Moskvich‑402 sample 1956.

The Moscow production of the SUV began in 1957, and a year later came the upgraded Muscovite‑410Н on the basis of Moskvich‑407 — with the OHV, 45‑horsepower engine capacity of 1.4 liters. In the same 1958, on the basis of the station wagon Moskvich‑423 launched and all-wheel drive wagon Moskvich‑411 — logical development of a new design for the new Soviet village.

Peasant aristocracy

Edition station wagon Moskvich‑411 engine Moskvich‑407 with a capacity of 45 HP, 4-speed transmission, transfer case with reduction gear and adapted to all-wheel drive and rear wheel drive Moskvich‑423 began in 1958. The van left the prototype. Station wagons are officially removed from production in the summer of 1963, but in fact, the last cars produced in the 1960s. made Only 1515 copies.

Labor watch

“In all fieldwork — in the fall, spring, summer, the vehicle will serve the MTS Directors, foremen and mechanics for repair, post office employees”, reads the Preface of the factory instructions for the all‑wheel drive Moskvich-411, born in 1958. And got my hands on a copy a little younger — 1959 year.

Do not rank high, like trees beyond her years teenager. Ready for hard work, but a humble, honest and a bit rude worker from the Soviet production of agricultural films of the fifties. The right of the driver needs to sit a little harsh technopathy and Chairman of the kolkhoz. And ideally the car needs to fill a simple working Soviet family, a loving trip to pick mushrooms and berries, tourism and automobile. And he was in the Soviet Union, incidentally, also began to develop in those years.

On four-wheel drive cars put the wheel from the previous Moskvich‑400. The radio is included in the basic package of Muscovites.On four-wheel drive cars put the wheel from the previous Moskvich‑400. The radio is included in the basic package of Muscovites.

Devices all-wheel drive Moskvich are the same as the standard car.Devices all-wheel drive Moskvich are the same as the standard car.

To the left of the steering wheel — a simple control scheme for transmission.To the left of the steering wheel — a simple control scheme for transmission.

In the resemblance all-wheel drive station wagon with the usual have 411 th a lot of differences. The engine had to be raised above the axle, strengthened body. There was the original radiator, and additional oil. Shock absorbers — lever is telescopic. Even the tilt steering column had to be changed. The column casing Moskvich‑407 in a four-wheel drive is not embedded, so here is another wheel from the old 400‑year-old Muscovite. But overall, for comfort, finishing and quality of materials, the interior was quite on the level of the then European standards for vehicles of this class. There is even a decent stove and a radio.

In the AWD vehicle, the trim was simplified, without cloth inserts. The rear is not very roomy, but tolerable.In the AWD vehicle, the trim was simplified, without cloth inserts. The rear is not very roomy, but tolerable.

Of course, on road performance and handling Moskvich‑411 cosmically far from the modern crossovers. Especially not at such acceleration — top speed of only 90 km/h And the loss of the hoarsely howling even at the speed of 50 km/h transmission are so great that when released the gas pedal the car slows down intensively. With such a howling and such a dynamic long trip would require a proletarian exposure. But the machine on a sturdy springs and with ground clearance of 220 mm bravely overcomes the bumps and not even really the “kozlit”.

The gear lever all-wheel-drive version of the left of the steering column on the floor.The gear lever all-wheel-drive version of the left of the steering column on the floor.

To the left of the pedals, the headlamp switch.To the left of the pedals, the headlamp switch.

In first gear easily, without straining, you can go almost step. And low-range (2,68) and even allows you to crawl in the most severe off-road conditions without breaking the wheel spin. Transmission skillfully helps the weak engine, which produces just 88 N·m at 2600 rpm In General, despite the slow-moving and crowded (again, by today’s standards, but back then the saloon was the usual for this class), Moskvich “wicked” off-road tyres, gives a sense of strength, honesty and confidence in his power.

Someone else’s relatives

Of course, the market (with all the conventions of this concept in socialism) all-wheel drive wagon would be very popular. And not only peasants and workers, but also layer — the intelligentsia. At least, those of its representatives who is not alien to travel into the countryside. But the sedans Moskich‑410Н, and — even more so! — station wagon Moskvich‑411 did quite a bit. Their conveyor century was very short.

The main reason was successful (about 50% of total production) exports of Muscovites‑407. For deliveries abroad at the plant, did increase production, despite the fact that the demand for four-wheel drive cars of a similar class in Europe, then it is almost absent. Although the roads were much worse than now.

The tailgate opens to the left that the person did not have to stand on the roadway. Tail light with the orange section of the turn indicator is advanced to the end of 1950‑ies.The tailgate opens to the left that the person did not have to stand on the roadway. Tail light with the orange section of the turn indicator is advanced to the end of 1950‑ies.

Underground — niche for the spare wheel.Underground — niche for the spare wheel.

Moskvich‑411 was released only three years, approximately five hundred cars annually — crumbs for a huge country! But, unlike conventional wagons, coming mainly in public institutions, four-wheel drive 411‑e were usually in private hands. Some owners then complained about the most reliable transmission, but to abandon the machine in no hurry. Counterparts were not.

I’d like to compare this Muscovite with a modern crossover! Of course, you know in advance who will win on the highway, and who will manifest themselves on the roads, especially in the thick and deep mud. Where crawls the Muscovite, at the present, hung with a plastic car with a gentle transmission even meddle scary.

But — sorry for him! Not a modern crossover, and this painstakingly — despite acute shortage of original spare parts — refurbished Muscovite. After all, these cars today without exception. And this also will go to the Museum. So, our short meeting is very lucky. For me, of course. Muscovite and already much seen.

Rare

Direct foreign analogues AWD Muscovites were not, and the machine can be called analogues of known stretch.

Renault Colorale did in the years 1952-1956. French frame machine larger Muscovite (its base 2660 mm 2377 mm for the 411‑th) and is equipped with 58‑horsepower 2-liter engine. The demand for Colorale in Europe were low, machines were sent mainly to Africa. Did about 43 thousand copies.Renault Colorale did in the years 1952-1956. French frame machine larger Muscovite (its base 2660 mm 2377 mm for the 411‑th) and is equipped with 58‑horsepower 2-liter engine. The demand for Colorale in Europe were low, machines were sent mainly to Africa. Did about 43 thousand copies.

American International Scout 80 1960 larger (wheelbase 2540 mm) and more powerful Soviet machine. Engine working volume of 2.5 liters developed 93 BHP SAE. Machine frame. Until 1965, produced only pickups with hard and soft roofs, then — and three-door station wagon.American International Scout 80 1960 larger (wheelbase 2540 mm) and more powerful Soviet machine. Engine working volume of 2.5 liters developed 93 BHP SAE. Machine frame. Until 1965, produced only pickups with hard and soft roofs, then — and three-door station wagon.

Citroen 2CV Sahara — in known as engineering curiosity. The dimensions of the car close to the Muscovite (wheelbase 2370 mm), but the French runabout had two, two-cylinder, 12‑horsepower engines — one front, one rear. And each has its own four-speed transmission. The power units can be used independently from each other or together. In the years 1960-1967 buyers found only 697 cars.Citroen 2CV Sahara — in known as engineering curiosity. The dimensions of the car close to the Muscovite (wheelbase 2370 mm), but the French runabout had two, two-cylinder, 12‑horsepower engines — one front, one rear. And each has its own four-speed transmission. The power units can be used independently from each other or together. In the years 1960-1967 buyers found only 697 cars.

The editorial Board is grateful for the car Ilya Kashin and L. workshop Oldtimer for the help in organization of shooting.

Machine for Directors and farmers is a unique story of a Muscovite‑411

All-wheel drive wagon, besides the reduction gear in the transmission is the dream of many modern motorists. Even in those countries where the roads have a vague idea. And so we have — even more so.

Machine for Directors and farmers is a unique story of a Muscovite‑411

  • The complete history of the plant Moskvich — here.

Machine for Directors and farmers is a unique story of a Muscovite‑411

All-wheel drive wagon, besides the reduction gear in the transmission is the dream of many modern motorists. Even in those countries where the roads have a vague idea. And so we have — even more so.

Machine for Directors and farmers is a unique story of a Muscovite‑411Фото: Alexander Kulnev

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